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2006

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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Brca1 Foci In Normal S-Phase Nuclei Are Linked To Interphase Centromeres And Replication Of Pericentric Heterochromatin, Gayle Jeannette Pageau, Jeanne B. Lawrence Dec 2006

Brca1 Foci In Normal S-Phase Nuclei Are Linked To Interphase Centromeres And Replication Of Pericentric Heterochromatin, Gayle Jeannette Pageau, Jeanne B. Lawrence

Open Access Articles

Breast cancer-associated protein 1 (BRCA1) forms foci at sites of induced DNA damage, but any significance of these normal S-phase foci is unknown. BRCA1 distribution does not simply mirror or overlap that of replicating DNA; however, BRCA1 foci frequently abut sites of BrdU incorporation, mostly at mid-to-late S phase. Although BRCA1 does not overlap XIST RNA across the inactive X chromosome, BRCA1 foci position overwhelmingly in heterochromatic regions, particularly the nucleolar periphery where many centromeres reside. In humans and mice, including early embryonic cells, BRCA1 commonly associates with interphase centromere-kinetochore complexes, including pericentric heterochromatin. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen or BrdU ...


Intranuclear Binding Kinetics And Mobility Of Single Native U1 Snrnp Particles In Living Cells, David Grunwald, Beatrice Spottke, Volker Buschmann, Ulrich Kubitscheck Dec 2006

Intranuclear Binding Kinetics And Mobility Of Single Native U1 Snrnp Particles In Living Cells, David Grunwald, Beatrice Spottke, Volker Buschmann, Ulrich Kubitscheck

Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Publications and Presentations

Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) are splicing factors, which are diffusely distributed in the nucleoplasm and also concentrated in nuclear speckles. Fluorescently labeled, native U1 snRNPs were microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells. After nuclear import single U1 snRNPs could be visualized and tracked at a spatial precision of 30 nm at a frame rate of 200 Hz employing a custom-built microscope with single-molecule sensitivity. The single-particle tracks revealed that most U1 snRNPs were bound to specific intranuclear sites, many of those presumably representing pre-mRNA splicing sites. The dissociation kinetics from these sites showed a multiexponential decay ...


Characterizing The Polycation Receptor Of Paramecium, Eric D. Robinette, Heather G. Kuruvilla Dec 2006

Characterizing The Polycation Receptor Of Paramecium, Eric D. Robinette, Heather G. Kuruvilla

Science and Mathematics Faculty Presentations

Unicellular eukaryotes are complex systems, performing all the tasks needed for survival within the context of a single cell. Protozoans, such as Tetrahymena and Paramecium, use chemosensory systems to detect food and to avoid predation.

Both Tetrahymena and Paramecium have been used as models for studying chemorepellents. Lysozyme, ATP, and GTP have been found to have chemorepellent activity in both ciliates. In Tetrahymena, several PACAP isoforms have been shown to bind to the same receptor as lysozyme, indicating that this receptor may be a more general “polycation receptor” (Keedy et al., 2003). The polycation receptor in Tetrahymena appears to be ...


Limited Functional Redundancy And Oscillation Of Cyclins In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Fungal Cells, A. Katrin Hungerbuehler, Peter Philippsen, Amy S. Gladfelter Nov 2006

Limited Functional Redundancy And Oscillation Of Cyclins In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Fungal Cells, A. Katrin Hungerbuehler, Peter Philippsen, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cyclin protein behavior has not been systematically investigated in multinucleated cells with asynchronous mitoses. Cyclins are canonical oscillating cell cycle proteins, but it is unclear how fluctuating protein gradients can be established in multinucleated cells where nuclei in different stages of the division cycle share the cytoplasm. Previous work in A. gossypii, a filamentous fungus in which nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm, demonstrated that one G1 and one B-type cyclin do not fluctuate in abundance across the division cycle. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of all G1 and B-type cyclins in A. gossypii to determine whether any ...


Lobe And Serrate Are Required For Cell Survival During Early Eye Development In Drosophila, Amit Singh, Xiao Shi, Kwang-Wook Choi Nov 2006

Lobe And Serrate Are Required For Cell Survival During Early Eye Development In Drosophila, Amit Singh, Xiao Shi, Kwang-Wook Choi

Biology Faculty Publications

Organogenesis involves an initial surge of cell proliferation, leading to differentiation. This is followed by cell death in order to remove extra cells. During early development, there is little or no cell death. However, there is a lack of information concerning the genes required for survival during the early cell-proliferation phase. Here, we show that Lobe (L) and the Notch (N) ligand Serrate (Ser), which are both involved in ventral eye growth, are required for cell survival in the early eye disc. We observed that the loss-of-ventral-eye phenotype in L or Ser mutants is due to the induction of cell ...


The Fat Cadherin Acts Through The Hippo Tumor-Suppressor Pathway To Regulate Tissue Size, Maria Willecke, Fisun Hamaratoglu, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ryan Udan, Chiao-Lin Chen, Chunyao Tao, Xinwei Zhang, Georg Halder Nov 2006

The Fat Cadherin Acts Through The Hippo Tumor-Suppressor Pathway To Regulate Tissue Size, Maria Willecke, Fisun Hamaratoglu, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ryan Udan, Chiao-Lin Chen, Chunyao Tao, Xinwei Zhang, Georg Halder

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway has emerged as a key signaling pathway that controls tissue size in Drosophila. Merlin, the Drosophila homolog of the human Neurofibromatosis type-2 (NF2) tumor-suppressor gene, and the related protein Expanded are the most upstream components of the Hippo pathway identified so far. However, components acting upstream of Expanded and Merlin, such as transmembrane receptors, have not yet been identified.

Results: Here, we report that the protocadherin Fat acts as an upstream component in the Hippo pathway. Fat is a known tumor-suppressor gene in Drosophila, and fat mutants have severely overgrown imaginal discs. We found that ...


In Vivo Mature Immunological Synapses Forming Smacs Mediate Clearance Of Virally Infected Astrocytes From The Brain, Carlos Barcia, Clare Thomas, James Curtin, Gwendalyn King, Kolja Wawrowsky, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Chunyan Liu, Kurt Kroeger, Olivier Boyer, Jerzy Kupiec-Weglinski, David Klatzmann, Maria Castro, Pedro Lowenstein Sep 2006

In Vivo Mature Immunological Synapses Forming Smacs Mediate Clearance Of Virally Infected Astrocytes From The Brain, Carlos Barcia, Clare Thomas, James Curtin, Gwendalyn King, Kolja Wawrowsky, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Chunyan Liu, Kurt Kroeger, Olivier Boyer, Jerzy Kupiec-Weglinski, David Klatzmann, Maria Castro, Pedro Lowenstein

Articles

The microanatomy of immune clearance of infected brain cells remains poorly understood. Immunological synapses are essential anatomical structures that channel information exchanges between T cell–antigen-presenting cells (APC) during the priming and effector phases of T cells' function, and during natural killer–target cell interactions. The hallmark of immunological synapses established by T cells is the formation of the supramolecular activation clusters (SMACs), in which adhesion molecules such as leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 segregate to the peripheral domain of the immunological synapse (p-SMAC), which surrounds the T cell receptor–rich or central SMAC (c-SMAC). The inability so far to detect ...


Expression Of The Primary Carbohydrate Component Of The Bordetella Bronchiseptica Biofilm Matrix Is Dependent On Growth Phase But Independent Of Bvg Regulation, Yasuhiko Irie, Andrew Preston, Ming H. Yuk Sep 2006

Expression Of The Primary Carbohydrate Component Of The Bordetella Bronchiseptica Biofilm Matrix Is Dependent On Growth Phase But Independent Of Bvg Regulation, Yasuhiko Irie, Andrew Preston, Ming H. Yuk

Biology Faculty Publications

We previously showed that the Bvg virulence control system regulates biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica (Y. Irie, S. Mattoo, and M. H. Yuk, J. Bacteriol. 186:5692-5698, 2004). Analyses of the extracellular components of B. bronchiseptica biofilm matrix revealed that the major sugar component in the matrix was xylose, and linkage analysis indicated a majority of it to be in a 4-linked polymeric form. The production of xylose was independent of Bvg regulation but instead was dependent on bacterial growth phase. In addition, N-acetyl-glucosamine in the matrix was found to be important for the initial development of the biofilm ...


Functional Interaction Of The Retinoblastoma And Ini1/Snf5 Tumor Suppressors In Cell Growth And Pituitary Tumorigenesis, Cynthia J. Guidi, Rajini R. Mudhasani, Kathleen Hoover, Andrew Koff, Irwin Leav, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Stephen N. Jones Aug 2006

Functional Interaction Of The Retinoblastoma And Ini1/Snf5 Tumor Suppressors In Cell Growth And Pituitary Tumorigenesis, Cynthia J. Guidi, Rajini R. Mudhasani, Kathleen Hoover, Andrew Koff, Irwin Leav, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Stephen N. Jones

Open Access Articles

The Ini1 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex suppresses formation of malignant rhabdoid tumors in humans and mice. Transduction of Ini1 into Ini1-deficient tumor-derived cell lines has indicated that Ini1 arrests cell growth, controls chromosomal ploidy, and suppresses tumorigenesis by regulating components of the retinoblastoma (Rb) signaling pathway. Furthermore, conditional inactivation of Ini1 in mouse fibroblasts alters the expression of various Rb-E2F-regulated genes, indicating that endogenous Ini1 levels may control Rb signaling in cells. We have reported previously that loss of one allele of Ini1 in mouse fibroblasts results only in a 15% to 20% reduction in total ...


Supervillin Modulation Of Focal Adhesions Involving Trip6/Zrp-1, Norio Takizawa, Tara C. Smith, Thomas Nebl, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Stephen J. Palmieri, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Anka G. Ehrhardt, Laura M. Hoffman, Mary C. Beckerle, Elizabeth J. Luna Aug 2006

Supervillin Modulation Of Focal Adhesions Involving Trip6/Zrp-1, Norio Takizawa, Tara C. Smith, Thomas Nebl, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Stephen J. Palmieri, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Anka G. Ehrhardt, Laura M. Hoffman, Mary C. Beckerle, Elizabeth J. Luna

Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications

Cell-substrate contacts, called focal adhesions (FAs), are dynamic in rapidly moving cells. We show that supervillin (SV)--a peripheral membrane protein that binds myosin II and F-actin in such cells--negatively regulates stress fibers, FAs, and cell-substrate adhesion. The major FA regulatory sequence within SV (SV342-571) binds to the LIM domains of two proteins in the zyxin family, thyroid receptor-interacting protein 6 (TRIP6) and lipoma-preferred partner (LPP), but not to zyxin itself. SV and TRIP6 colocalize within large FAs, where TRIP6 may help recruit SV. RNAi-mediated decreases in either protein increase cell adhesion to fibronectin. TRIP6 partially rescues SV effects on ...


Myod Synergizes With The E-Protein Heb Beta To Induce Myogenic Differentiation, Maura H. Parker, Robert L.S. Perry, Melanie C. Fauteux, Charlotte A. Berkes, Michael A. Rudnicki Aug 2006

Myod Synergizes With The E-Protein Heb Beta To Induce Myogenic Differentiation, Maura H. Parker, Robert L.S. Perry, Melanie C. Fauteux, Charlotte A. Berkes, Michael A. Rudnicki

Biology Faculty Publications

The MyoD family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors function as heterodimers with members of the E-protein family to induce myogenic gene activation. The E-protein HEB is alternatively spliced to generate alpha and beta isoforms. While the function of these molecules has been studied in other cell types, questions persist regarding the molecular functions of HEB proteins in skeletal muscle. Our data demonstrate that HEB alpha expression remains unchanged in both myoblasts and myotubes, whereas HEB beta is upregulated during the early phases of terminal differentiation. Upon induction of differentiation, a MyoD-HEB beta complex bound the E1 E-box of the myogenin ...


Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 (Chemokine C-X-C Motif Ligand 12) And Chemokine C-X-C Motif Receptor 4 Are Required For Migration Of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons To The Forebrain, Gerald A. Schwarting, Timothy R. Henion, J. David Nugent, Benjamin Caplan, Stuart A. Tobet Jun 2006

Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 (Chemokine C-X-C Motif Ligand 12) And Chemokine C-X-C Motif Receptor 4 Are Required For Migration Of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons To The Forebrain, Gerald A. Schwarting, Timothy R. Henion, J. David Nugent, Benjamin Caplan, Stuart A. Tobet

Schwarting Lab Publications

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons migrate from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the nasal compartment to the basal forebrain in mice, beginning on embryonic day 11 (E11). These neurons use vomeronasal axons as guides to migrate through the nasal mesenchyme. Most GnRH neurons then migrate along the caudal branch of the vomeronasal nerve to reach the hypothalamus. We show here that stromal cell-derived factor-1 [SDF-1, also known as chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12)] is expressed in the embryonic nasal mesenchyme from as early as E10 in an increasing rostral to caudal gradient that is most intense at the border of ...


A Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein In Chlamydomonas: Evidence For A Role In Cell Division And Flagellar Functions, Erin E. Dymek, Daniel Goduti, Tal Kramer, Elizabeth F. Smith May 2006

A Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein In Chlamydomonas: Evidence For A Role In Cell Division And Flagellar Functions, Erin E. Dymek, Daniel Goduti, Tal Kramer, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein, KCBP, is a novel member of the C-kinesin superfamily first discovered in flowering plants. This minus-end-directed kinesin exhibits Ca(2+)-calmodulin-sensitive motor activity in vitro and has been implicated in trichome morphogenesis and cell division. A homologue of KCBP is also found in the unicellular, biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrKCBP). Unlike plant cells, Chlamydomonas cells do not form trichomes and do not assemble a phragmoplast before cell division. To test whether CrKCBP is involved in additional microtubule-based processes not observed in plants, we generated antibodies against the putative calmodulin-binding domain and used these antibodies in biochemical ...


Talking To Themselves: Autoregulation And Quorum Sensing In Fungi, Deborah A. Hogan Apr 2006

Talking To Themselves: Autoregulation And Quorum Sensing In Fungi, Deborah A. Hogan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Extracellular autoinducing compounds in the supernatants of microbial cultures were first recognized for their roles in the induction of genetic competence in gram-positive bacteria and in the regulation of light production in marine vibrios. In 1994, this form of population-level regulation in microbes was dubbed “quorum sensing” since it enabled bacterial cells to chemically measure the density of the surrounding population. Subsequently, many examples of cell density-dependent regulation by extracellular factors have been found in diverse microorganisms. The widespread incidence of diverse quorum-sensing systems strongly suggests that regulation in accordance with cell density is important for the success of microbes ...


Minireview: Recent Progress In Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Migration, Stuart A. Tobet, Gerald A. Schwarting Mar 2006

Minireview: Recent Progress In Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Migration, Stuart A. Tobet, Gerald A. Schwarting

Schwarting Lab Publications

Neurons that synthesize GnRH are critical brain regulators of the reproductive axis, yet they originate outside the brain and must migrate over long distances and varied environments to get to their appropriate positions during development. Many studies, past and present, are providing clues for the types of molecules encountered and movements expected along the migratory route. Recent studies provide real-time views of the behavior of GnRH neurons in the context of in vitro preparations that model those in vivo. Live images provide direct evidence of the changing behavior of GnRH neurons in their different environments, showing that GnRH neurons move ...


Detection And Quantification Of Protein Biomarkers From Fewer Than 10 Cells, Saju Nettikadan, Korinna Radke, James Johnson, Juntao Xu, Michael Lynch, Curtis Mosher, Eric Henderson Feb 2006

Detection And Quantification Of Protein Biomarkers From Fewer Than 10 Cells, Saju Nettikadan, Korinna Radke, James Johnson, Juntao Xu, Michael Lynch, Curtis Mosher, Eric Henderson

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The use of antibody microarrays continues to grow rapidly due to the recent advances in proteomics and automation and the opportunity this combination creates for high throughput multiplexed analysis of protein biomarkers. However, a primary limitation of this technology is the lack of PCR-like amplification methods for proteins. Therefore, to realize the full potential of array-based protein biomarker screening it is necessary to construct assays that can detect and quantify protein biomarkers with very high sensitivity, in the femtomolar range, and from limited sample quantities. We describe here the construction of ultramicroarrays, combining the advantages of microarraying including multiplexing capabilities ...


Overexpression And Purification Of The Oat (Avena Fatua) Protein Afn1 And Construction Of A Pmal/Afn1 Expression Plasmid, Tenzin D. Tsewang Jan 2006

Overexpression And Purification Of The Oat (Avena Fatua) Protein Afn1 And Construction Of A Pmal/Afn1 Expression Plasmid, Tenzin D. Tsewang

Undergraduate Research Symposium (UGRS)

Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone with regulatory roles in many physiological processes. ABA expression is induced by environmental stresses such as drought and it is known to be an inhibitor of seed germination. A wild oat (Avena fatua) called AFN1 has been hypothesized to initiate the early stages of germination as its mRNA accumulates in nondormant seed embryos during imbibition. The polypeptide sequence of AFN1 suggests that it is an ABA glucosyl transferase. Glucosylation by AFN1 and thereby inactivation of ABA could lead to seed germination. In order to understand the role of AFN1 in germination, an ample ...


Dynamin As A Mover And Pincher During Cell Migration And Invasion, Anne E. Kruchten, Mark A. Mcniven Jan 2006

Dynamin As A Mover And Pincher During Cell Migration And Invasion, Anne E. Kruchten, Mark A. Mcniven

Faculty Publications

The large GTPase dynamin, long known for its role in endocytosis, has most recently been implicated as a facilitator of cell migration and invasion. Recent observations link dynamin to the cycle of membrane expansion and retraction essential for cell motility. Its role in actin polymerization, membrane deformation and vesiculation, and focal adhesion dynamics are all important for this process, and the new findings provide exciting directions for studies of this ubiquitous and diverse protein family.


Affecting Wnt3a In The Inner Ear Of Xenopus Laevis, Heather Elina Hodges Jan 2006

Affecting Wnt3a In The Inner Ear Of Xenopus Laevis, Heather Elina Hodges

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Problems associated with the development of the ear can result in vertigo and partial or complete hearing loss. Efforts to better understand the development of the inner ear have been made in mouse, frog, chick, and other species. However, there is still relatively little known about the mechanisms that control the processes during development. This research has used the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis, to study embryonic and inner ear development. The gene Wnt3a was previously determined to be expressed in the dorsal half of the developing otocyst. This suggested a possible role for Wnt3a in inner ear development, but ...


Never Let Me Clone? Countering An Ethical Argument Against The Reproductive Cloning Of Humans, Yvette Pearson Jan 2006

Never Let Me Clone? Countering An Ethical Argument Against The Reproductive Cloning Of Humans, Yvette Pearson

Philosophy Faculty Publications

In the March 2006 issue of EMBO reports, Christof Tannert, a bioethicist at the Max Delbrück Research Centre in Berlin, Germany, presented a moral argument against human reproductive cloning on the basis of Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative (Tannert, 2006). In this article, I address some problems with Tannert’s views and show that our concerns about this prospective procedure should prompt us to scrutinize carefully the conventional procreative practices and attitudes. Indeed, if we set aside objections that are grounded in genetic determinism, many of the offensive features of human cloning are identical to problems with procreation by more ...


Linking Ligand-Induced Alterations In Androgen Receptor Structure To Differential Gene Expression: A First Step In The Rational Design Of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators, Dmitri Kazmin, Tatiana Prytkova, C. Edgar Cook, Russell Wolfinger, Tzu-Ming Chu, David Beratan, J. D. Norris, Ching-Yi Chang, Donald P. Mcdonnell Jan 2006

Linking Ligand-Induced Alterations In Androgen Receptor Structure To Differential Gene Expression: A First Step In The Rational Design Of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators, Dmitri Kazmin, Tatiana Prytkova, C. Edgar Cook, Russell Wolfinger, Tzu-Ming Chu, David Beratan, J. D. Norris, Ching-Yi Chang, Donald P. Mcdonnell

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

We have previously identified a family of novel androgen receptor (AR) ligands that, upon binding, enable AR to adopt structures distinct from that observed in the presence of canonical agonists. In this report, we describe the use of these compounds to establish a relationship between AR structure and biological activity with a view to defining a rational approach with which to identify useful selective AR modulators. To this end, we used combinatorial peptide phage display coupled with molecular dynamic structure analysis to identify the surfaces on AR that are exposed specifically in the presence of selected AR ligands. Subsequently, we ...


Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas Jan 2006

Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

The underlying mechanisms that regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration through the vascular endothelium remain unclear. Cortactin is a substrate of Src tyrosine kinases and a regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Previous studies demonstrated a role for Src phosphorylation of cortactin in clustering of E-selectin and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 around adherent leukocytes. In the current study, we used an in vitro flow model to investigate the role of Src-induced cortactin phosphorylation in endothelium during polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration through human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVEC) monolayers preactivated with tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Inhibition of Src in HUVEC using Src kinase inhibitors PP2 and ...


Eye Development At The Houston "Fly Meeting", Amit Singh Jan 2006

Eye Development At The Houston "Fly Meeting", Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Meeting report: The 47th Annual Drosophila Research Conference or "Fly Meeting" took place at Houston, Texas, USA from March 29th- April 2nd, 2006, under the aegis of the Genetics Society of America. The Fly Meeting provides an excellent opportunity for fly researchers to present their work and to get a snapshot of recent developments and upcoming trends in their research field. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a very versatile model to study growth, patterning, neural development, evolution, systemetics and various other facets of biomedical science. The topics presented in the meeting covered a very broad spectrum of fly research ...


Methods For The Study Of Signaling Molecules In Membrane Lipid Rafts And Caveolae, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Paul A. Insel Jan 2006

Methods For The Study Of Signaling Molecules In Membrane Lipid Rafts And Caveolae, Rennolds S. Ostrom, Paul A. Insel

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Lipid rafts and caveolae are cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich microdomains of the plasma membrane that concentrate components of certain signal transduction pathways. Interest in and exploration of these microdomains has grown in recent years, especially after the discovery of the biochemical marker of caveolae, caveolin, and the recognition that caveolin interacts with many different signaling molecules via its scaffolding domain. There are three major types of caveolins (1, 2, and 3), with some selectivity in their expression in different tissues. Results assessing lipid raft/caveolae co-localization of molecules in signal transduction pathways have provided support for the idea that signaling components ...