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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas Sep 2010

Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas

Jennifer Kowalski

The underlying mechanisms that regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration through the vascular endothelium remain unclear. Cortactin is a substrate of Src tyrosine kinases and a regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Previous studies demonstrated a role for Src phosphorylation of cortactin in clustering of E-selectin and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 around adherent leukocytes. In the current study, we used an in vitro flow model to investigate the role of Src-induced cortactin phosphorylation in endothelium during polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration through human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVEC) monolayers preactivated with tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Inhibition of Src in HUVEC using Src kinase inhibitors PP2 and ...


Cortactin Regulates Cell Migration Via Activation Of N-Wasp, Jennifer Kowalski, C. Egile, S. Gil, S. Snapper, R. Li, S. Thomas Sep 2010

Cortactin Regulates Cell Migration Via Activation Of N-Wasp, Jennifer Kowalski, C. Egile, S. Gil, S. Snapper, R. Li, S. Thomas

Jennifer Kowalski

Cortactin is an actin-associated scaffolding protein that regulates cell migration. Amplification of the human gene, EMS1, has been detected in breast, head and neck tumors, where it correlates with increased invasiveness. Cortactin can regulate actin dynamics directly via its N-terminal half, which can bind and activate the Arp2/3 complex. The C-terminal portion of cortactin, however, is thought to have limited function in its regulation of the actin polymerization machinery. In this report, we identify a role for the cortactin C-terminus in regulating cell migration and, more specifically, actin dynamics. Overexpression of either full-length cortactin or cortactin C-terminus is sufficient ...


Münch, Morphology, Microfluidics – Our Structural Problem With The Phloem [Review Article], Michael Knoblauch, Winfried S. Peters Aug 2010

Münch, Morphology, Microfluidics – Our Structural Problem With The Phloem [Review Article], Michael Knoblauch, Winfried S. Peters

Winfried S. Peters

The sieve tubes of the phloem are enigmatic structures. Their role as channels for the distribution of assimilates was established in the 19th century, but their sensitivity to disturbations has hampered the elucidation of their transport mechanisms and its regulation ever since. Ernst Münch's classical monograph of 1930 is generally regarded as the first coherent theory of phloem transport, but the ‘Münchian’ pressure flow mechanism had been discussed already before the turn of the century. Münch's impact rather rested on his simple physical models of the phloem that visualized pressure flow in an intuitive way, and we argue ...


Microfluidics-Integrated Time-Lapse Imaging For Analysis Of Cellular Dynamics, Dirk Albrecht, Gregory Underhill, Joshua Resnikoff, Avital Mendelson, Sangeeta Bhatia, Jagesh Shah May 2010

Microfluidics-Integrated Time-Lapse Imaging For Analysis Of Cellular Dynamics, Dirk Albrecht, Gregory Underhill, Joshua Resnikoff, Avital Mendelson, Sangeeta Bhatia, Jagesh Shah

Dirk R. Albrecht

An understanding of the mechanisms regulating cellular responses has recently been augmented by innovations enabling the observation of phenotypes at high spatio-temporal resolution. Technologies such as microfluidics have sought to expand the throughput of these methods, although assimilation with advanced imaging strategies has been limited. Here, we describe the pairing of high resolution time-lapse imaging with microfluidic multiplexing for the analysis of cellular dynamics, utilizing a design selected for facile fabrication and operation, and integration with microscopy instrumentation. This modular, medium-throughput platform enables the long-term imaging of living cells at high numerical aperture (via oil immersion) by using a conserved ...


Midterm Outcomes Of Autologous Cultivated Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation With Or Without Penetrating Keratoplasty, Hossein Baharvand Apr 2010

Midterm Outcomes Of Autologous Cultivated Limbal Stem Cell Transplantation With Or Without Penetrating Keratoplasty, Hossein Baharvand

university of science & culture

To report the midterm outcomes of autologous limbal stem cell transplantation cultivated on amniotic membrane (AM) with or without subsequent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in patients with total unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Methods: Eight eyes of 8 consecutive patients with unilateral total LSCD underwent autologous limbal stem cell transplantation cultivated on AM. Four eyes underwent subsequent optical PKP. Main outcome measures were corneal vascularization and transparency. Results: The patients were followed for 34.0 6 13.5 months (6–48 months). Seven cases had a stable corneal epithelium with marked decrease in opacification and vascularization. Progressive sectorial conjunctivalization was ...


Legume Phylogeny And The Evolution Of A Unique Contractile Apparatus That Regulates Phloem Transport, Winfried Peters, Claudia Hanakam, Dietmar Haffer, Aart Van Bel, Michael Knoblauch Mar 2010

Legume Phylogeny And The Evolution Of A Unique Contractile Apparatus That Regulates Phloem Transport, Winfried Peters, Claudia Hanakam, Dietmar Haffer, Aart Van Bel, Michael Knoblauch

Winfried S. Peters

Protein bodies called forisomes undergo Ca2+-dependent deformations to occlude sieve tubes reversibly, providing a unique regulatory mechanism of phloem transport. Because forisomes are known exclusively from the Papilionoideae (Leguminosae), the evolution of forisome function may have played a role in the rapid radiation of this huge taxon. The unexpected discovery of a papilionoid species lacking forisomes led us to evaluate a representative set of species covering 33 of the 36 legume tribes traditionally recognized. We found forisomes in Papilionoideae but not in Caesalpinioideae and Mimosoideae. Forisomes were absent from several species of the papilionoid tribe Galegeae. Forisomes with tail-like ...


The Saccharomyces Sun Gene, Uth1, Is Involved In Cell Wall Biogenesis, Father Nicanor Austriaco Feb 2010

The Saccharomyces Sun Gene, Uth1, Is Involved In Cell Wall Biogenesis, Father Nicanor Austriaco

Rev. Nicanor Austriaco, O.P.

Deletion of the Saccharomyces gene, UTH1, a founding member of the SUN family of fungal genes, has pleiotropic effects. Several phenotypes of Δuth1 cells including their decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins, their impaired autophagic degradation of mitochondria, and their increased viability in the presence of mammalian BAX, a proapoptotic regulator localized to the mitochondria, have prompted others to propose that the Uth1p functions primarily at the mitochondria. In this report, we show that cells lacking UTH1 have more robust cell walls with higher levels of β-d-glucan that allows them to grow in the presence of calcofluor white or sodium dodecyl ...


Supervillin Slows Cell Spreading By Facilitating Myosin Ii Activation At The Cell Periphery, Norio Takizawa, Reiko Ikebe, Mitsuo Ikebe, Elizabeth J. Luna Jan 2010

Supervillin Slows Cell Spreading By Facilitating Myosin Ii Activation At The Cell Periphery, Norio Takizawa, Reiko Ikebe, Mitsuo Ikebe, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

During cell migration, myosin II modulates adhesion, cell protrusion and actin organization at the leading edge. We show that an F-actin- and membrane-associated scaffolding protein, called supervillin (SV, p205), binds directly to the subfragment 2 domains of nonmuscle myosin IIA and myosin IIB and to the N-terminus of the long form of myosin light chain kinase (L-MLCK). SV inhibits cell spreading via an MLCK- and myosin II-dependent mechanism. Overexpression of SV reduces the rate of cell spreading, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous SV increases it. Endogenous and EGFP-tagged SV colocalize with, and enhance the formation of, cortical bundles of F-actin ...


Supervillin Reorganizes The Actin Cytoskeleton And Increases Invadopodial Efficiency, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Tara C. Smith, Zhiyou Fang, Norio Takizawa, Elizabeth J. Luna Jan 2010

Supervillin Reorganizes The Actin Cytoskeleton And Increases Invadopodial Efficiency, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Tara C. Smith, Zhiyou Fang, Norio Takizawa, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Tumor cells use actin-rich protrusions called invadopodia to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and invade tissues; related structures, termed podosomes, are sites of dynamic ECM interaction. We show here that supervillin (SV), a peripheral membrane protein that binds F-actin and myosin II, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton and potentiates invadopodial function. Overexpressed SV induces redistribution of lamellipodial cortactin and lamellipodin/RAPH1/PREL1 away from the cell periphery to internal sites and concomitantly increases the numbers of F-actin punctae. Most punctae are highly dynamic and colocalize with the podosome/invadopodial proteins, cortactin, Tks5, and cdc42. Cortactin binds SV sequences in vitro and contributes ...