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2006

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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Cellular Mechanism Of Arglabin-Dimethylaminohydrochloride Cytotoxicity, Xiaofei Qin Jul 2006

Cellular Mechanism Of Arglabin-Dimethylaminohydrochloride Cytotoxicity, Xiaofei Qin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Cancer is the second leading killer in the United States. Anticancer drug development is always based on the understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, as well as comprehensive knowledge of potential anticancer drugs. Arglabin-dimethylaminohydrochloride (arglabin-DMA) represents one of the new classes of anti-cancer agents that have shown promise in suppressing the growth of various tumor cells. However, the cellular mechanism of arglabin-DMA cytotoxic effects on tumor cells is still unclear. The current study was to determine the farnesyltransferase (FTase) inhibitory activity of arglabin-DMA and to investigate the effects of arglabin-DMA on three proteins: Ras, Rho and cyclin kinase ...


The Role Of Ilv5p Interacting Factors In Mitochondrial Dna Stability, Anthony J. Mirando Jun 2006

The Role Of Ilv5p Interacting Factors In Mitochondrial Dna Stability, Anthony J. Mirando

Biology Master’s Theses

The ease of manipulating yeast allows for advanced studies on the factors affecting the mitochondrial DNA mutation rates. The control mechanisms of the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate has been determined to involve the dual function protein, Ilv5p. The Ilv5p plays an integral role in the proper segregation of newly replicated mitochondrial DNA into daughter cells during cell division. The focus of this study is to find unknown factors involved in mitochondrial DNA stability. This study uses the Ilv5p to pull unknown factors out of the many genes that comprise the yeast genome. The identification of interacting factors of the Ilv5p ...


Evaluation Of Gyp7 Protein Ability To Coordinate And Regulate Mitochondrial Genomes Stability, Louis Didone Jun 2006

Evaluation Of Gyp7 Protein Ability To Coordinate And Regulate Mitochondrial Genomes Stability, Louis Didone

Biology Master’s Theses

Cellular creation of adenosine triphosphate, ATP, is essential for eukaryotic cells to function properly. The ATP molecule drives most of the biochemical and metabolic pathways of the cell. The cell's ATP is produced in the mitochondria. Mutations within the genome of the mitochondria will alter the cell's ability to generate A TP. Preliminary work has shown that loss of the Gyp 7p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae blocks the ability of mitochondria to properly function. The Gyp 7 gene was isolated using a technique called two-hybrid analysis with a known mitochondrial protein called llvSp, which was used as 'bait'. We ...


Exogenous Expression Of Human Na, K-Atpase Isoforms In Insect Cells, Christal Renee' Carpenter Apr 2006

Exogenous Expression Of Human Na, K-Atpase Isoforms In Insect Cells, Christal Renee' Carpenter

McCabe Thesis Collection

The Na-K-ATPase or Na pump is a membrane bound enzyme that maintains a high concentration of K+ and low concentration of Na+ in most animal cells. Three subunits constitute the Na pump, named alpha (ex), beta (~). and gamma (y). The ex subunit is responsible for the catalytic and transport of the enzyme, the ~ subunit is important for bringing the ex to the plasma membrane of the cell, and y is a regulatory subunit of the Na pump. In addition, there are several molecular variants or isoforms of the ex and ~ subunits. At present four different ex (ex 1, ex2, ex3 ...


Olfactory Bulb Neurons Of Adult Zebrafish Morphology, Distribution, Cellular Interactions And Structural Stability Following Deafferentation, Cynthia L. Fuller Apr 2006

Olfactory Bulb Neurons Of Adult Zebrafish Morphology, Distribution, Cellular Interactions And Structural Stability Following Deafferentation, Cynthia L. Fuller

Dissertations

The zebrafish is becoming an increasingly popular model for studies involving olfactory function, yet there is still much to be learned about the anatomy and circuitry of different cell types in the olfactory bulb. This study focuses on identifying the morphology and distribution of output neurons and interneurons in the olfactory bulb of adult zebrafish, Danio rerio . Furthermore, this investigation examines the cellular interactions of the primary output neuron, the mitral cell, and addresses the issue of neuronal plasticity by considering the structural stability of this cell type following loss of afferent innervation.

Using retrograde tract tracing with various dextrans ...


The Study Of Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression, Function, And Regulation In The Renal Vasculature During Postnatal Renal Development, Brian Blake Ratliff Apr 2006

The Study Of Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression, Function, And Regulation In The Renal Vasculature During Postnatal Renal Development, Brian Blake Ratliff

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The newborn kidney is vulnerable to vasomotor acute renal failure (ARF) from adverse perinatal events or complications of prematurity. Nitric oxide (NO) vasodilation is vitally protective in this type of ARF, but its relationship with other vasoactive factors, such as angiotensin II (AII) has not been examined. In the immature kidney, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, specifically eNOS and nNOS, are developmentally regulated, but their specific role and regulation are unknown.

The enhanced vasodilatory role of NO in the immature kidney was hypothesized to be attributed to regulatory, expressional, and functional differences in eNOS and nNOS isoforms from the adult ...


Developing Proteomics Techniques For Glycosylated Proteins, Adrienne Udelhoven Apr 2006

Developing Proteomics Techniques For Glycosylated Proteins, Adrienne Udelhoven

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The ability to study proteins and their role in cell function is a central area of scientific study. To learn more about proteins and glycosylation, a form of posttranslational modification, a means of detecting specifically for glycosylation is necessary. The modification of an existing dye to meet this need was the goal ofthe project. N-benzyl-4-nitroaniline and methyl ((4-(4-nitrophenyl)amino)methyl)benzoate, two intermediate compounds in the synthesis, were created and purified.


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Effects On Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Emily H. Hall Apr 2006

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Effects On Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Emily H. Hall

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is a highly regulated and complex pathway essential for embryonic development, immune-system function and maintenance of tissue homeostasis where cells induce their own cell death. Cells undergoing apoptosis exhibit a distinctive phenotype characterized by maintenance of membrane integrity, cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization at the plasma membrane, caspase protease activation, DNA fragmentation, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, and membrane blebbing. An important regulatory protein in the apoptotic pathway is p53. The p53 protein functions to modulate the cell cycle by arresting cells in the G1 and G 2 phases to repair DNA damage, and ...


Modulation Of Tgfβ-Induced Pai -1 Expression By Changes In Actin Polymerization In Human Mesangial Cells, Keyur Patel Apr 2006

Modulation Of Tgfβ-Induced Pai -1 Expression By Changes In Actin Polymerization In Human Mesangial Cells, Keyur Patel

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Chronic renal diseases show increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the glomerulus (glomerulosclerosis). Glomerulosclerosis is associated with activation of normally quiescent glomerular mesangial cells into myofibroblast-like cells. The overall objective of this study is to delineate cellular mechanism/s of myofibroblast-differentiation in disease states. In cultured mesangial cells certain characteristics of myofibroblast differentiation (α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and hypertrophy) are associated with an increase in polymeric actin microfilaments (stress fibers). It is likely that other genes are also regulated in an actin cytoskeleton-dependent manner during myofibroblast differentiation. In these studies, we therefore examined the hypothesis that changes in the ...


Development Of Self-Assembled Monolayer-Based Cell Culture Platform Towards Fabrication Of A Three-Dimensional Bioreactor, Rajendra Kandoor Aithal Apr 2006

Development Of Self-Assembled Monolayer-Based Cell Culture Platform Towards Fabrication Of A Three-Dimensional Bioreactor, Rajendra Kandoor Aithal

Doctoral Dissertations

The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in regulating a number of cellular properties and functions like cell differentiation, cell synthesis and degradation, cell viability and proliferation, cell function, and cell aging. Surface modification of planar substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is a promising technique to achieve stable ECMs.

In this work, substrates such as silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates were modified with SAMS containing amino (-NH2), methyl (-CH3), thiol (-SH) and carboxylic (-COOH) end groups and characterized using contact angle measurements, surface infrared (IR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Different cell ...


Understanding Il-12 Responsiveness During Leishmania Amazonensis Infection , Amanda Ellen Ramer Jan 2006

Understanding Il-12 Responsiveness During Leishmania Amazonensis Infection , Amanda Ellen Ramer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. C3H mice challenged with L. major develop a polarized Th1 response and subsequently heal, whereas L. amazonensis challenge leads to chronic lesions with high parasite loads. This work demonstrates that infection with L. amazonensis creates a population of antigen-responsive, CD44hi CD4+ T cells that proliferate and produce IL-2 but do not polarize to an effector phenotype and exhibit limited IFN-gamma production in response to IL-12. CD44 hi CD4+ T cells from L. amazonensis-infected mice fail to accumulate in culture as compared to cells from L ...


Directed Growth And Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells Using A Synergistic Combination Of Topographical And Soluble Cues , Jennifer Behr Recknor Jan 2006

Directed Growth And Selective Differentiation Of Neural Progenitor Cells Using A Synergistic Combination Of Topographical And Soluble Cues , Jennifer Behr Recknor

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to develop strategies to facilitate nerve regeneration using a synergistic combination of guidance cues. We are investigating the cellular mechanisms of development using adult rat hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) and have demonstrated that manipulating a combination of physical, chemical and biological cues can lead to oriented astrocyte and neural progenitor cell outgrowth and can influence progenitor cell differentiation. To provide physical guidance, micropatterned polystyrene (PS) substrates were fabricated and chemically modified with laminin. Astrocytes or AHPCs cultured on these substrates align along the grooves of the patterned surface extending highly elongated processes. To further ...


Comparative Study Of Immunocytochemical Patterns Of Somatotrophs, Mammotrophs, And Mammosomatotrophs In The Porcine Anterior Pituitary , Jin-Sook Lee Jan 2006

Comparative Study Of Immunocytochemical Patterns Of Somatotrophs, Mammotrophs, And Mammosomatotrophs In The Porcine Anterior Pituitary , Jin-Sook Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The anterior pituitary gland is a dynamic and complex endocrine gland that synthesizes and secretes trophic hormones from distinct endocrine cells including mammotrophs (prolactin cells or lactotrophs) and somatotrophs (growth hormone cells) to play essential roles in the maintenance of homeostasis, metabolism, reproduction, growth, and lactation. Recently, the existence of a novel anterior pituitary cell type, the mammosomatotroph which contained both growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) was proposed to function as a transitional cell or progenitor cell between somatotrophs and mammotrophs under various physiological conditions. The present study investigated the spatial distribution patterns of somatotrophs, mammotrophs, and mammosomatotrophs by ...


From Endomembrane To The Plasma Membrane: The Traffic, Signal Transduction And Micro-Localization Of H-Ras , Hui Zheng Jan 2006

From Endomembrane To The Plasma Membrane: The Traffic, Signal Transduction And Micro-Localization Of H-Ras , Hui Zheng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Ras proteins are small G proteins that play key roles in many aspect of cell signal transduction. H-Ras is one of three isoforms of mammalian Ras protein that is best studied. The work presented in this dissertation describes how the carboxyl terminal lipid modifications affect the transportation, signal transduction and micro-localizations of H-Ras protein. The already known traffic pathway for H-Ras to the plasma membrane is Golgi mediated classical vesicular Transportation; However, we found the H-Ras transportation has many different features other than the classical pathway, and thereby discovered a new pathway for H-Ras targeting to the plasma membrane. This ...


Chmp1 Is Implicated In The Development Of Pancreatic Tumor Via The Retinoic Acid Signaling Pathway, Juliana Adedayo Akinsete Jan 2006

Chmp1 Is Implicated In The Development Of Pancreatic Tumor Via The Retinoic Acid Signaling Pathway, Juliana Adedayo Akinsete

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

In the present study, we investigated the involvement of Chmp1 (Chromatin ModifyingProtein 1/Charged Multivesicular body Protein 1) in the development of mousepancreatic acinar tumor cell line. CRL 2151 cell line was transfected with Chmp1/CS2vector to compare growth, morphology and expression of Chmp1, p53 and pp53 (ser37) with control-transfected cells. CRL 2151 cells were treated with all-trans retinoicacid (ATRA) to compare growth, morphology and expression of Chmp1 and p53 withcontrol-treated cells. Strabismus was used as control. Results showed inhibition ofgrowth but no morphological change in transfected cells. Western blot analysis showedthat Chmp1 transfection upregulated the expression of p53, pp53 ...


Isolation And Functional Mapping Of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein Dna-Damage Complexes, Sarah Saionz Durkin Jan 2006

Isolation And Functional Mapping Of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein Dna-Damage Complexes, Sarah Saionz Durkin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) is a transforming retrovirus which causes Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Cellular transformation can be caused by a single viral trans-activating protein, Tax. Tax may contribute to transformation through interaction with components of the DNA damage response pathway, promoting cellular genomic instability. We examined cellular Tax complexes in an effort to elucidate potential protein-protein interactions that can model the Tax-induced molecular events.

We also investigated the role of post-translational modification in regulating Tax function. We employed a direct physical analysis of Tax complexes isolated ...


Diverse Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields On Mammalian Cells, Jody Anne White Jan 2006

Diverse Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields On Mammalian Cells, Jody Anne White

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The continuing effort to manipulate cell-signaling pathways for therapeutic benefit has lead to the exploration of electric field effects on cells. Current electric field applications include electroporation of the plasma membrane for introduction of drugs, genes, or other macromolecules into cells. Modeling of how these pulsed electric fields affect cells depicts the cell as an excitable circuit. In this model, the electric fields, administered in short pulses to a cell, charge the plasma and internal membranes, which act as dielectric layers, and between these the cytoplasm acts as a conductive medium. The pulse lengths of this treatment are traditionally in ...