Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2006

PDF

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 44

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Brca1 Foci In Normal S-Phase Nuclei Are Linked To Interphase Centromeres And Replication Of Pericentric Heterochromatin, Gayle Jeannette Pageau, Jeanne B. Lawrence Dec 2006

Brca1 Foci In Normal S-Phase Nuclei Are Linked To Interphase Centromeres And Replication Of Pericentric Heterochromatin, Gayle Jeannette Pageau, Jeanne B. Lawrence

Open Access Articles

Breast cancer-associated protein 1 (BRCA1) forms foci at sites of induced DNA damage, but any significance of these normal S-phase foci is unknown. BRCA1 distribution does not simply mirror or overlap that of replicating DNA; however, BRCA1 foci frequently abut sites of BrdU incorporation, mostly at mid-to-late S phase. Although BRCA1 does not overlap XIST RNA across the inactive X chromosome, BRCA1 foci position overwhelmingly in heterochromatic regions, particularly the nucleolar periphery where many centromeres reside. In humans and mice, including early embryonic cells, BRCA1 commonly associates with interphase centromere-kinetochore complexes, including pericentric heterochromatin. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen or BrdU ...


Characterizing The Polycation Receptor Of Paramecium, Eric D. Robinette, Heather G. Kuruvilla Dec 2006

Characterizing The Polycation Receptor Of Paramecium, Eric D. Robinette, Heather G. Kuruvilla

Science and Mathematics Faculty Presentations

Unicellular eukaryotes are complex systems, performing all the tasks needed for survival within the context of a single cell. Protozoans, such as Tetrahymena and Paramecium, use chemosensory systems to detect food and to avoid predation.

Both Tetrahymena and Paramecium have been used as models for studying chemorepellents. Lysozyme, ATP, and GTP have been found to have chemorepellent activity in both ciliates. In Tetrahymena, several PACAP isoforms have been shown to bind to the same receptor as lysozyme, indicating that this receptor may be a more general “polycation receptor” (Keedy et al., 2003). The polycation receptor in Tetrahymena appears to be ...


Intranuclear Binding Kinetics And Mobility Of Single Native U1 Snrnp Particles In Living Cells, David Grunwald, Beatrice Spottke, Volker Buschmann, Ulrich Kubitscheck Dec 2006

Intranuclear Binding Kinetics And Mobility Of Single Native U1 Snrnp Particles In Living Cells, David Grunwald, Beatrice Spottke, Volker Buschmann, Ulrich Kubitscheck

Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Publications and Presentations

Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) are splicing factors, which are diffusely distributed in the nucleoplasm and also concentrated in nuclear speckles. Fluorescently labeled, native U1 snRNPs were microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells. After nuclear import single U1 snRNPs could be visualized and tracked at a spatial precision of 30 nm at a frame rate of 200 Hz employing a custom-built microscope with single-molecule sensitivity. The single-particle tracks revealed that most U1 snRNPs were bound to specific intranuclear sites, many of those presumably representing pre-mRNA splicing sites. The dissociation kinetics from these sites showed a multiexponential decay ...


Limited Functional Redundancy And Oscillation Of Cyclins In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Fungal Cells, A. Katrin Hungerbuehler, Peter Philippsen, Amy S. Gladfelter Nov 2006

Limited Functional Redundancy And Oscillation Of Cyclins In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Fungal Cells, A. Katrin Hungerbuehler, Peter Philippsen, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cyclin protein behavior has not been systematically investigated in multinucleated cells with asynchronous mitoses. Cyclins are canonical oscillating cell cycle proteins, but it is unclear how fluctuating protein gradients can be established in multinucleated cells where nuclei in different stages of the division cycle share the cytoplasm. Previous work in A. gossypii, a filamentous fungus in which nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm, demonstrated that one G1 and one B-type cyclin do not fluctuate in abundance across the division cycle. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of all G1 and B-type cyclins in A. gossypii to determine whether any ...


The Fat Cadherin Acts Through The Hippo Tumor-Suppressor Pathway To Regulate Tissue Size, Maria Willecke, Fisun Hamaratoglu, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ryan Udan, Chiao-Lin Chen, Chunyao Tao, Xinwei Zhang, Georg Halder Nov 2006

The Fat Cadherin Acts Through The Hippo Tumor-Suppressor Pathway To Regulate Tissue Size, Maria Willecke, Fisun Hamaratoglu, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ryan Udan, Chiao-Lin Chen, Chunyao Tao, Xinwei Zhang, Georg Halder

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway has emerged as a key signaling pathway that controls tissue size in Drosophila. Merlin, the Drosophila homolog of the human Neurofibromatosis type-2 (NF2) tumor-suppressor gene, and the related protein Expanded are the most upstream components of the Hippo pathway identified so far. However, components acting upstream of Expanded and Merlin, such as transmembrane receptors, have not yet been identified.

Results: Here, we report that the protocadherin Fat acts as an upstream component in the Hippo pathway. Fat is a known tumor-suppressor gene in Drosophila, and fat mutants have severely overgrown imaginal discs. We found that ...


Lobe And Serrate Are Required For Cell Survival During Early Eye Development In Drosophila, Amit Singh, Xiao Shi, Kwang-Wook Choi Nov 2006

Lobe And Serrate Are Required For Cell Survival During Early Eye Development In Drosophila, Amit Singh, Xiao Shi, Kwang-Wook Choi

Biology Faculty Publications

Organogenesis involves an initial surge of cell proliferation, leading to differentiation. This is followed by cell death in order to remove extra cells. During early development, there is little or no cell death. However, there is a lack of information concerning the genes required for survival during the early cell-proliferation phase. Here, we show that Lobe (L) and the Notch (N) ligand Serrate (Ser), which are both involved in ventral eye growth, are required for cell survival in the early eye disc. We observed that the loss-of-ventral-eye phenotype in L or Ser mutants is due to the induction of cell ...


The Transcriptome Of Human Oocytes, Jose Cibelli, Arif Kocabas, Javier Crosby, Pablo Ross, Hasan Otu, Zeki Beyhan, Zandan Can, Wau-Leong Tam, Guilherme Rosa, Robert Halgren, Bing Lim, Emilio Fernandez Sep 2006

The Transcriptome Of Human Oocytes, Jose Cibelli, Arif Kocabas, Javier Crosby, Pablo Ross, Hasan Otu, Zeki Beyhan, Zandan Can, Wau-Leong Tam, Guilherme Rosa, Robert Halgren, Bing Lim, Emilio Fernandez

Jose Cibelli

The identification of genes and deduced pathways from the mature human oocyte can help us better understand oogenesis, folliculogenesis, fertilization, and embryonic development. Human metaphase II oocytes were used within minutes after removal from the ovary, and its transcriptome was compared with a reference sample consisting of a mixture of total RNA from 10 different normal human tissues not including the ovary. RNA amplification was performed by using a unique protocol. Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip arrays were used for hybridizations. Compared with reference samples, there were 5,331 transcripts significantly up-regulated and 7,074 transcripts significantly ...


In Vivo Mature Immunological Synapses Forming Smacs Mediate Clearance Of Virally Infected Astrocytes From The Brain, Carlos Barcia, Clare Thomas, James Curtin, Gwendalyn King, Kolja Wawrowsky, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Chunyan Liu, Kurt Kroeger, Olivier Boyer, Jerzy Kupiec-Weglinski, David Klatzmann, Maria Castro, Pedro Lowenstein Sep 2006

In Vivo Mature Immunological Synapses Forming Smacs Mediate Clearance Of Virally Infected Astrocytes From The Brain, Carlos Barcia, Clare Thomas, James Curtin, Gwendalyn King, Kolja Wawrowsky, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Chunyan Liu, Kurt Kroeger, Olivier Boyer, Jerzy Kupiec-Weglinski, David Klatzmann, Maria Castro, Pedro Lowenstein

Articles

The microanatomy of immune clearance of infected brain cells remains poorly understood. Immunological synapses are essential anatomical structures that channel information exchanges between T cell–antigen-presenting cells (APC) during the priming and effector phases of T cells' function, and during natural killer–target cell interactions. The hallmark of immunological synapses established by T cells is the formation of the supramolecular activation clusters (SMACs), in which adhesion molecules such as leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 segregate to the peripheral domain of the immunological synapse (p-SMAC), which surrounds the T cell receptor–rich or central SMAC (c-SMAC). The inability so far to detect ...


Expression Of The Primary Carbohydrate Component Of The Bordetella Bronchiseptica Biofilm Matrix Is Dependent On Growth Phase But Independent Of Bvg Regulation, Yasuhiko Irie, Andrew Preston, Ming H. Yuk Sep 2006

Expression Of The Primary Carbohydrate Component Of The Bordetella Bronchiseptica Biofilm Matrix Is Dependent On Growth Phase But Independent Of Bvg Regulation, Yasuhiko Irie, Andrew Preston, Ming H. Yuk

Biology Faculty Publications

We previously showed that the Bvg virulence control system regulates biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica (Y. Irie, S. Mattoo, and M. H. Yuk, J. Bacteriol. 186:5692-5698, 2004). Analyses of the extracellular components of B. bronchiseptica biofilm matrix revealed that the major sugar component in the matrix was xylose, and linkage analysis indicated a majority of it to be in a 4-linked polymeric form. The production of xylose was independent of Bvg regulation but instead was dependent on bacterial growth phase. In addition, N-acetyl-glucosamine in the matrix was found to be important for the initial development of the biofilm ...


Functional Interaction Of The Retinoblastoma And Ini1/Snf5 Tumor Suppressors In Cell Growth And Pituitary Tumorigenesis, Cynthia J. Guidi, Rajini R. Mudhasani, Kathleen Hoover, Andrew Koff, Irwin Leav, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Stephen N. Jones Aug 2006

Functional Interaction Of The Retinoblastoma And Ini1/Snf5 Tumor Suppressors In Cell Growth And Pituitary Tumorigenesis, Cynthia J. Guidi, Rajini R. Mudhasani, Kathleen Hoover, Andrew Koff, Irwin Leav, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Stephen N. Jones

Open Access Articles

The Ini1 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex suppresses formation of malignant rhabdoid tumors in humans and mice. Transduction of Ini1 into Ini1-deficient tumor-derived cell lines has indicated that Ini1 arrests cell growth, controls chromosomal ploidy, and suppresses tumorigenesis by regulating components of the retinoblastoma (Rb) signaling pathway. Furthermore, conditional inactivation of Ini1 in mouse fibroblasts alters the expression of various Rb-E2F-regulated genes, indicating that endogenous Ini1 levels may control Rb signaling in cells. We have reported previously that loss of one allele of Ini1 in mouse fibroblasts results only in a 15% to 20% reduction in total ...


Supervillin Modulation Of Focal Adhesions Involving Trip6/Zrp-1, Norio Takizawa, Tara C. Smith, Thomas Nebl, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Stephen J. Palmieri, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Anka G. Ehrhardt, Laura M. Hoffman, Mary C. Beckerle, Elizabeth J. Luna Aug 2006

Supervillin Modulation Of Focal Adhesions Involving Trip6/Zrp-1, Norio Takizawa, Tara C. Smith, Thomas Nebl, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Stephen J. Palmieri, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Anka G. Ehrhardt, Laura M. Hoffman, Mary C. Beckerle, Elizabeth J. Luna

Women’s Health Research Faculty Publications

Cell-substrate contacts, called focal adhesions (FAs), are dynamic in rapidly moving cells. We show that supervillin (SV)--a peripheral membrane protein that binds myosin II and F-actin in such cells--negatively regulates stress fibers, FAs, and cell-substrate adhesion. The major FA regulatory sequence within SV (SV342-571) binds to the LIM domains of two proteins in the zyxin family, thyroid receptor-interacting protein 6 (TRIP6) and lipoma-preferred partner (LPP), but not to zyxin itself. SV and TRIP6 colocalize within large FAs, where TRIP6 may help recruit SV. RNAi-mediated decreases in either protein increase cell adhesion to fibronectin. TRIP6 partially rescues SV effects on ...


Myod Synergizes With The E-Protein Heb Beta To Induce Myogenic Differentiation, Maura H. Parker, Robert L.S. Perry, Melanie C. Fauteux, Charlotte A. Berkes, Michael A. Rudnicki Aug 2006

Myod Synergizes With The E-Protein Heb Beta To Induce Myogenic Differentiation, Maura H. Parker, Robert L.S. Perry, Melanie C. Fauteux, Charlotte A. Berkes, Michael A. Rudnicki

Biology Faculty Publications

The MyoD family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors function as heterodimers with members of the E-protein family to induce myogenic gene activation. The E-protein HEB is alternatively spliced to generate alpha and beta isoforms. While the function of these molecules has been studied in other cell types, questions persist regarding the molecular functions of HEB proteins in skeletal muscle. Our data demonstrate that HEB alpha expression remains unchanged in both myoblasts and myotubes, whereas HEB beta is upregulated during the early phases of terminal differentiation. Upon induction of differentiation, a MyoD-HEB beta complex bound the E1 E-box of the myogenin ...


Cellular Mechanism Of Arglabin-Dimethylaminohydrochloride Cytotoxicity, Xiaofei Qin Jul 2006

Cellular Mechanism Of Arglabin-Dimethylaminohydrochloride Cytotoxicity, Xiaofei Qin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Cancer is the second leading killer in the United States. Anticancer drug development is always based on the understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, as well as comprehensive knowledge of potential anticancer drugs. Arglabin-dimethylaminohydrochloride (arglabin-DMA) represents one of the new classes of anti-cancer agents that have shown promise in suppressing the growth of various tumor cells. However, the cellular mechanism of arglabin-DMA cytotoxic effects on tumor cells is still unclear. The current study was to determine the farnesyltransferase (FTase) inhibitory activity of arglabin-DMA and to investigate the effects of arglabin-DMA on three proteins: Ras, Rho and cyclin kinase ...


Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 (Chemokine C-X-C Motif Ligand 12) And Chemokine C-X-C Motif Receptor 4 Are Required For Migration Of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons To The Forebrain, Gerald A. Schwarting, Timothy R. Henion, J. David Nugent, Benjamin Caplan, Stuart A. Tobet Jun 2006

Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 (Chemokine C-X-C Motif Ligand 12) And Chemokine C-X-C Motif Receptor 4 Are Required For Migration Of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons To The Forebrain, Gerald A. Schwarting, Timothy R. Henion, J. David Nugent, Benjamin Caplan, Stuart A. Tobet

Schwarting Lab Publications

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons migrate from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the nasal compartment to the basal forebrain in mice, beginning on embryonic day 11 (E11). These neurons use vomeronasal axons as guides to migrate through the nasal mesenchyme. Most GnRH neurons then migrate along the caudal branch of the vomeronasal nerve to reach the hypothalamus. We show here that stromal cell-derived factor-1 [SDF-1, also known as chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12)] is expressed in the embryonic nasal mesenchyme from as early as E10 in an increasing rostral to caudal gradient that is most intense at the border of ...


The Role Of Ilv5p Interacting Factors In Mitochondrial Dna Stability, Anthony J. Mirando Jun 2006

The Role Of Ilv5p Interacting Factors In Mitochondrial Dna Stability, Anthony J. Mirando

Biology Master’s Theses

The ease of manipulating yeast allows for advanced studies on the factors affecting the mitochondrial DNA mutation rates. The control mechanisms of the mitochondrial DNA mutation rate has been determined to involve the dual function protein, Ilv5p. The Ilv5p plays an integral role in the proper segregation of newly replicated mitochondrial DNA into daughter cells during cell division. The focus of this study is to find unknown factors involved in mitochondrial DNA stability. This study uses the Ilv5p to pull unknown factors out of the many genes that comprise the yeast genome. The identification of interacting factors of the Ilv5p ...


Evaluation Of Gyp7 Protein Ability To Coordinate And Regulate Mitochondrial Genomes Stability, Louis Didone Jun 2006

Evaluation Of Gyp7 Protein Ability To Coordinate And Regulate Mitochondrial Genomes Stability, Louis Didone

Biology Master’s Theses

Cellular creation of adenosine triphosphate, ATP, is essential for eukaryotic cells to function properly. The ATP molecule drives most of the biochemical and metabolic pathways of the cell. The cell's ATP is produced in the mitochondria. Mutations within the genome of the mitochondria will alter the cell's ability to generate A TP. Preliminary work has shown that loss of the Gyp 7p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae blocks the ability of mitochondria to properly function. The Gyp 7 gene was isolated using a technique called two-hybrid analysis with a known mitochondrial protein called llvSp, which was used as 'bait'. We ...


A Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein In Chlamydomonas: Evidence For A Role In Cell Division And Flagellar Functions, Erin E. Dymek, Daniel Goduti, Tal Kramer, Elizabeth F. Smith May 2006

A Kinesin-Like Calmodulin-Binding Protein In Chlamydomonas: Evidence For A Role In Cell Division And Flagellar Functions, Erin E. Dymek, Daniel Goduti, Tal Kramer, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Kinesin-like calmodulin-binding protein, KCBP, is a novel member of the C-kinesin superfamily first discovered in flowering plants. This minus-end-directed kinesin exhibits Ca(2+)-calmodulin-sensitive motor activity in vitro and has been implicated in trichome morphogenesis and cell division. A homologue of KCBP is also found in the unicellular, biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrKCBP). Unlike plant cells, Chlamydomonas cells do not form trichomes and do not assemble a phragmoplast before cell division. To test whether CrKCBP is involved in additional microtubule-based processes not observed in plants, we generated antibodies against the putative calmodulin-binding domain and used these antibodies in biochemical ...


Exogenous Expression Of Human Na, K-Atpase Isoforms In Insect Cells, Christal Renee' Carpenter Apr 2006

Exogenous Expression Of Human Na, K-Atpase Isoforms In Insect Cells, Christal Renee' Carpenter

McCabe Thesis Collection

The Na-K-ATPase or Na pump is a membrane bound enzyme that maintains a high concentration of K+ and low concentration of Na+ in most animal cells. Three subunits constitute the Na pump, named alpha (ex), beta (~). and gamma (y). The ex subunit is responsible for the catalytic and transport of the enzyme, the ~ subunit is important for bringing the ex to the plasma membrane of the cell, and y is a regulatory subunit of the Na pump. In addition, there are several molecular variants or isoforms of the ex and ~ subunits. At present four different ex (ex 1, ex2, ex3 ...


Developing Proteomics Techniques For Glycosylated Proteins, Adrienne Udelhoven Apr 2006

Developing Proteomics Techniques For Glycosylated Proteins, Adrienne Udelhoven

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The ability to study proteins and their role in cell function is a central area of scientific study. To learn more about proteins and glycosylation, a form of posttranslational modification, a means of detecting specifically for glycosylation is necessary. The modification of an existing dye to meet this need was the goal ofthe project. N-benzyl-4-nitroaniline and methyl ((4-(4-nitrophenyl)amino)methyl)benzoate, two intermediate compounds in the synthesis, were created and purified.


Development Of Self-Assembled Monolayer-Based Cell Culture Platform Towards Fabrication Of A Three-Dimensional Bioreactor, Rajendra Kandoor Aithal Apr 2006

Development Of Self-Assembled Monolayer-Based Cell Culture Platform Towards Fabrication Of A Three-Dimensional Bioreactor, Rajendra Kandoor Aithal

Doctoral Dissertations

The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in regulating a number of cellular properties and functions like cell differentiation, cell synthesis and degradation, cell viability and proliferation, cell function, and cell aging. Surface modification of planar substrates with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is a promising technique to achieve stable ECMs.

In this work, substrates such as silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates were modified with SAMS containing amino (-NH2), methyl (-CH3), thiol (-SH) and carboxylic (-COOH) end groups and characterized using contact angle measurements, surface infrared (IR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Different cell ...


Olfactory Bulb Neurons Of Adult Zebrafish Morphology, Distribution, Cellular Interactions And Structural Stability Following Deafferentation, Cynthia L. Fuller Apr 2006

Olfactory Bulb Neurons Of Adult Zebrafish Morphology, Distribution, Cellular Interactions And Structural Stability Following Deafferentation, Cynthia L. Fuller

Dissertations

The zebrafish is becoming an increasingly popular model for studies involving olfactory function, yet there is still much to be learned about the anatomy and circuitry of different cell types in the olfactory bulb. This study focuses on identifying the morphology and distribution of output neurons and interneurons in the olfactory bulb of adult zebrafish, Danio rerio . Furthermore, this investigation examines the cellular interactions of the primary output neuron, the mitral cell, and addresses the issue of neuronal plasticity by considering the structural stability of this cell type following loss of afferent innervation.

Using retrograde tract tracing with various dextrans ...


Talking To Themselves: Autoregulation And Quorum Sensing In Fungi, Deborah A. Hogan Apr 2006

Talking To Themselves: Autoregulation And Quorum Sensing In Fungi, Deborah A. Hogan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Extracellular autoinducing compounds in the supernatants of microbial cultures were first recognized for their roles in the induction of genetic competence in gram-positive bacteria and in the regulation of light production in marine vibrios. In 1994, this form of population-level regulation in microbes was dubbed “quorum sensing” since it enabled bacterial cells to chemically measure the density of the surrounding population. Subsequently, many examples of cell density-dependent regulation by extracellular factors have been found in diverse microorganisms. The widespread incidence of diverse quorum-sensing systems strongly suggests that regulation in accordance with cell density is important for the success of microbes ...


The Study Of Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression, Function, And Regulation In The Renal Vasculature During Postnatal Renal Development, Brian Blake Ratliff Apr 2006

The Study Of Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression, Function, And Regulation In The Renal Vasculature During Postnatal Renal Development, Brian Blake Ratliff

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The newborn kidney is vulnerable to vasomotor acute renal failure (ARF) from adverse perinatal events or complications of prematurity. Nitric oxide (NO) vasodilation is vitally protective in this type of ARF, but its relationship with other vasoactive factors, such as angiotensin II (AII) has not been examined. In the immature kidney, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, specifically eNOS and nNOS, are developmentally regulated, but their specific role and regulation are unknown.

The enhanced vasodilatory role of NO in the immature kidney was hypothesized to be attributed to regulatory, expressional, and functional differences in eNOS and nNOS isoforms from the adult ...


Modulation Of Tgfβ-Induced Pai -1 Expression By Changes In Actin Polymerization In Human Mesangial Cells, Keyur Patel Apr 2006

Modulation Of Tgfβ-Induced Pai -1 Expression By Changes In Actin Polymerization In Human Mesangial Cells, Keyur Patel

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Chronic renal diseases show increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the glomerulus (glomerulosclerosis). Glomerulosclerosis is associated with activation of normally quiescent glomerular mesangial cells into myofibroblast-like cells. The overall objective of this study is to delineate cellular mechanism/s of myofibroblast-differentiation in disease states. In cultured mesangial cells certain characteristics of myofibroblast differentiation (α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and hypertrophy) are associated with an increase in polymeric actin microfilaments (stress fibers). It is likely that other genes are also regulated in an actin cytoskeleton-dependent manner during myofibroblast differentiation. In these studies, we therefore examined the hypothesis that changes in the ...


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Effects On Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Emily H. Hall Apr 2006

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Effects On Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Emily H. Hall

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is a highly regulated and complex pathway essential for embryonic development, immune-system function and maintenance of tissue homeostasis where cells induce their own cell death. Cells undergoing apoptosis exhibit a distinctive phenotype characterized by maintenance of membrane integrity, cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization at the plasma membrane, caspase protease activation, DNA fragmentation, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, and membrane blebbing. An important regulatory protein in the apoptotic pathway is p53. The p53 protein functions to modulate the cell cycle by arresting cells in the G1 and G 2 phases to repair DNA damage, and ...


Minireview: Recent Progress In Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Migration, Stuart A. Tobet, Gerald A. Schwarting Mar 2006

Minireview: Recent Progress In Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Migration, Stuart A. Tobet, Gerald A. Schwarting

Schwarting Lab Publications

Neurons that synthesize GnRH are critical brain regulators of the reproductive axis, yet they originate outside the brain and must migrate over long distances and varied environments to get to their appropriate positions during development. Many studies, past and present, are providing clues for the types of molecules encountered and movements expected along the migratory route. Recent studies provide real-time views of the behavior of GnRH neurons in the context of in vitro preparations that model those in vivo. Live images provide direct evidence of the changing behavior of GnRH neurons in their different environments, showing that GnRH neurons move ...


Detection And Quantification Of Protein Biomarkers From Fewer Than 10 Cells, Saju Nettikadan, Korinna Radke, James Johnson, Juntao Xu, Michael Lynch, Curtis Mosher, Eric Henderson Feb 2006

Detection And Quantification Of Protein Biomarkers From Fewer Than 10 Cells, Saju Nettikadan, Korinna Radke, James Johnson, Juntao Xu, Michael Lynch, Curtis Mosher, Eric Henderson

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The use of antibody microarrays continues to grow rapidly due to the recent advances in proteomics and automation and the opportunity this combination creates for high throughput multiplexed analysis of protein biomarkers. However, a primary limitation of this technology is the lack of PCR-like amplification methods for proteins. Therefore, to realize the full potential of array-based protein biomarker screening it is necessary to construct assays that can detect and quantify protein biomarkers with very high sensitivity, in the femtomolar range, and from limited sample quantities. We describe here the construction of ultramicroarrays, combining the advantages of microarraying including multiplexing capabilities ...


A Novel Steroid Receptor Elucidates Non-Classical Signal Pathways, Chloe Wormser Jan 2006

A Novel Steroid Receptor Elucidates Non-Classical Signal Pathways, Chloe Wormser

Eukaryon

Cell signaling is a vital mechanism that ensures homeostatic conditions within a biological system. Steroid hormones and their specific receptors play a crucial role in the signaling network. It now appears that a new class of receptor has been isolated, which may finally answer the question of whether a physiologically relevant membrane steroid receptor actually exists.


Pathways Of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Hiv As A Model System?, Chelsea Bueter, Michelle Mckinzey, Chloe Salzmann, Michael Zorniak Jan 2006

Pathways Of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Hiv As A Model System?, Chelsea Bueter, Michelle Mckinzey, Chloe Salzmann, Michael Zorniak

Eukaryon

Skeletal Muscle Atrophy (SMA) is a phenomenon found in many diseases and disorders. SMA is characterized by protein degradation induced by various pathways. Ten years ago, little was known about the mechanisms that lead from these disorders to protein degradation. Current research focuses on the mechanisms thought to induce SMA. It is now known that many of these pathways involve ubiquitin conjugate accumulation and increased proteasome activity resulting in rapid protein degradation and decreased synthesis. HIV associated proteins, such as Vpr, cause overexpression of atrogin-1 which promotes atrophy. Cachexia operates mainly through the IKK/NF¨ºB pathway and MuRF-1 Ub-ligase ...


Eye Development At The Houston "Fly Meeting", Amit Singh Jan 2006

Eye Development At The Houston "Fly Meeting", Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Meeting report: The 47th Annual Drosophila Research Conference or "Fly Meeting" took place at Houston, Texas, USA from March 29th- April 2nd, 2006, under the aegis of the Genetics Society of America. The Fly Meeting provides an excellent opportunity for fly researchers to present their work and to get a snapshot of recent developments and upcoming trends in their research field. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a very versatile model to study growth, patterning, neural development, evolution, systemetics and various other facets of biomedical science. The topics presented in the meeting covered a very broad spectrum of fly research ...