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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Distinct Macrophage Subpopulations Regulate Viral Encephalitis But Not Viral Clearance In The Cns, Christina D. Steel, Woong-Ki Kim, Larry Sanford, Laurie Wellman, Sandra Burnett, Nico Van Rooijen, Rochard P. Ciavarra Sep 2010

Distinct Macrophage Subpopulations Regulate Viral Encephalitis But Not Viral Clearance In The Cns, Christina D. Steel, Woong-Ki Kim, Larry Sanford, Laurie Wellman, Sandra Burnett, Nico Van Rooijen, Rochard P. Ciavarra

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Intranasal application of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) induces acute encephalitis characterized by a pronounced myeloid and T cell infiltrate. The role of distinct phagocytic populations on VSV encephalitis was therefore examined in this study. Ablation of peripheral macrophages did not impair VSV encephalitis or viral clearance from the brain, whereas, depletion of splenic marginal dendritic cells impaired this response and enhanced morbidity/mortality. Selective depletion of brain perivascular macrophages also suppressed this response without altering viral clearance. Thus, two anatomically distinct phagocytic populations regulate VSV encephalitis in a non-redundant fashion although neither population is essential for viral clearance in the ...


Defining The Role Of Il-15 Trans-Presentation By Distinct Cell-Types During The Development And Homeostasis Of Natural Killer And Invariant Natural Killer T Cells, Eliseo F. Castillo Aug 2010

Defining The Role Of Il-15 Trans-Presentation By Distinct Cell-Types During The Development And Homeostasis Of Natural Killer And Invariant Natural Killer T Cells, Eliseo F. Castillo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The immuno-regulatory functions displayed by NK and iNKT cells have highlighted their importance as key lymphocytes involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Therefore, understanding the dynamics influencing the generation of NK and iNKT cells is extremely important. IL-15 has been shown to provide a critical signal throughout the development and homeostasis of NK and iNKT cells; however, the cellular source of IL-15 has remained unclear. In this investigation, I provide evidence that the cell-type providing IL-15 to NK and iNKT cells via trans-presentation is determined by the tissue site and the maturation status of NK and iNKT cells. For NK ...


Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly Aug 2010

Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Innate immune recognition of extracellular host-derived self-DNA and self-RNA is prevented by endosomal seclusion of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the dendritic cells (DCs). However, in psoriasis plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been found to be able to sense self-DNA molecules in complex with the endogenous cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37, which are internalized into the endosomal compartments and thus can access TLR9. We investigated whether this endogenous peptide can also interact with extracellular self-RNA and lead to DC activation. We found that LL37 binds self-RNA as well as self-DNA going into an electrostatic interaction; forms micro-aggregates of nano-scale particles protected from ...


Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot May 2010

Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cellular invasion represents a critical early step in the metastatic cascade, and many proteins have been identified as part of an “invasive signature.” The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is commonly upregulated in breast cancers, often in conjunction with overexpression of EGFR. Signaling from this pathway stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and frequently involves proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton. My data demonstrates that inhibition of Src, using the small-molecule inhibitor dasatinib, impairs cellular migration and invasion. Furthermore, Src inhibition sensitizes the cells to the effects of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin resulting in dramatic, synergistic inhibition of proliferation with combination treatments. The ...