Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Theses/Dissertations

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1611

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish Jan 2021

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Hyaluronan At The Brain-Environment Interface, Donald M. Thevalingam Sep 2019

Hyaluronan At The Brain-Environment Interface, Donald M. Thevalingam

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hyaluronan (HA; Hyaluronic Acid), a primary scaffolding component of the brain extracellular matrix, serves as an integral structural component to the brain extracellular space (ECS). The fossorial African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber; NM-R), a mammal which lives in a low-oxygen environment and is capable of tolerating hypoxia and hypercapnia, has been shown to synthesize and sustain a unique high-molecular-mass variant of hyaluronan macromolecule (HMM-HA). This body of work highlights HA’s role in mediating the interplay between brain ECM composition, ECS structure, and cell viability.

Here we employ the NM-R as a unique animal model to observe the role of ...


Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren Sep 2019

Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Oleocanthal is a phenolic compound found in varying concentrations in extra virgin olive oil. Oleocanthal has been shown to be active physiologically, benefiting several diseased states by conferring anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective benefits. Recently, we and other groups have demonstrated its specific and selective toxicity toward cancer cells; however, the mechanism leading to cancer cell death is still disputed. The current study demonstrates that oleocanthal induced damage to cancer cells’ lysosomes leading to cellular toxicity in vitro. Non-cancer cells were significantly less affected. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization following oleocanthal treatment in various cell lines was assayed via three complementary methods. Additionally, we ...


The Role Of Tra1 In Cellular Stress Responses In Yeast: Implications For Human Diseases, Yuwei Jiang Aug 2019

The Role Of Tra1 In Cellular Stress Responses In Yeast: Implications For Human Diseases, Yuwei Jiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Regulation of gene expression under stress conditions involves chromatin remodeling through post-translational modification of histones. One of these modifications, acetylation of lysine residues, regulates transcription initiation and is linked to a variety of essential cellular processes including cell cycle control, DNA repair, and importantly, activation of cellular stress response pathways. Dysregulation of histone acetylation has been observed in many stress-related diseases such as inflammatory diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and fungal infections. Tra1 is the only essential component of both the highly conserved SAGA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes that are responsible for acetylation of histones and other proteins. Tra1 ...


Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali Aug 2019

Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recently, a novel class of muscular dystrophy has been discovered in a family due to autosomal recessive missense mutation in POGLUT1. Mutation of this enzyme leads to decreased O-glucosyltransferase activity and impaired Notch signaling, the pathways important for skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) quiescence and activation. We hypothesize that reduced POGLUT1 activity and impaired Notch signaling is causative of this limb girdle muscular dystrophy through dysfunction of muscle stem cells and myogenic progenitors.

To test this, we have used iPSCs for disease modeling and rescue experiments. Using a CRISPR based gene targeting method, we aimed to correct the point ...


Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts Aug 2019

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss overwhelms skeletal muscle’s ordinarily capable regenerative machinery, resulting in fibrosis and severe functional deficits which have defied clinical repair strategies. My work spans the design and preclinical evaluation of implants intended to drive the cell community of injured muscle toward a regenerative state, as well as the development of an understanding of the molecular responses of this cell community to biomaterial interventions. I demonstrate a new class of biomaterial by leveraging the productive capacity of sacrificial hollow fiber membrane cell culture; I show specifically that unique threads of whole extracellular matrix can be isolated by solvent ...


Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew Jul 2019

Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Celiac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that emerges due to the ingestion of gluten, a protein found in a variety of common grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. Approximately 1 in 100 individuals in the US suffer from CD, making it the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder (Ciclitira et. al., 2005). These proline-rich gluten peptides are resistant to proteolysis and accumulate in the duodenum of the small intestine. Once in the duodenum, these peptides illicit an autoimmune response resulting in villous atrophy. Current treatment for CD requires a rigorous adherence to a gluten-free diet. Nevertheless, gluten-containing grains are ...


Endogenous Force Transmission Between Epithelial Cells And A Role For Α-Catenin, Sandeep Dumbali Jul 2019

Endogenous Force Transmission Between Epithelial Cells And A Role For Α-Catenin, Sandeep Dumbali

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In epithelial tissues, epithelial cells adhere to each other as well as to the underlying extra-cellular matrix (ECM). E-cadherin-based intercellular junctions play an important role in tissue integrity. These junctions experience cell-generated mechanical forces via apparent adaptor proteins such as beta (β) catenin, alpha (α) catenin and vinculin. Abnormalities in these junctions may result in skin related diseases and cancers. Here, I devised methods to determine the endogenous intercellular force within cell pairs as well as in large epithelial islands. I further ascertained the factors that affect the level of inter-cellular tension.

Experiments with pairs of epithelial cells exogenously expressing ...


The Expression Of Connexin-43 By Cd11c+ Dendritic Cells Is Required To Maintain Cd4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Population In Peripheral Lymphoid Organs, Caroline Titus Miller Jul 2019

The Expression Of Connexin-43 By Cd11c+ Dendritic Cells Is Required To Maintain Cd4+ Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Population In Peripheral Lymphoid Organs, Caroline Titus Miller

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (TR) are an immunosuppressive subset of CD4+ T cells that maintain homeostasis of the immune system. They are sustained by the interaction between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules present on antigen presenting dendritic cells and the T Cell Receptor (TCR) expressed on TR cells that is specific for the MHC loaded with an antigenic peptide. Here, we show that in addition to MHC/TCR interaction, Connexin-43 (Cx43) expression by dendritic cells is required to maintain the TR cell population. CD11c+ dendritic cells represent a major subset of antigen presenting cells. Using flow cytometry ...


Characterization Of Pth Type-2 Receptor (Pth2rb) And Its Endogenous Ligand Pth2 In Zebrafish Development, Nicholas Seitz May 2019

Characterization Of Pth Type-2 Receptor (Pth2rb) And Its Endogenous Ligand Pth2 In Zebrafish Development, Nicholas Seitz

Theses and Dissertations

Members of the parathyroid hormone family of ligands, PTH (parathyroid hormone), PTH2, and PTHLH (parathyroid hormone-like hormone). These hormones interact with the class B GCPRs parathyroid hormone receptors PTH1R, PTH2R, and PTH3R to regulate a variety of biological processes. In mammals, PTH and PTHLH activate PTH1R and PTH3R to mediate serum calcium homeostasis, chondrogenesis, and bone maintenance. PTH2R activation by PTH2 has been studied primarily in regard to its neuroendocrine roles but is also found in the skin where it contributes to wound healing and keratinocyte differentiation. Still, little is known about the impacts of PTH2R signaling relative to PTH1R ...


Differential Roles Of Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Complexes 1 And 2 In Migration Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Smrruthi Vaidegi Venugopal May 2019

Differential Roles Of Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Complexes 1 And 2 In Migration Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Smrruthi Vaidegi Venugopal

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

In this study, we investigated differential activation and the role of two mTOR complexes in cell migration of prostate cancer cells. Specific knock-down of endogenous RAPTOR and RICTOR by siRNA resulted in decreased cell migration in LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells indicating that both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are required for cell migration. EGF treatment induced the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 as determined by complex-specific phosphorylation of mTOR protein. Specific knock-down or inhibition of Rac1 activity in PC3 cells blocked EGF-induced activation of mTORC2, but had no effect on mTORC1 activation. Furthermore, the over-expression of constitutively active Rac1 (Rac1Q61L ...


Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii May 2019

Extraction, Purification And Evaluation Of Prmt5-Inhibitory Phytochemical Compounds For The Treatment Of Prostate Adenocarcinoma, Oliver H. Richmond Iii

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The development and advancement of prostate cancer is supported by a plethora of genetic and proteomic abnormalities, including events of post-translational modifications. The protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) enzyme regulates epigenetic events of histone modifications and protein post-translational modifications within protein signaling pathways. PRMT5 functions by catalyzing the symmetric dimethylation of terminal arginine residues on target protein substrates. Under abnormal conditions of overexpression and upregulation, PRMT5 methyltransferase activity constitutively drives the growth and proliferation of dysregulated cells. Overexpression or upregulation of PRMT5 correlates with disease progression as observed among numerous cancer types, including breast, colorectal, leukemia, lung, melanoma and prostate ...


Role Of High Mobility Group A2 (Hmga2) In Prostate Cancer, Ohuod Hawsawi May 2019

Role Of High Mobility Group A2 (Hmga2) In Prostate Cancer, Ohuod Hawsawi

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

High mobility group A2 (HMGA2) is a non-histone protein highly expressed during the development but is low or absent in most adult tissues. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and metastasis. HMGA2 has been shown to promote EMT in separate studies. Interestingly, wild-type HMGA2 and truncated (lacking the 3’UTR) HMGA2 isoforms are overexpressed in many cancers. However, there are no studies on the role of each isoform in prostate cancer progression. We hypothesized that wild-type and truncated HMGA2 promotes prostate cancer progression by different mechanisms. We analyzed the expression of HMGA2 in the prostate ...


Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore May 2019

Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The largest U.S. cancer health disparity exists in prostate cancer, with African American men having the highest incidence and mortality rates. The present study evaluated the effects of ZIC2 and the underlying mechanisms in the E006 parental African-American cell line that produces tumors at accelerated growth rates because of the increase of ZIC2 genes in African-American males. We analyzed the experimental research that the overexpression of ZIC2 contributes to progression of prostate cancer. E006AA cells with overexpressed or suppressed ZIC2 were analyzed to determine phenotypic differences, PCR, cell proliferation and immunoblot assays. The expression levels of ZIC2 were analyzed ...


The Role Of Fos And Junb In The Reprogramming Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Kayla Bendinelli May 2019

The Role Of Fos And Junb In The Reprogramming Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Kayla Bendinelli

Student Honors Theses By Year

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is the most common form of leukemia in adults and while it has a high remission rate, relapse with therapy resistance is common, indicating the need for more targeted and effective therapies. It is possible to reprogram AML cells in culture to undergo cell cycle arrest, differentiation into “normal” macrophage-like cells, and apoptosis using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a diacyl glycerol (DAG) mimic. While this is effective in “curing” leukemia in culture, PMA is too toxic to serve as a therapy in AML patients. During these PMA-induced changes, approximately 1250 genes change in expression. The goal ...


Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara May 2019

Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of chemotherapy failure. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two well-studied drug transporters which are associated with MDR. These two transporters also act as a major functional unit of the blood brain barrier to protect the brain from xenobiotics and toxins. Lack of clinically approved P-gp and BCRP inhibitors renders chemotherapy treatments of many MDR cancers ineffective and obstructs drug uptake into the brain.

Using computational methods, we have identified new compounds that inhibit P-gp (Brewer et al., Mol. Pharmacol. 2014). Several of these ...


Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara May 2019

Reversal Of P-Glycoprotein And Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro Using In Silico Identified Novel Compounds, Amila Nanayakkara

Biological Sciences Theses and Dissertations

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause of chemotherapy failure. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two well-studied drug transporters which are associated with MDR. These two transporters also act as a major functional unit of the blood brain barrier to protect the brain from xenobiotics and toxins. Lack of clinically approved P-gp and BCRP inhibitors renders chemotherapy treatments of many MDR cancers ineffective and obstructs drug uptake into the brain.

Using computational methods, we have identified new compounds that inhibit P-gp (Brewer et al., Mol. Pharmacol. 2014). Several of these ...


Towards A Better Understanding Of Temporomandibular Disorder, Jessica R. Cox May 2019

Towards A Better Understanding Of Temporomandibular Disorder, Jessica R. Cox

MSU Graduate Theses

Results from the OPPERA study provided evidence that risk factors such as neck muscle tension, prolonged jaw opening, and female gender increase the likelihood of developing temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD), which are prevalent, debilitating orofacial pain conditions. Peripheral and central sensitization, which mediate a lowering of the stimulus required for pain signaling, are implicated in the underlying pathology of chronic TMJD. The goal of my study was to investigate cellular changes in the expression of proteins associated with the development of central sensitization. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant in the upper trapezius muscles to promote ...


Further Characterization Of The Skeletal Phenotype In A Hurler Syndrome Mouse Model And The Ethical Treatment Of Children In Medicine, Anna Marie Mcwoods May 2019

Further Characterization Of The Skeletal Phenotype In A Hurler Syndrome Mouse Model And The Ethical Treatment Of Children In Medicine, Anna Marie Mcwoods

MSU Graduate Theses

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Absence of IDUA results in the accumulation of dermatan and heparin sulfate and ultimately causes multi-system dysfunction. The most severe form of MPS I is Hurlers syndrome, a rapidly progressive disorder that, if left untreated, is fatal. Current treatment options for diagnosed individuals includes hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). These treatments are able to ameliorate the majority of symptoms with the exception of the bone phenotype. This investigation aimed to further characterize the bone ...


Kinetics Of Hiv-1 Uncoating In C20 Microglial Cells, Melanie Anne Taylor May 2019

Kinetics Of Hiv-1 Uncoating In C20 Microglial Cells, Melanie Anne Taylor

MSU Graduate Theses

Uncoating is a poorly understood yet required step of HIV-1 replication that is defined as the disassembly of the viral capsid structure. The goal of this project is to characterize uncoating in C20 microglial cells. These cells are a natural target of HIV-1 that are infected to establish latent viral reservoirs and HIV-associated neurological disorders. A stable C20 cell line that expresses TRIM-CypA was established to study the kinetics of uncoating with the CsA washout assay. The expression of TRIM-CypA was confirmed by western blot and the functionality of the protein was confirmed by a viral infectivity assay. Using this ...


Development Of Novel Tumor-Targeted Compounds For Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Micah John Luderer May 2019

Development Of Novel Tumor-Targeted Compounds For Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Micah John Luderer

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most common primary brain tumor among adults. Despite surgical resection and aggressive chemoradiotherapy regimens, the current 2- and 5-year survival rates are only 27% and 9.8%, respectively. The low survival stems from the poor response to conventional therapy and underscores the critical need to develop new therapeutic approaches for GBM treatment. The high recurrence rate observed in GBM is in part attributed to the hypoxic (poorly oxygenated) tumor microenvironment. Hypoxic tumor conditions have been shown to increase metastasis, promote angiogenesis, and confer resistance to chemotherapy and radiation.

Hypoxic tissues are inherently radiation resistant due ...


The Role Of Smc3 In Mouse Embryonic And Adult Hematopoiesis, Tianjiao Wang May 2019

The Role Of Smc3 In Mouse Embryonic And Adult Hematopoiesis, Tianjiao Wang

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by recurrent genetic mutations. Mutations in the cohesin complex are one of the 8 functional categories of mutations in AML. SMC3 encodes a subunit of the cohesin complex, which has important roles in chromosome segregation, genome instability, and gene expression. In the first chapter of the dissertation, we discuss the genetics of AML, normal functions of the cohesin complex, and the interplay between cohesin mutations and myeloid malignancies.

SMC3 is recurrently mutated in AML and other myeloid malignancies. In the second chapter of the dissertation, we compare the consequences of Smc3 ...


Muscle Degeneration In A Zebrafish Model Of Lysosomal Related Myopathy, Elizabeth Coffey May 2019

Muscle Degeneration In A Zebrafish Model Of Lysosomal Related Myopathy, Elizabeth Coffey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Muscle development and homeostasis are critical for normal muscle function. A key aspect of muscle physiology during development, growth and homeostasis is modulation of protein turnover. Protein turnover is the balance between synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. The rate of protein degradation is the major factor underlying overall muscle growth during development. Protein degradation mainly takes place in the lysosome. The efficiency of lysosomal protein degradation depends upon lysosomal pH, which is generated and maintained by proton pumps. Despite the importance of protein degradation in muscle growth during development, the impact of dysregulated lysosomal pH on muscle development, growth ...


Analyzing The Effect Of Apoptotic Mutations On The State Of The Nascent-Polypeptide Associated Complex In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Monica Gerber May 2019

Analyzing The Effect Of Apoptotic Mutations On The State Of The Nascent-Polypeptide Associated Complex In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Monica Gerber

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Cells experiencing misfolded protein stress can become debilitated and die, contributing to the onset of disease. The nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC) is a heterodimeric translational chaperone that protects against misfolded protein stress by mediating proper protein folding and localization during translation. Depletion of this complex results in misfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To determine the importance of the NAC to proteostasis, we have previously depleted the complex in C.elegans via RNA interference and observed numerous dose-dependent effects, including apoptosis of neuronal cells and changes in gene expression of hypodermal cells. While we have observed these cell-specific ...


Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Morphogenesis Of The Basal Epithelial Tissue Fold During Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Formation In Zebrafish, Mike Roger Visetsouk May 2019

Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Morphogenesis Of The Basal Epithelial Tissue Fold During Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Formation In Zebrafish, Mike Roger Visetsouk

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS MEDIATING MORPHOGENESIS OF THE BASAL EPITHELIAL TISSUE FOLD DURING MIDBRAIN-HINDBRAIN BOUNDARY FORMATION IN ZEBRAFISH

by

Mike Roger Visetsouk

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2019

Under the Supervision of Jennifer H. Gutzman, PhD

The formation of a fully functional organism requires the morphogenesis of cell and tissue structures during development. It is important to understand the mechanisms that mediate morphogenesis, since cell and tissue structures are crucial to physiological function. Here, we studied basal epithelial tissue folding as a model to determine the mechanisms of morphogenesis. We investigated a highly conserved basal tissue fold known as the midbrain-hindbrain boundary ...


Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu May 2019

Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Ipomoeassin F is a flagship congener of a resin glycoside family that inhibits growth of many tumor cell lines with only single-digital nanomolar IC50 values. However, biological and pharmacological mechanisms of ipomoeassin F have been undefined. To facilitate exploration of the biological and pharmacological properties, we performed sophisticate SAR (Structure–activity relationship) studies of ipomoeassin F to understand its pharmacophore and structure properties so that we can design favorable probes for further biological investigation. By applying appropriate deviates that possess fluorescent groups and similar bio-activity, the target protein was found to be localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Through biotin affinity ...


The Role Of Ppal In The Moss Physcomitrella Patens., Noela M. Botaka May 2019

The Role Of Ppal In The Moss Physcomitrella Patens., Noela M. Botaka

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification that involves the addition of lipid groups to the carboxy end of a target protein and is necessary for protein activity. Prenylation has important roles in the cell: targeting and localizing proteins to subcellular compartments and promoting protein-protein interactions. As a highly conserved process in eukaryotes, prenylation is especially important for plant development. In contrast to other eukaryotes, in which loss of prenylation components can be lethal, in the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens, most are viable. Prior studies have shown that prenylation is involved in ABA hormone responses, polar ...


Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy May 2019

Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The eukaryotic cytosolic proteome is vulnerable to changes in proteostatic and redox balance caused by temperature, pH, oxidants and xenobiotics. Cysteine-containing proteins are especially at risk as the thiol side chain is subject to oxidation, adduction and chelation by thiol-reactive compounds. All of these thiol-modifiers have been demonstrated to induce the heat shock response and recruit protein chaperones to sites of presumed protein aggregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, endogenous targets of thiol stress toxicity responsible for these outcomes are largely unknown. Furthermore, I hypothesize proteins identified as redox-active are prone to misfolding and aggregation by thiol-specific stress ...


Platiscity Of C. Elegans Germline Stem Cells Under Nutritional And Metabolic Stress, Kenneth Trimmer May 2019

Platiscity Of C. Elegans Germline Stem Cells Under Nutritional And Metabolic Stress, Kenneth Trimmer

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Stem cells are integral for tissue maintenance and fertility. Therefore, understanding how stem cells are regulated under stress is imperative. When confronted with acute starvation, stem cells must conserve energy and metabolites to cope with the lack of an external source. Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells (GSCs) are an excellent model for studying stem cell properties and regulation as they can divide throughout the life of the organism. While GSCs are an adult stem cell population, their cell cycle structure more closely mimics mouse and human embryonic stem cells with short G1 and long S phases. In this thesis, I ...


A Novel Kinesin Adapter Directly Mediates Dendritic Mrna Localization During Synapse Development, Hao Wu May 2019

A Novel Kinesin Adapter Directly Mediates Dendritic Mrna Localization During Synapse Development, Hao Wu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Cytoskeleton based active transport with motor proteins is essential for mRNA localization and local protein translation in animal cells, yet how mRNA granules interact with motor proteins remains poorly understood. Using an unbiased screen for interaction between mRNA binding proteins (RBP) and motor proteins, we identified protein interacting with APP tail 1 (PAT1) as a potential direct adapter between the β-actin mRNA Zipcode-binding protein 1 (ZBP1) and Kinesin-1 motor complex.

Mouse PAT1 is similar to the Kinesin Light Chain (KLC) in amino acid sequence and binds directly to KLC. High-resolution images from structured illumination microscopy (SIM) indicates that synaptic stimulation ...