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2010

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Articles 91 - 103 of 103

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Tor Is A Negative Regulator Of Autophagy In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yimo Liu, Diane C. Bassham Jan 2010

Tor Is A Negative Regulator Of Autophagy In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yimo Liu, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Background: Autophagy is a protein degradation process by which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents under stress conditions or during senescence; a basal level of housekeeping autophagy also occurs under non-stressed conditions. Although a number of genes that function in autophagy (ATG genes) have been identified in plants, the upstream components that regulate the plant autophagy pathway are still obscure. Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a negative regulator of autophagy in both yeast and animals, and homologs of TOR in plants control plant growth and protein synthesis. However, a role for TOR in regulation of autophagy in plants has not been demonstrated ...


Moesin1 And Ve-Cadherin Are Required In Endothelial Cells During In Vivo Tubulogenesis, Ying Wang, Mark S. Kaiser, Jon D. Larson, Aidas Nasevicius, Karl J. Clark, Shannon A. Wadman, Sharon E. Roberg-Perez, Stephen C. Ekker, Perry B. Hackett, Maura Mcgrail, Jeffrey J. Essner Jan 2010

Moesin1 And Ve-Cadherin Are Required In Endothelial Cells During In Vivo Tubulogenesis, Ying Wang, Mark S. Kaiser, Jon D. Larson, Aidas Nasevicius, Karl J. Clark, Shannon A. Wadman, Sharon E. Roberg-Perez, Stephen C. Ekker, Perry B. Hackett, Maura Mcgrail, Jeffrey J. Essner

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Endothelial tubulogenesis is a crucial step in the formation of functional blood vessels during angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Here, we use in vivo imaging of living zebrafish embryos expressing fluorescent fusion proteins of β-Actin, α-Catenin, and the ERM family member Moesin1 (Moesin a), to define a novel cord hollowing process that occurs during the initial stages of tubulogenesis in intersegmental vessels (ISVs) in the embryo. We show that the primary lumen elongates along cell junctions between at least two endothelial cells during embryonic angiogenesis. Moesin1-EGFP is enriched around structures that resemble intracellular vacuoles, which fuse with the luminal membrane during expansion ...


Regulatory And Functional Aspects Of Foxo3a Transcription Factor And Their Implications In Prostate Cancer, Melissa Elise Dobson Jan 2010

Regulatory And Functional Aspects Of Foxo3a Transcription Factor And Their Implications In Prostate Cancer, Melissa Elise Dobson

Wayne State University Dissertations

The P13K/Akt pathway is a critical mediator of growth factor signaling involving many cellular functions. The deregulation of this pathway has been shown to be involved in the development of various cancers. One of the main targets of this pathway is FoxO3a, a transcription factor whose target genes are involved in important cellular processes such as apoptosis, cell cycle control, and glucose metabolism. FoxO3a is regulated by various post translational modifications including acetylation, ubiquitination and phosphorylation. The transcription factor is directly phosphorylated by Akt on 3 residues: Threonine 32, Serine 253 and Serine 315. Phosphorylation by Akt generates binding ...


Role Of Muscle C-Jun Nh2-Terminal Kinase 1 In Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance, Guadalupe Sabio, Norman J. Kennedy, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Dae Young Jung, Hwi Jin Ko, Helena Ong, Tamera Barrett, Jason K. Kim, Roger J. Davis Jan 2010

Role Of Muscle C-Jun Nh2-Terminal Kinase 1 In Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance, Guadalupe Sabio, Norman J. Kennedy, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Dae Young Jung, Hwi Jin Ko, Helena Ong, Tamera Barrett, Jason K. Kim, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

Obesity caused by feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with an increased activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1). Activated JNK1 is implicated in the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance and the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Significantly, Jnk1(-)(/)(-) mice are protected against HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Here we show that an ablation of the Jnk1 gene in skeletal muscle does not influence HFD-induced obesity. However, muscle-specific JNK1-deficient (M(KO)) mice exhibit improved insulin sensitivity compared with control wild-type (M(WT)) mice. Thus, insulin-stimulated AKT activation is suppressed in muscle, liver, and ...


Functional Cooperation Of The Proapoptotic Bcl2 Family Proteins Bmf And Bim In Vivo, Anette Hubner, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Mercedes Rincon, Richard Flavell, Roger J. Davis Jan 2010

Functional Cooperation Of The Proapoptotic Bcl2 Family Proteins Bmf And Bim In Vivo, Anette Hubner, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Mercedes Rincon, Richard Flavell, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

Bcl2-modifying factor (Bmf) is a member of the BH3-only group of proapoptotic proteins. To test the role of Bmf in vivo, we constructed mice with a series of mutated Bmf alleles that disrupt Bmf expression, prevent Bmf phosphorylation by the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) on Ser(74), or mimic Bmf phosphorylation on Ser(74). We report that the loss of Bmf causes defects in uterovaginal development, including an imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos. We also show that the phosphorylation of Bmf on Ser(74) can contribute to a moderate increase in levels of Bmf activity. Studies of compound mutants ...


Phosphorylation Of The Glycine Transporter 1, Javier Vargas Medrano Jan 2010

Phosphorylation Of The Glycine Transporter 1, Javier Vargas Medrano

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the high-affinity glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance of glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the past years, it has been shown that PKC activation diminishes the activity and promoted phosphorylation of several neurotransmitter transporters including the dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine transporters however, its role is unknown for the glycine transporter. To get insights into the role of PKC activation on GlyT1 regulation, we used three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms stably expressed in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE ...


The Role Of Ledgf/P75 In Transcriptional Regulation, Jeffrey Ryan Kugelman Jan 2010

The Role Of Ledgf/P75 In Transcriptional Regulation, Jeffrey Ryan Kugelman

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The Lens Epithelial Derived Growth Factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a chromatin bound protein whose cellular function is not yet clearly known. A role in transcriptional regulation had been previously proposed based on its interaction with the basal transcriptional machinery and on its effects on the expression of genes involved in the cellular response to environmental stresses. To further elucidate the function of LEDGF/p75, we conducted a global and unbiased evaluation of the role of this protein in gene expression. To that aim, we performed a microarray analysis of cellular gene expression in cells that are severely depleted of ...


Real-Time Pcr Method For The Quantification Of Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Attached To Lung Epithelial Cells And Inhibitionn Of That Attachment, Ciara Wight, Gillian Herbert, Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean Jan 2010

Real-Time Pcr Method For The Quantification Of Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Attached To Lung Epithelial Cells And Inhibitionn Of That Attachment, Ciara Wight, Gillian Herbert, Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

To develop a rapid method to quantify the attachment of the cystic fibrosis pathogen, Burkholderia multivorans, to lung epithelial cells (16HBE14o(-)) using real-time PCR with a view to monitoring potential inhibition of lung cell attachment. Mammalian and bacterial DNA were purified from bacteria attached to lung epithelial cells. The relative amount of bacteria attached was determined by amplification of the recA gene relative to the human GAPDH gene, in the presence of SYBR Green. The method was thoroughly validated and shown to correlate well with traditional plating techniques. Inhibition of bacterial attachment with simple sugars was then evaluated by real-time ...


Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells From Animals I. Basic Cell Biology, Michael V. Dodson, Gary J. Hausman, Leluo Guan, Min Du, Theodore P. Rasmussen, Sylvia P. Poulos, Priya Mir, Werner G. Bergen, Melinda E. Fernyhough, Douglas C. Mcfarland, Robert P. Rhoads, Beatrice Soret, James M. Reecy, Sandra G. Velleman, Zhihua Jiang Jan 2010

Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells From Animals I. Basic Cell Biology, Michael V. Dodson, Gary J. Hausman, Leluo Guan, Min Du, Theodore P. Rasmussen, Sylvia P. Poulos, Priya Mir, Werner G. Bergen, Melinda E. Fernyhough, Douglas C. Mcfarland, Robert P. Rhoads, Beatrice Soret, James M. Reecy, Sandra G. Velleman, Zhihua Jiang

Animal Science Publications

Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals are of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding of muscle stem cell biology and function is essential for developing technologies and strategies to augment the metabolic efficiency and muscle hypertrophy of growing animals potentially leading to greater efficiency and reduced environmental impacts of animal production, while concomitantly improving product uniformity and consumer acceptance and enjoyment of muscle foods.


Flow Cytometric Analyses On The Activation, Proliferation, And Differentiation State Of B Cells In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Maggie Jeanne Barr Jan 2010

Flow Cytometric Analyses On The Activation, Proliferation, And Differentiation State Of B Cells In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Maggie Jeanne Barr

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Pattern Recognition In Cytopathology For Papanicolaou Screening, Jonathan Blackledge, Dmitriy Dubovitskiy Jan 2010

Pattern Recognition In Cytopathology For Papanicolaou Screening, Jonathan Blackledge, Dmitriy Dubovitskiy

Conference papers

A unique space oriented filer is presented in order to detect and isolate the cell of a nucleus for applications in cytopathology. A classification method for nuclei is then considered based on the application of a set of features which includes certain fractal parameters. Segmentation algorithms are considered in which a self-adjustable sharpening filter is designed to enhance object location. Although the methods discussed and the algorithms developed have a range of applications, in this work we focus the engineering of a system for automating a Papanicolaou screening test using standard optical images


Impaired M3 And Enhanced M2 Muscarinic Receptor Contractile Function In A Streptozotocin Model Of Mouse Diabetic Urinary Bladder, K. J. Pak, Rennolds S. Ostrom, M. Matsui, F. J. Ehlert Jan 2010

Impaired M3 And Enhanced M2 Muscarinic Receptor Contractile Function In A Streptozotocin Model Of Mouse Diabetic Urinary Bladder, K. J. Pak, Rennolds S. Ostrom, M. Matsui, F. J. Ehlert

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We investigated the contractile roles of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in urinary bladder from streptozotocin-treated mice. Wild-type and M2 muscarinic receptor knockout (M2 KO) mice were given a single injection of vehicle or streptozotocin (125 mg kg−1) 2–24 weeks prior to bladder assays. The effect of forskolin on contractions elicited to the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M, was measured in isolated urinary bladder (intact or denuded of urothelium). Denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated wild-type and M2 KO mice exhibited similar contractile responses to oxotremorine-M, when contraction was normalized relative to that elicited by KCl (50 mM). Eight to 9 ...


Apoptosis Initiation And Angiogenesis Inhibition: Melanoma Targets For Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Xinhua Chen, Juergen F. Kolb, R. James Swanson, Karl H. Schoenbach, Stephen J. Beebe Jan 2010

Apoptosis Initiation And Angiogenesis Inhibition: Melanoma Targets For Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Xinhua Chen, Juergen F. Kolb, R. James Swanson, Karl H. Schoenbach, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

Many effective anti-cancer strategies target apoptosis and angiogenesis mechanisms. Applications of non-ionizing, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) induce apoptosis in vitro and eliminate cancer in vivo; however in vivo mechanisms require closer analysis. These studies investigate nsPEF-induced apoptosis and anti-angiogenesis examined by fluorescent microscopy, immunoblots, and morphology. Six hours after treatment with one hundred 300 ns pulses at 40 kV/cm, cells transiently expressed active caspases indicating that caspase-mediated mechanisms. Three hours after treatment transient peaks in Histone 2AX phosphorylation coincided with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive cells and pyknotic nuclei, suggesting caspase-independent mechanisms on nuclei/DNA ...