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2006

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Articles 31 - 56 of 56

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Modulation Of Tgfβ-Induced Pai -1 Expression By Changes In Actin Polymerization In Human Mesangial Cells, Keyur Patel Apr 2006

Modulation Of Tgfβ-Induced Pai -1 Expression By Changes In Actin Polymerization In Human Mesangial Cells, Keyur Patel

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Chronic renal diseases show increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the glomerulus (glomerulosclerosis). Glomerulosclerosis is associated with activation of normally quiescent glomerular mesangial cells into myofibroblast-like cells. The overall objective of this study is to delineate cellular mechanism/s of myofibroblast-differentiation in disease states. In cultured mesangial cells certain characteristics of myofibroblast differentiation (α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and hypertrophy) are associated with an increase in polymeric actin microfilaments (stress fibers). It is likely that other genes are also regulated in an actin cytoskeleton-dependent manner during myofibroblast differentiation. In these studies, we therefore examined the hypothesis that changes in the ...


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Effects On Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Emily H. Hall Apr 2006

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Effects On Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Emily H. Hall

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is a highly regulated and complex pathway essential for embryonic development, immune-system function and maintenance of tissue homeostasis where cells induce their own cell death. Cells undergoing apoptosis exhibit a distinctive phenotype characterized by maintenance of membrane integrity, cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization at the plasma membrane, caspase protease activation, DNA fragmentation, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, and membrane blebbing. An important regulatory protein in the apoptotic pathway is p53. The p53 protein functions to modulate the cell cycle by arresting cells in the G1 and G 2 phases to repair DNA damage, and ...


Minireview: Recent Progress In Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Migration, Stuart A. Tobet, Gerald A. Schwarting Mar 2006

Minireview: Recent Progress In Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Migration, Stuart A. Tobet, Gerald A. Schwarting

Schwarting Lab Publications

Neurons that synthesize GnRH are critical brain regulators of the reproductive axis, yet they originate outside the brain and must migrate over long distances and varied environments to get to their appropriate positions during development. Many studies, past and present, are providing clues for the types of molecules encountered and movements expected along the migratory route. Recent studies provide real-time views of the behavior of GnRH neurons in the context of in vitro preparations that model those in vivo. Live images provide direct evidence of the changing behavior of GnRH neurons in their different environments, showing that GnRH neurons move ...


Detection And Quantification Of Protein Biomarkers From Fewer Than 10 Cells, Saju Nettikadan, Korinna Radke, James Johnson, Juntao Xu, Michael Lynch, Curtis Mosher, Eric Henderson Feb 2006

Detection And Quantification Of Protein Biomarkers From Fewer Than 10 Cells, Saju Nettikadan, Korinna Radke, James Johnson, Juntao Xu, Michael Lynch, Curtis Mosher, Eric Henderson

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The use of antibody microarrays continues to grow rapidly due to the recent advances in proteomics and automation and the opportunity this combination creates for high throughput multiplexed analysis of protein biomarkers. However, a primary limitation of this technology is the lack of PCR-like amplification methods for proteins. Therefore, to realize the full potential of array-based protein biomarker screening it is necessary to construct assays that can detect and quantify protein biomarkers with very high sensitivity, in the femtomolar range, and from limited sample quantities. We describe here the construction of ultramicroarrays, combining the advantages of microarraying including multiplexing capabilities ...


A Novel Steroid Receptor Elucidates Non-Classical Signal Pathways, Chloe Wormser Jan 2006

A Novel Steroid Receptor Elucidates Non-Classical Signal Pathways, Chloe Wormser

Eukaryon

Cell signaling is a vital mechanism that ensures homeostatic conditions within a biological system. Steroid hormones and their specific receptors play a crucial role in the signaling network. It now appears that a new class of receptor has been isolated, which may finally answer the question of whether a physiologically relevant membrane steroid receptor actually exists.


Pathways Of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Hiv As A Model System?, Chelsea Bueter, Michelle Mckinzey, Chloe Salzmann, Michael Zorniak Jan 2006

Pathways Of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Hiv As A Model System?, Chelsea Bueter, Michelle Mckinzey, Chloe Salzmann, Michael Zorniak

Eukaryon

Skeletal Muscle Atrophy (SMA) is a phenomenon found in many diseases and disorders. SMA is characterized by protein degradation induced by various pathways. Ten years ago, little was known about the mechanisms that lead from these disorders to protein degradation. Current research focuses on the mechanisms thought to induce SMA. It is now known that many of these pathways involve ubiquitin conjugate accumulation and increased proteasome activity resulting in rapid protein degradation and decreased synthesis. HIV associated proteins, such as Vpr, cause overexpression of atrogin-1 which promotes atrophy. Cachexia operates mainly through the IKK/NF¨ºB pathway and MuRF-1 Ub-ligase ...


Eye Development At The Houston "Fly Meeting", Amit Singh Jan 2006

Eye Development At The Houston "Fly Meeting", Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Meeting report: The 47th Annual Drosophila Research Conference or "Fly Meeting" took place at Houston, Texas, USA from March 29th- April 2nd, 2006, under the aegis of the Genetics Society of America. The Fly Meeting provides an excellent opportunity for fly researchers to present their work and to get a snapshot of recent developments and upcoming trends in their research field. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a very versatile model to study growth, patterning, neural development, evolution, systemetics and various other facets of biomedical science. The topics presented in the meeting covered a very broad spectrum of fly research ...


Overexpression And Purification Of The Oat (Avena Fatua) Protein Afn1 And Construction Of A Pmal/Afn1 Expression Plasmid, Tenzin D. Tsewang Jan 2006

Overexpression And Purification Of The Oat (Avena Fatua) Protein Afn1 And Construction Of A Pmal/Afn1 Expression Plasmid, Tenzin D. Tsewang

Undergraduate Research Symposium (UGRS)

Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone with regulatory roles in many physiological processes. ABA expression is induced by environmental stresses such as drought and it is known to be an inhibitor of seed germination. A wild oat (Avena fatua) called AFN1 has been hypothesized to initiate the early stages of germination as its mRNA accumulates in nondormant seed embryos during imbibition. The polypeptide sequence of AFN1 suggests that it is an ABA glucosyl transferase. Glucosylation by AFN1 and thereby inactivation of ABA could lead to seed germination. In order to understand the role of AFN1 in germination, an ample ...


Linking Ligand-Induced Alterations In Androgen Receptor Structure To Differential Gene Expression: A First Step In The Rational Design Of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators, Dmitri Kazmin, Tatiana Prytkova, C. Edgar Cook, Russell Wolfinger, Tzu-Ming Chu, David Beratan, J. D. Norris, Ching-Yi Chang, Donald P. Mcdonnell Jan 2006

Linking Ligand-Induced Alterations In Androgen Receptor Structure To Differential Gene Expression: A First Step In The Rational Design Of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators, Dmitri Kazmin, Tatiana Prytkova, C. Edgar Cook, Russell Wolfinger, Tzu-Ming Chu, David Beratan, J. D. Norris, Ching-Yi Chang, Donald P. Mcdonnell

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

We have previously identified a family of novel androgen receptor (AR) ligands that, upon binding, enable AR to adopt structures distinct from that observed in the presence of canonical agonists. In this report, we describe the use of these compounds to establish a relationship between AR structure and biological activity with a view to defining a rational approach with which to identify useful selective AR modulators. To this end, we used combinatorial peptide phage display coupled with molecular dynamic structure analysis to identify the surfaces on AR that are exposed specifically in the presence of selected AR ligands. Subsequently, we ...


Dynamin As A Mover And Pincher During Cell Migration And Invasion, Anne E. Kruchten, Mark A. Mcniven Jan 2006

Dynamin As A Mover And Pincher During Cell Migration And Invasion, Anne E. Kruchten, Mark A. Mcniven

Faculty Publications

The large GTPase dynamin, long known for its role in endocytosis, has most recently been implicated as a facilitator of cell migration and invasion. Recent observations link dynamin to the cycle of membrane expansion and retraction essential for cell motility. Its role in actin polymerization, membrane deformation and vesiculation, and focal adhesion dynamics are all important for this process, and the new findings provide exciting directions for studies of this ubiquitous and diverse protein family.


Understanding Il-12 Responsiveness During Leishmania Amazonensis Infection , Amanda Ellen Ramer Jan 2006

Understanding Il-12 Responsiveness During Leishmania Amazonensis Infection , Amanda Ellen Ramer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. C3H mice challenged with L. major develop a polarized Th1 response and subsequently heal, whereas L. amazonensis challenge leads to chronic lesions with high parasite loads. This work demonstrates that infection with L. amazonensis creates a population of antigen-responsive, CD44hi CD4+ T cells that proliferate and produce IL-2 but do not polarize to an effector phenotype and exhibit limited IFN-gamma production in response to IL-12. CD44 hi CD4+ T cells from L. amazonensis-infected mice fail to accumulate in culture as compared to cells from L ...


Directed Growth And Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells Using A Synergistic Combination Of Topographical And Soluble Cues , Jennifer Behr Recknor Jan 2006

Directed Growth And Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells Using A Synergistic Combination Of Topographical And Soluble Cues , Jennifer Behr Recknor

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to develop strategies to facilitate nerve regeneration using a synergistic combination of guidance cues. We are investigating the cellular mechanisms of development using adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) and have demonstrated that manipulating a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues can lead to oriented astrocyte and neural progenitor cell outgrowth and can influence progenitor cell differentiation. To provide physical guidance, micropatterned polystyrene (PS) substrates were fabricated and chemically modified with laminin. Astrocytes or AHPCs cultured on these substrates align along the grooves of the patterned surface extending highly elongated processes. To further ...


Comparative Study Of Immunocytochemical Patterns Of Somatotrophs, Mammotrophs, And Mammosomatotrophs In The Porcine Anterior Pituitary , Jin-Sook Lee Jan 2006

Comparative Study Of Immunocytochemical Patterns Of Somatotrophs, Mammotrophs, And Mammosomatotrophs In The Porcine Anterior Pituitary , Jin-Sook Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The anterior pituitary gland is a dynamic and complex endocrine gland that synthesizes and secretes trophic hormones from distinct endocrine cells including mammotrophs (prolactin cells or lactotrophs) and somatotrophs (growth hormone cells) to play essential roles in the maintenance of homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction, growth, and lactation. Recently, the existence of a novel anterior pituitary cell type, the mammosomatotroph which contained both growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) was proposed to function as a transitional cell or progenitor cell between somatotrophs and mammotrophs under various physiological conditions. The present study investigated the spatial distribution patterns of somatotrophs, mammotrophs, and mammosomatotrophs by ...


From Endomembrane To The Plasma Membrane: The Traffic, Signal Transduction And Micro-Localization Of H-Ras , Hui Zheng Jan 2006

From Endomembrane To The Plasma Membrane: The Traffic, Signal Transduction And Micro-Localization Of H-Ras , Hui Zheng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Ras proteins are small G proteins that play key roles in many aspect of cell signal transduction. H-Ras is one of three isoforms of mammalian Ras protein that is best studied. The work presented in this dissertation describes how the carboxyl terminal lipid modifications affect the transportation, signal transduction and micro-localizations of H-Ras protein. The already known traffic pathway for H-Ras to the plasma membrane is Golgi mediated classical vesicular Transportation; However, we found the H-Ras transportation has many different features other than the classical pathway, and thereby discovered a new pathway for H-Ras targeting to the plasma membrane. This ...


Chmp1 Is Implicated In The Development Of Pancreatic Tumor Via The Retinoic Acid Signaling Pathway, Juliana Adedayo Akinsete Jan 2006

Chmp1 Is Implicated In The Development Of Pancreatic Tumor Via The Retinoic Acid Signaling Pathway, Juliana Adedayo Akinsete

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Chmp1 (Chromatin ModifyingProtein 1/Charged Multivesicular body Protein 1) in the development of mousepancreatic acinar tumor cell line. CRL 2151 cell line was transfected with Chmp1/CS2vector to compare growth, morphology and expression of Chmp1, p53 and pp53 (ser37) with control-transfected cells. CRL 2151 cells were treated with all-trans retinoicacid (ATRA) to compare growth, morphology and expression of Chmp1 and p53 withcontrol-treated cells. Strabismus was used as control. Results showed inhibition ofgrowth but no morphological change in transfected cells. Western blot analysis showedthat Chmp1 transfection upregulated the expression of p53, pp53 ...


Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas Jan 2006

Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

The underlying mechanisms that regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration through the vascular endothelium remain unclear. Cortactin is a substrate of Src tyrosine kinases and a regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Previous studies demonstrated a role for Src phosphorylation of cortactin in clustering of E-selectin and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 around adherent leukocytes. In the current study, we used an in vitro flow model to investigate the role of Src-induced cortactin phosphorylation in endothelium during polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration through human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVEC) monolayers preactivated with tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Inhibition of Src in HUVEC using Src kinase inhibitors PP2 and ...


Never Let Me Clone? Countering An Ethical Argument Against The Reproductive Cloning Of Humans, Yvette Pearson Jan 2006

Never Let Me Clone? Countering An Ethical Argument Against The Reproductive Cloning Of Humans, Yvette Pearson

Philosophy Faculty Publications

In the March 2006 issue of EMBO reports, Christof Tannert, a bioethicist at the Max Delbrück Research Centre in Berlin, Germany, presented a moral argument against human reproductive cloning on the basis of Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative (Tannert, 2006). In this article, I address some problems with Tannert’s views and show that our concerns about this prospective procedure should prompt us to scrutinize carefully the conventional procreative practices and attitudes. Indeed, if we set aside objections that are grounded in genetic determinism, many of the offensive features of human cloning are identical to problems with procreation by more ...


Methods For The Study Of Signaling Molecules In Membrane Lipid Rafts And Caveolae, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Paul A. Insel Jan 2006

Methods For The Study Of Signaling Molecules In Membrane Lipid Rafts And Caveolae, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Paul A. Insel

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Lipid rafts and caveolae are cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane that concentrate components of certain signal transduction pathways. Interest in and exploration of these microdomains has grown in recent years, especially after the discovery of the biochemical marker of caveolae, caveolin, and the recognition that caveolin interacts with many different signaling molecules via its scaffolding domain. There are three major types of caveolins (1, 2, and 3), with some selectivity in their expression in different tissues. Results assessing lipid raft/caveolae co-localization of molecules in signal transduction pathways have provided support for the idea that signaling components ...


Diverse Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields On Mammalian Cells, Jody Anne White Jan 2006

Diverse Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields On Mammalian Cells, Jody Anne White

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The continuing effort to manipulate cell-signaling pathways for therapeutic benefit has lead to the exploration of electric field effects on cells. Current electric field applications include electroporation of the plasma membrane for introduction of drugs, genes, or other macromolecules into cells. Modeling of how these pulsed electric fields affect cells depicts the cell as an excitable circuit. In this model, the electric fields, administered in short pulses to a cell, charge the plasma and internal membranes, which act as dielectric layers, and between these the cytoplasm acts as a conductive medium. The pulse lengths of this treatment are traditionally in ...


Isolation And Functional Mapping Of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein Dna-Damage Complexes, Sarah Saionz Durkin Jan 2006

Isolation And Functional Mapping Of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein Dna-Damage Complexes, Sarah Saionz Durkin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) is a transforming retrovirus which causes Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Cellular transformation can be caused by a single viral trans-activating protein, Tax. Tax may contribute to transformation through interaction with components of the DNA damage response pathway, promoting cellular genomic instability. We examined cellular Tax complexes in an effort to elucidate potential protein-protein interactions that can model the Tax-induced molecular events.

We also investigated the role of post-translational modification in regulating Tax function. We employed a direct physical analysis of Tax complexes isolated ...


Affecting Wnt3a In The Inner Ear Of Xenopus Laevis, Heather Elina Hodges Jan 2006

Affecting Wnt3a In The Inner Ear Of Xenopus Laevis, Heather Elina Hodges

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Problems associated with the development of the ear can result in vertigo and partial or complete hearing loss. Efforts to better understand the development of the inner ear have been made in mouse, frog, chick, and other species. However, there is still relatively little known about the mechanisms that control the processes during development. This research has used the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis, to study embryonic and inner ear development. The gene Wnt3a was previously determined to be expressed in the dorsal half of the developing otocyst. This suggested a possible role for Wnt3a in inner ear development, but ...


Synergistic Mitogenic Signaling Of The Tobacco Specific Carcinogen, 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone (Nnk) And Ethanol On Immortalized Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells, Mdf Askari, Ms Tsao, Maria Cekanova, Hildegard Schuller Dec 2005

Synergistic Mitogenic Signaling Of The Tobacco Specific Carcinogen, 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone (Nnk) And Ethanol On Immortalized Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells, Mdf Askari, Ms Tsao, Maria Cekanova, Hildegard Schuller

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

No abstract provided.


Cell Surface Expression Of A Peptide Encoded By The Unrearranged Tcr-Vβ8.2 Gene, Janice Abbey, Mark Hulett, Helen O'Neill Dec 2005

Cell Surface Expression Of A Peptide Encoded By The Unrearranged Tcr-Vβ8.2 Gene, Janice Abbey, Mark Hulett, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Germline transcription of T-cell receptor (TCR) genes has been described in early lymphoid cells. The most common explanation for this phenomenon is that transcription of unrearranged Vβ genes directs gene usage during the rearrangement event. Germline transcription of the TCR-Vβ8.2 gene has been detected in a precursor T-cell line, C1-V13D, which shows no rearrangement at any of the TCR gene loci. This cell line also shows weak binding of specific anti-V 8.2 antibody to the cell surface, consistent with expression of a truncated TCR chain. RT-PCR has been used to confirm expression of spliced germline transcripts of TCR-Vβ8 ...


A Simple Atomic Force Microscopy Method The Visualization Of Polar And Non-Polar Parts Organic Films, A.A. Yu, P.R. Stoney, J.E. Norvillez, M. Vaughn, E.J. Pascial, Barry Bruce, M. Baldo, F. Stellacci Dec 2005

A Simple Atomic Force Microscopy Method The Visualization Of Polar And Non-Polar Parts Organic Films, A.A. Yu, P.R. Stoney, J.E. Norvillez, M. Vaughn, E.J. Pascial, Barry Bruce, M. Baldo, F. Stellacci

Barry D. Bruce

Here we present a scanning probe microscopy method that allows for the identification of regions of different polarity (i.e. hydrophilicity) in thin organic films. This technique is based on the analysis of the difference between phase images generated at different applied bias voltages in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy. We show that, without any chemical modification of the microscope tip, it is possible to investigate surface properties of complex macromolecular layers, yielding new insight into the functional properties of the photosynthetic electron transport macromolecular complex, Photosystem I.


Interfacial Properties And Structural Conformation Of Thermosonicated Bovice Serum Albumin, D. Guzey, I. Gulseren, Barry Bruce, J. Weiss Dec 2005

Interfacial Properties And Structural Conformation Of Thermosonicated Bovice Serum Albumin, D. Guzey, I. Gulseren, Barry Bruce, J. Weiss

Barry D. Bruce

Aqueous Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) solutions were treated with high-intensity ultrasound (20 W cm−2) for 15, 30 and 45 min at temperatures of up to 85 °C. The equilibrium and dynamic surface tension of native and ultrasonicated BSA at the air-solution interface was measured using drop shape analysis. The effect of ultrasound on the secondary structure of BSA was monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Surface pressure of BSA at the air-solvent interface increased as a consequence of sonication treatment at 20 °C. Both the rate of surface pressure increase and the equilibrium surface pressure of sonicated BSA were significantly ...


Prospective Energy Densities In The Forisome, A New Smart Material, William Pickard, Michael Knoblauch, Winfried Peters, Amy Shen Dec 2005

Prospective Energy Densities In The Forisome, A New Smart Material, William Pickard, Michael Knoblauch, Winfried Peters, Amy Shen

Winfried S. Peters

The forisome is a protein structure of plants which, in low Ca2+ solutions, assumes a crystalline condensed conformation and, at high Ca2+, swells to a dispersed conformation; this transition has been attributed to electrostatic deformation of protein “modules”. Forisomes could become an important smart material if the energy density of transformation approached 1 MJ m−3. Quantitation of the forisome as a charged porous continuum permeated by electrolyte fails by orders of magnitude to achieve this energy density electrostatically. However, condensed → dispersed transitions can be visualized alternatively: (i) an ionic bond near the surface of a forisome crystal dissolves to ...