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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Identifying Mechanisms Associated With Innate Immunity In Cows Genetically Susceptible To Mastitis, Alexandra Alida Elliott Dec 2010

Identifying Mechanisms Associated With Innate Immunity In Cows Genetically Susceptible To Mastitis, Alexandra Alida Elliott

Doctoral Dissertations

Mastitis, or mammary gland inflammation, causes the greatest loss in profit for dairy producers. Mastitis susceptibility differs among cows due to environmental, physiological, and genetic factors. Prior research identified a genetic marker in a chemokine receptor, CXCR1, associated with mastitis susceptibility and decreased neutrophil migration. Current research seeks to identify reasons behind mastitis susceptibility by validating this model through in vivo challenge with Streptococcus uberis and studying specific mechanisms causing impaired neutrophil migration. Holstein cows with GG (n=19), GC (n=28), and CC (n=20) genotypes at CXCR1+777 were challenged intramammarily with S. uberis strain UT888. After challenge ...


Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Reveals Candidate Pathways Regulating Cell Cycle Duration In Plasmodium Falciparum, Heather B. Reilly Ayala, Mark A. Wacker, Geoffrey Siwo, Michael T. Ferdig Oct 2010

Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Reveals Candidate Pathways Regulating Cell Cycle Duration In Plasmodium Falciparum, Heather B. Reilly Ayala, Mark A. Wacker, Geoffrey Siwo, Michael T. Ferdig

Faculty Publications - Department of Biology and Chemistry

Background: Elevated parasite biomass in the human red blood cells can lead to increased malaria morbidity. The genes and mechanisms regulating growth and development of Plasmodium falciparum through its erythrocytic cycle are not well understood. We previously showed that strains HB3 and Dd2 diverge in their proliferation rates, and here use quantitative trait loci mapping in 34 progeny from a cross between these parent clones along with integrative bioinformatics to identify genetic loci and candidate genes that control divergences in cell cycle duration. Results: Genetic mapping of cell cycle duration revealed a four-locus genetic model, including a major genetic effect ...


Distinct Macrophage Subpopulations Regulate Viral Encephalitis But Not Viral Clearance In The Cns, Christina D. Steel, Woong-Ki Kim, Larry Sanford, Laurie Wellman, Sandra Burnett, Nico Van Rooijen, Rochard P. Ciavarra Sep 2010

Distinct Macrophage Subpopulations Regulate Viral Encephalitis But Not Viral Clearance In The Cns, Christina D. Steel, Woong-Ki Kim, Larry Sanford, Laurie Wellman, Sandra Burnett, Nico Van Rooijen, Rochard P. Ciavarra

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Intranasal application of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) induces acute encephalitis characterized by a pronounced myeloid and T cell infiltrate. The role of distinct phagocytic populations on VSV encephalitis was therefore examined in this study. Ablation of peripheral macrophages did not impair VSV encephalitis or viral clearance from the brain, whereas, depletion of splenic marginal dendritic cells impaired this response and enhanced morbidity/mortality. Selective depletion of brain perivascular macrophages also suppressed this response without altering viral clearance. Thus, two anatomically distinct phagocytic populations regulate VSV encephalitis in a non-redundant fashion although neither population is essential for viral clearance in the ...


Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly Aug 2010

Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Innate immune recognition of extracellular host-derived self-DNA and self-RNA is prevented by endosomal seclusion of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the dendritic cells (DCs). However, in psoriasis plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been found to be able to sense self-DNA molecules in complex with the endogenous cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37, which are internalized into the endosomal compartments and thus can access TLR9. We investigated whether this endogenous peptide can also interact with extracellular self-RNA and lead to DC activation. We found that LL37 binds self-RNA as well as self-DNA going into an electrostatic interaction; forms micro-aggregates of nano-scale particles protected from ...


Defining The Role Of Il-15 Trans-Presentation By Distinct Cell-Types During The Development And Homeostasis Of Natural Killer And Invariant Natural Killer T Cells, Eliseo F. Castillo Aug 2010

Defining The Role Of Il-15 Trans-Presentation By Distinct Cell-Types During The Development And Homeostasis Of Natural Killer And Invariant Natural Killer T Cells, Eliseo F. Castillo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The immuno-regulatory functions displayed by NK and iNKT cells have highlighted their importance as key lymphocytes involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Therefore, understanding the dynamics influencing the generation of NK and iNKT cells is extremely important. IL-15 has been shown to provide a critical signal throughout the development and homeostasis of NK and iNKT cells; however, the cellular source of IL-15 has remained unclear. In this investigation, I provide evidence that the cell-type providing IL-15 to NK and iNKT cells via trans-presentation is determined by the tissue site and the maturation status of NK and iNKT cells. For NK ...


Analysis Of Apoptosis Of Memory T Cells And Dendritic Cells During The Early Stages Of Viral Infection Or Exposure To Toll-Like Receptor Agonists, Kapil Bahl, Anette Hubner, Roger J. Davis, Raymond M. Welsh May 2010

Analysis Of Apoptosis Of Memory T Cells And Dendritic Cells During The Early Stages Of Viral Infection Or Exposure To Toll-Like Receptor Agonists, Kapil Bahl, Anette Hubner, Roger J. Davis, Raymond M. Welsh

Davis Lab Publications

Profound type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent attrition of memory CD8 and CD4 T cells occurs early during many infections. It is dramatic at 2 to 4 days following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice and can be elicited by the IFN-inducing Toll receptor agonist poly(I:C). We show that this attrition occurs in many organs, indicating that it is due to T cell loss rather than redistribution. This loss correlated with elevated intracellular staining of T cells ex vivo for activated caspases but with only low levels of ex vivo staining with annexin V, probably due to the ...