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2009

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Articles 1 - 30 of 96

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

The Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Bbsome Is An Ift Cargo Required For Export Of Specific Signaling Proteins From Flagella, Karl-Ferdinand Lechtreck, Eric C. Johnson, Tsuyoshi Sakai, Deborah A. Cochran, Bryan A. Ballif, John Rush, Gregory J. Pazour, Mitsuo Ikebe, George B. Witman Dec 2009

The Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Bbsome Is An Ift Cargo Required For Export Of Specific Signaling Proteins From Flagella, Karl-Ferdinand Lechtreck, Eric C. Johnson, Tsuyoshi Sakai, Deborah A. Cochran, Bryan A. Ballif, John Rush, Gregory J. Pazour, Mitsuo Ikebe, George B. Witman

Witman Lab Publications

In humans, seven evolutionarily conserved genes that cause the cilia-related disorder Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) encode proteins that form a complex termed the BBSome. The function of the BBSome in the cilium is not well understood. We purified a BBSome-like complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella and found that it contains at least BBS1, -4, -5, -7, and -8 and undergoes intraflagellar transport (IFT) in association with a subset of IFT particles. C. reinhardtii insertional mutants defective in BBS1, -4, and -7 assemble motile, full-length flagella but lack the ability to phototax. In the bbs4 mutant, the assembly and transport of IFT ...


Role And Regulation Of The Actin-Regulatory Protein Hs1 In Tcr Signaling, Esteban Carrizosa Dec 2009

Role And Regulation Of The Actin-Regulatory Protein Hs1 In Tcr Signaling, Esteban Carrizosa

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Numerous aspects of T cell function, including TCR signaling, migration, and execution of effector functions, depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Cytoskeletal rearrangements are driven by the action of actin-regulatory proteins, which promote or antagonize the assembly of actin filaments in response to external cues. In this work, we have examined the regulation and function of HS1, a poorly-understood actin regulatory protein, in T cells. This protein, which becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon T cell activation, is thought to function primarily by stabilizing existing branched actin filaments. Loss of HS1 results in unstable actin responses upon TCR engagement and defective Ca2+ responses ...


The Role Of Multiple Ccaat-Binding Factors In Candida Albicans Gene Expression, Lashall Lynn Bates Dec 2009

The Role Of Multiple Ccaat-Binding Factors In Candida Albicans Gene Expression, Lashall Lynn Bates

Theses and Dissertations

The CCAAT-binding factor is a heterooligomeric transcription factor that is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. In yeast, the DNA-binding component that interacts with the CCAAT consensus sequence in promoters consists of the subunits termed Hap2p, Hap3p and Hap5p. In yeast and fungi, a fourth subunit, Hap4p, is required for regulating gene expression. The goal of this research is to understand the function of the Candida albicans CCAAT-binding factor and how it relates to virulence and pathogenicity. C. albicans is a human opportunistic pathogen responsible for a variety of mucosal and systemic infections that result in significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in ...


Drosophila Adult Eye Model To Teach Scanning Electron Microscopy In An Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory, Meghana Tare, Oorvashi Roy Puli, Sarah M. Oros, Amit Singh Dec 2009

Drosophila Adult Eye Model To Teach Scanning Electron Microscopy In An Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory, Meghana Tare, Oorvashi Roy Puli, Sarah M. Oros, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

We have devised an undergraduate laboratory exercise to study tissue morphology using fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as the model organism. Drosophila can be reared in a cost effective manner in a short period of time. This experiment was a part of the undergraduate curriculum of the cell biology laboratory course aimed to demonstrate the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique to study the morphology of adult eye of Drosophila. The adult eye of Drosophila is a compound eye, which comprises of 800 unit eyes, and serves as an excellent model for SEM studies. We used flies that were mutant ...


Identification Of A Conserved Cluster In The Rh Domain Of Grk Critical For Activation By Gpcrs, Faiza Baameur Dec 2009

Identification Of A Conserved Cluster In The Rh Domain Of Grk Critical For Activation By Gpcrs, Faiza Baameur

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

One of the most critical aspects of G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) regulation is their rapid and acute desensitization following agonist stimulation. Phosphorylation of these receptors by GPCR kinases (GRK) is a major mechanism of desensitization. Considerable evidence from studies of rhodopsin kinase and GRK2 suggests there is an allosteric docking site for the receptor distinct from the GRK catalytic site. While the agonist-activated GPCR appears crucial for GRK activation, the molecular details of this interaction remain unclear. Recent studies suggested an important role for the N- and C-termini and domains in the small lobe of the kinase domain in ...


Designing Zinc Finger Nucleases That Specifically Cleave Hepatitis B Viral Dna, Thomas James Cradick Dec 2009

Designing Zinc Finger Nucleases That Specifically Cleave Hepatitis B Viral Dna, Thomas James Cradick

Theses and Dissertations

Hepatitis B virus chronically infects 350-400 million people worldwide. It often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma, which causes >1 million deaths yearly. Current therapies prevent new viral genome formation but do not target pre-existing viral genomic DNA, thus curing only ~1/2 of patients. We targeted hepatitis B virus DNA for cleavage using zinc finger nucleases, which cleave as dimers. Co-transfection of our zinc finger nuclease pair with a target plasmid containing the hepatitis B virus genome resulted in specific cleavage. After three days in culture, 26% of the target remained linear, while ~10% was cleaved and mis-joined tail-to-tail.

A portion ...


The Role Of Micrornas During Hepatitis C Viral Infection And Liver Regeneration, Rebecca Therese Marquez Dec 2009

The Role Of Micrornas During Hepatitis C Viral Infection And Liver Regeneration, Rebecca Therese Marquez

Theses and Dissertations

microRNAs (miRNAs) are newly discovered small RNAs that repress gene expression and are evolving as clinical predictors for diagnosis and prognosis of human disease. Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic inflammation and can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. HCV-associated liver injury is characterized by increased hepatocyte proliferation. Studies have demonstrated interactions between HCV and miRNAs. We investigated the role of miRNAs during HCV infection. We used global expression analysis to measure the expression levels of 380 miRNAs comparing HCV infected human livers with uninfected livers. We correlated the altered miRNA expression levels with clinical patient data ...


Regulated Release Of P-Tefb From The 7sk Snrnp, Brian Krueger Dec 2009

Regulated Release Of P-Tefb From The 7sk Snrnp, Brian Krueger

Theses and Dissertations

Regulation of transcription elongation by P-TEFb is critical for proper gene expression and cell survival. The cell possesses large quantities of P-TEFb, but the vast majority of it is locked away and inactive in the 7SK snRNP. Since the discovery of the 7SK snRNP, research has been conducted to determine how P-TEFb is released from this complex. The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to better understand how the 7SK snRNP regulates P-TEFb and ultimately, gene expression.

This work documents the discovery and characterization of the 7SK stability protein LARP7. LARP7 is is associated with 7SK regardless ...


Characterization Of Mammalian Exocyst Subunit Sec3, Nicholas John Andersen Dec 2009

Characterization Of Mammalian Exocyst Subunit Sec3, Nicholas John Andersen

Theses and Dissertations

The Exocyst is a hetero-octameric complex involved in tethering of post-Golgi vesicle transport to sites of membrane expansion. In budding yeast, the Exocyst targets vesicles to bud site resulting in bud emergence and abscission of the daughter cell. Mammalian Exocyst is recruited to developing lateral membranes after cadherin mediated adhesion and then is segregated to adherens junctional complexes (AJC). In polarized epithelia, the Exocyst is required for basal-lateral transport of LDL receptor. Additional Exocyst subunit localizations and functions have been identified. It is not known whether these supplementary roles can be attributed to the Exocyst or other unidentified Exocyst subcomplexes ...


Understanding The Role Of Lem Domain Proteins In Drosophila Development, Belinda Sophia Pinto Dec 2009

Understanding The Role Of Lem Domain Proteins In Drosophila Development, Belinda Sophia Pinto

Theses and Dissertations

The nuclear lamina is a filamentous network that underlies the nuclear envelope. Lamina components include the family of LEM domain (LEM-D) proteins, named for LAP2, emerin and MAN1. Mutations in genes encoding LEM-D proteins cause tissue-restricted human disease, even though these genes are globally expressed. To understand the contributions of the LEM-D proteins to nuclear lamina function, investigations of the Drosophila LEM-D proteins was undertaken. The Drosophila genome encodes four LEM-D proteins and this thesis describes work done on the Drosophila homologues of MAN1 and emerin, Drosophila MAN1 (dMAN1) and Otefin (Ote). Chapter 2 describes the generation and phenotypic analyses ...


Inhibition Of Pi 3-Kinase Signaling Contributes To Metronidazole Resistance In The Protozoan Parasite, Entamoeba Histolytica, Rhonda Powell Dec 2009

Inhibition Of Pi 3-Kinase Signaling Contributes To Metronidazole Resistance In The Protozoan Parasite, Entamoeba Histolytica, Rhonda Powell

All Theses

Amoebiasis is defined as an intestinal infection with the human protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica; approximately 100,000 deaths annually can be attributed to amoebiasis. Disease states range from asymptomatic colonization to invasive amoebiasis, characterized by abdominal pain and dysentery. Dissemination to extraintestinal sites, such as the liver and/or brain, can occur. Vesicle trafficking is critical for parasite virulence, and multiple signaling cascades within the pathogen facilitate these events.
One important regulator of signal transduction is the tightly controlled PI 3-kinase (PI3K), which phosphorylates the lipid, phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), producing phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3). Effector proteins, such as Akt ...


Cloning Of "Animal Cryptochrome" Cdna From The Model Organism Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii For Functional Analysis Of Its Protein Product, Shobha Lavanya Silparasetty Dec 2009

Cloning Of "Animal Cryptochrome" Cdna From The Model Organism Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii For Functional Analysis Of Its Protein Product, Shobha Lavanya Silparasetty

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, is a model organism to study the circadian clock. Cryptochromes are the blue light photoreceptors that entrain the clock in some organisms. The CPH1 protein of C. reinhardtii resembles the cryptochromes of the plant model Arabidopsis, but whether CPH1 entrains the circadian clock in C. reinhardtii is not yet known. Recent reports have suggested the existence of one more cryptochrome in C. reinhardtii, which resembles the cryptochromes of animals. However, the amino acid sequence of this protein shows even higher sequence similarity with the 6-4 DNA photolyase of Arabidopsis. DNA photolyases are involved in the ...


The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi, In Tick Species Collected From Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) And Opossums (Didelphis Virginiana) Trapped In The Warren And Barren Counties Of South Central Kentucky, Kristina Tackett Dec 2009

The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi, In Tick Species Collected From Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) And Opossums (Didelphis Virginiana) Trapped In The Warren And Barren Counties Of South Central Kentucky, Kristina Tackett

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The incidence of tick-borne zoonoses such as Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Lyme disease has steadily increased in the southeastern United States in recent years. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the southeastern states accounted for 1,200 of the 27,000 total cases of Lyme disease reported in the U.S. in 2007. Although Ixodes scapularis is the most commonly recognized vector for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, Dermacentor variabilis (a common vector for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever) also has been shown to be a viable host for this pathogen. The purpose of ...


Characterization And Functional Regulation Of Bioactive Peptides In Avian Macrophages And Heterophils, Lakshmi Kannan Dec 2009

Characterization And Functional Regulation Of Bioactive Peptides In Avian Macrophages And Heterophils, Lakshmi Kannan

Theses and Dissertations

Oligopeptides and low molecular weight polypeptides play central roles as effectors and signal transducers acting as hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors, toxins, and antimicrobial factors that are important for the survival of the organism. Owing to the ubiquitous involvement of peptides in many key regulatory processes, we have been interested to identify native peptides in different cells and tissues and understand their functions. To conduct our studies, we used avian macrophages and heterophils as models of specialized cells which constitute central components of innate immunity. These studies involved (a) qualitative identification and characterization of the peptides associated with high intensity mass ...


Ppar Agonists Down-Regulate The Expression Of Atp10c Mrna During Adipogenesis, A Peretich, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, S Hurst, Sj Baek, Madhu Dahr Nov 2009

Ppar Agonists Down-Regulate The Expression Of Atp10c Mrna During Adipogenesis, A Peretich, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, S Hurst, Sj Baek, Madhu Dahr

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

No abstract provided.


My Embarrassment At Not Knowing Heinich, Winfried S. Peters Oct 2009

My Embarrassment At Not Knowing Heinich, Winfried S. Peters

Winfried S. Peters

This paper has no abstract; this is the first paragraph. The mechanisms of tissue tension phenomena and their physiological significance are controversial (Vincent and Jeronimidis, 1991; [Peters and Tomos, 1996a] and [Peters and Tomos, 1996b]; Kutschera and Niklas, 2007). Specifically, the apparently spontaneous expansion of inner tissues after removal of the peripheral cell layers is a perpetual bone of contention. We had reported evidence suggesting that inner tissue expansion is driven by water uptake (Peters and Tomos, 2000). Kutschera and Niklas (2007) rejected this interpretation and insisted that inner tissue expansion is an elastic response to the release from compressive ...


Ppar Agonists Down-Regulate The Expression Of Atp10c Mrna During Adipogenesis, A Peretich, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, S Hurst, Sj Baek, Madhu Dahr Oct 2009

Ppar Agonists Down-Regulate The Expression Of Atp10c Mrna During Adipogenesis, A Peretich, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, S Hurst, Sj Baek, Madhu Dahr

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

No abstract provided.


Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole Oct 2009

Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking Apq12, a nuclear envelope (NE)-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) integral membrane protein, are defective in assembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), possibly because of defects in regulating membrane fluidity. We identified BRR6, which encodes an essential integral membrane protein of the NE-ER, as a dosage suppressor of apq12 Delta. Cells carrying the temperature-sensitive brr6-1 allele have been shown to have defects in nucleoporin localization, mRNA metabolism and nuclear transport. Electron microscopy revealed that brr6-1 cells have gross NE abnormalities and proliferation of the ER. brr6-1 cells were hypersensitive to compounds that affect membrane biophysical properties and ...


Predictors Of Serum Dioxins And Pcbs Among Peripubertal Russian Boys, Jane S. Burns, Paige L. Williams, Oleg Sergeyev, Susan Korrick, Mary M. Lee, Boris Revich, Larisa Altshul, Donald G. Patterson, Wayman E. Turner, Larry L. Needham, Igor Saharov, Russ Hauser Oct 2009

Predictors Of Serum Dioxins And Pcbs Among Peripubertal Russian Boys, Jane S. Burns, Paige L. Williams, Oleg Sergeyev, Susan Korrick, Mary M. Lee, Boris Revich, Larisa Altshul, Donald G. Patterson, Wayman E. Turner, Larry L. Needham, Igor Saharov, Russ Hauser

Lee Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: Although sources and routes of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied, information regarding exposure among children is limited. Breast-feeding and diet are two important contributors to early life exposure. To further understand other significant contributors to childhood exposure, we studied a cohort of children from a city with high environmental dioxin levels.

OBJECTIVES: We investigated predictors of serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)/co-planar PCBs (C-PCBs), toxic equivalents (TEQs), and PCBs among 8- to 9-year-old boys in Chapaevsk, Russia.

METHODS: We used general linear regression models to explore associations of log(10 ...


Life History, Sexual Dimorphism And 'Ornamental' Feathers In The Mesozoic Bird Confuciusornis Sanctus., Winfried S. Peters, Dieter Stefan Peters Sep 2009

Life History, Sexual Dimorphism And 'Ornamental' Feathers In The Mesozoic Bird Confuciusornis Sanctus., Winfried S. Peters, Dieter Stefan Peters

Winfried S. Peters

The life history of Confuciusornis sanctus is controversial. Recently, the species’ body size spectrum was claimed to contradict osteohistological evidence for a rapid, bird-like development. Moreover, sexual size dimorphism was rejected as an explanation for the observed bimodal size distribution since the presence of elongated rectrices, an assumed ‘male’ trait, was uncorrelated with size. However, this interpretation (i) fails to explain the size spectrum of C. sanctus which is trimodal rather than bimodal, (ii) requires implausible neonate masses and (iii) is not supported by analogy with sexual dimorphisms in modern birds, in which elongated central rectrices are mostly sex-independent. Available ...


Mtorc1 Hyperactivity Inhibits Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis Via Increased Hexokinase Ii And Glut1 Expression, Sustained Mcl-1 Expression, And Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3Β Inhibition, Prashanth T. Bhaskar, Veronique Nogueira, Krushna C. Patra, Sang-Min Jeon, Youngkyu Park, R. Brooks Robey, Nissim Hay Sep 2009

Mtorc1 Hyperactivity Inhibits Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis Via Increased Hexokinase Ii And Glut1 Expression, Sustained Mcl-1 Expression, And Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3Β Inhibition, Prashanth T. Bhaskar, Veronique Nogueira, Krushna C. Patra, Sang-Min Jeon, Youngkyu Park, R. Brooks Robey, Nissim Hay

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The current concept is that Tsc-deficient cells are sensitized to apoptosis due to the inhibition of Akt activity by the negative feedback mechanism induced by the hyperactive mTORC1. Unexpectedly, however, we found that Tsc1/2-deficient cells exhibit increased resistance to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. mTORC1 hyperactivity contributes to the apoptotic resistance of serum-deprived Tsc1/2-deficient cells in part by increasing the growth factor-independent expression of hexokinase II (HKII) and GLUT1. mTORC1-mediated increase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) abundance, which occurs in the absence of serum in normoxic Tsc2-deficient cells, contributes to these changes. Increased HIF1α abundance in these cells is attributed ...


Aurkb-Mediated Effects On Chromatin Regulate Binding Versus Release Of Xist Rna To The Inactive Chromosome, Lisa L. Hall, Meg Byron, Gayle Jeannette Pageau, Jeanne B. Lawrence Aug 2009

Aurkb-Mediated Effects On Chromatin Regulate Binding Versus Release Of Xist Rna To The Inactive Chromosome, Lisa L. Hall, Meg Byron, Gayle Jeannette Pageau, Jeanne B. Lawrence

Open Access Articles

How XIST RNA strictly localizes across the inactive X chromosome is unknown; however, prophase release of human XIST RNA provides a clue. Tests of inhibitors that mimic mitotic chromatin modifications implicated an indirect role of PP1 (protein phosphatase 1), potentially via its interphase repression of Aurora B kinase (AURKB), which phosphorylates H3 and chromosomal proteins at prophase. RNA interference to AURKB causes mitotic retention of XIST RNA, unlike other mitotic or broad kinase inhibitors. Thus, AURKB plays an unexpected role in regulating RNA binding to heterochromatin, independent of mechanics of mitosis. H3 phosphorylation (H3ph) was shown to precede XIST RNA ...


In Vivo Analysis Of The Notch Receptor S1 Cleavage, Robert J. Lake, Lisa M. Grimm, Alexey Veraksa, Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas Aug 2009

In Vivo Analysis Of The Notch Receptor S1 Cleavage, Robert J. Lake, Lisa M. Grimm, Alexey Veraksa, Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas

Biology Faculty Publication Series

A ligand-independent cleavage (S1) in the extracellular domain of the mammalian Notch receptor results in what is considered to be the canonical heterodimeric form of Notch on the cell surface. The in vivo consequences and significance of this cleavage on Drosophila Notch signaling remain unclear and contradictory. We determined the cleavage site in Drosophila and examined its in vivo function by a transgenic analysis of receptors that cannot be cleaved. Our results demonstrate a correlation between loss of cleavage and loss of in vivo function of the Notch receptor, supporting the notion that S1 cleavage is an in vivo mechanism ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Reveals Distinct Mechanisms Of Astrocyte Protein Secretion, Todd M. Greco Aug 2009

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Reveals Distinct Mechanisms Of Astrocyte Protein Secretion, Todd M. Greco

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The ability of astrocytes to secrete proteins subserves many of its known function, such as synapse formation during development and extracellular matrix remodeling after cellular injury. Protein secretion may also play an important, but less clear, role in the propagation of inflammatory responses and neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis. While potential astrocyte-secreted proteins may number in the thousands, known astrocyte-secreted proteins are less than 100. To address this fundamental deficiency, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and bioinformatic tools were utilized for global discovery, comparison, and quantification of astrocyte-secreted proteins. A primary mouse astrocyte cell culture model was used to generate a collection of astrocyte-secreted ...


Changes In Oxygen Tension Rapidly And Reversibly Regulate Macrophage Nitric Oxide Production, Mary A. Robinson Aug 2009

Changes In Oxygen Tension Rapidly And Reversibly Regulate Macrophage Nitric Oxide Production, Mary A. Robinson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Macrophage nitric oxide (NO) production and hypoxia coexist during wound healing, and have been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of multiple disease states including sepsis and cancer. Macrophages stimulated with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) produce NO via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) from molecular O2, L-arginine, and NADPH. The first aim of this research was to characterize the degree and duration of hypoxia which would limit NO production by PAMPs stimulated macrophages. The second aim was to identify the contributing mechanism(s). Using a novel forced convection cell culture system, we demonstrated that NO production was rapidly (within ...


A Systems Approach To Cellular Signal Transduction, Jeremy E. Purvis Aug 2009

A Systems Approach To Cellular Signal Transduction, Jeremy E. Purvis

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Vital cellular processes such as growth, gene expression, and homeostasis depend on the correct transmission of molecular signals within and between cells. The vast complexity of these molecular signaling networks has necessitated the use of mathematical methods to model, characterize, and predict cellular responses. The work presented in this dissertation shows how computational methods were used to elucidate two clinically-relevant cellular signaling responses: (i) phosphotyrosine signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase that is commonly overexpressed or structurally altered in human cancers; and (ii) phosphoinositide and calcium signaling in human platelets---the key cellular mediators of ...


Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilis: The Interaction Between Transcription And Error-Prone Replication In Conditions Of Stress, Mary Girard, Eduardo Robleto Aug 2009

Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilis: The Interaction Between Transcription And Error-Prone Replication In Conditions Of Stress, Mary Girard, Eduardo Robleto

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

While under conditions of stress, non-dividing cells may acquire beneficial mutations. This is referred to as stationary phase mutagenesis, or adaptive mutagenesis. Previous research has shown that actively transcribed genes and those under selective pressure are prone to mutations that confer escape from non-dividing conditions. Accordingly, strains lacking transcription factors have shown a drastically lower number of mutations that confer escape while under amino acid starvation than those observed in the wildtype background. Also, error-prone DNA polymerases are known to be active in cells under stress and it has been shown that strains lacking an error-prone DNA polymerase display reduced ...


The Role Of The Mrx Complex And The Non-Homologous End Joining Dna Repair Pathway In Mitochondrial Genome Stability And Repair, Garry L. Coles Aug 2009

The Role Of The Mrx Complex And The Non-Homologous End Joining Dna Repair Pathway In Mitochondrial Genome Stability And Repair, Garry L. Coles

Biology Master’s Theses

Mitochondria are required for cellular respiration, which is essential in the production of ATP. Mitochondrial genome maintenance is necessary for the continued function of the mitochondrion. Deletions within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been shown to be associated with a variety of human neuromuscular and age-related diseases. In this study we investigated the role of the MRX complex and the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway in mitochondrial genome stability and repair. Specifically, we investigated the role of the MRX complex and the NHEJ pathway in the occurrence of spontaneous mitochondrial direct repeat-mediated deletions, nuclear direct repeat-mediated deletions, mitochondrial ...


Rapid Evolution Of Sex-Pheromone-Producing Enzyme In Drosophila, Troy R. Shirangi, Héloïse D. Dufour, Thomas M. Williams, Sean B. Carroll Aug 2009

Rapid Evolution Of Sex-Pheromone-Producing Enzyme In Drosophila, Troy R. Shirangi, Héloïse D. Dufour, Thomas M. Williams, Sean B. Carroll

Biology Faculty Publications

A wide range of organisms use sex pheromones to communicate with each other and to identify appropriate mating partners. While the evolution of chemical communication has been suggested to cause sexual isolation and speciation, the mechanisms that govern evolutionary transitions in sex pheromone production are poorly understood. Here, we decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid evolution in the expression of a gene involved in sex pheromone production in Drosophilid flies. Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (e.g., dienes) are produced female-specifically, notably via the activity of the desaturase DESAT-F, and are potent pheromones for male courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. We ...


Role Of Cd4+Cd25+ Regulatory T Lymphocytes In Experimental Toxoplasmosis, Sanjay Varikuti Aug 2009

Role Of Cd4+Cd25+ Regulatory T Lymphocytes In Experimental Toxoplasmosis, Sanjay Varikuti

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of congenital disease, and it is one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The need for a reliable experimental model of this infection is crucial not only for achieving a better understanding of the patho-physiology of the disease, but also for developing better methods for evaluating new therapeutic regimens. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii. T regulatory (Treg) cells have been shown to play an important role in our immune system in ...