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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

A Novel Steroid Receptor Elucidates Non-Classical Signal Pathways, Chloe Wormser Jan 2006

A Novel Steroid Receptor Elucidates Non-Classical Signal Pathways, Chloe Wormser

Eukaryon

Cell signaling is a vital mechanism that ensures homeostatic conditions within a biological system. Steroid hormones and their specific receptors play a crucial role in the signaling network. It now appears that a new class of receptor has been isolated, which may finally answer the question of whether a physiologically relevant membrane steroid receptor actually exists.


Pathways Of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Hiv As A Model System?, Chelsea Bueter, Michelle Mckinzey, Chloe Salzmann, Michael Zorniak Jan 2006

Pathways Of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Hiv As A Model System?, Chelsea Bueter, Michelle Mckinzey, Chloe Salzmann, Michael Zorniak

Eukaryon

Skeletal Muscle Atrophy (SMA) is a phenomenon found in many diseases and disorders. SMA is characterized by protein degradation induced by various pathways. Ten years ago, little was known about the mechanisms that lead from these disorders to protein degradation. Current research focuses on the mechanisms thought to induce SMA. It is now known that many of these pathways involve ubiquitin conjugate accumulation and increased proteasome activity resulting in rapid protein degradation and decreased synthesis. HIV associated proteins, such as Vpr, cause overexpression of atrogin-1 which promotes atrophy. Cachexia operates mainly through the IKK/NF¨ºB pathway and MuRF-1 Ub-ligase ...