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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Insulin Signal Transduction Mediates Ethanol-Induced Feeding Dysfunction In A Fly Model Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Manae Matsubara Jun 2019

Insulin Signal Transduction Mediates Ethanol-Induced Feeding Dysfunction In A Fly Model Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Manae Matsubara

McNair Research Journal SJSU

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the leading cause of congenital intellectual disabilities in the Western World, with a worldwide prevalence of 2-11% of all births. FASD is preventable but recent epidemiological studies suggest that public awareness campaigns have reached the limits of their effectiveness. Therefore, research is shifting from prevention to treatment and mitigation of symptoms. No biological treatments for FASD exist, due in part to the fact the cellular mechanisms of alcohol toxicity are not well-understood. Developmental alcohol exposure (DAE) causes a variety of deleterious effects in both vertebrates and invertebrates, including increased mortality, slow growth, learning and ...


Integrated Regulation Of Class Ii Human Endogenous Retroviruses In A Breast Cancer Cell Line, Yingguang Liu, Tam D. Nguyen Jul 2018

Integrated Regulation Of Class Ii Human Endogenous Retroviruses In A Breast Cancer Cell Line, Yingguang Liu, Tam D. Nguyen

The Proceedings of the International Conference on Creationism

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are still regarded as foreign invaders by most biologists. Because of structural and positional homology of ERVs in human and ape genomes, they have been considered molecular evidences of common ancestry. Using a breast cancer cell line, we analyzed the regulatory features of a group of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV-K), and found that they contain multiple sequence motifs subjecting them to regulation by sex hormones, a stem cell-specific transcription factor (OCT4), and DNA methylation. Mutation of the OCT4 motif abrogates their response to sex hormones, while methylation of a progesterone-response element enhances receptor-binding. We also found that ...


Effects Of Adenovirus Infection On The Localization Of Cellular Protein Pat1b, Emilee Friedman, Kasey A. Karen Dec 2017

Effects Of Adenovirus Infection On The Localization Of Cellular Protein Pat1b, Emilee Friedman, Kasey A. Karen

Georgia Journal of Science

Adenoviruses are a diverse family of nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses with a variety of vertebrate hosts including humans. Over 50 serotypes of human adenovirus have been identified, and cause a number of illnesses, including conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and respiratory infections. The life cycle of adenovirus is divided into immediate early, early, and late phases, with immediate early proteins controlling transcription and the cell cycle, early proteins being largely regulatory, and late proteins being structural. Early proteins such as E4 11k have been demonstrated to relocalize key cellular proteins, including proteins found within mRNA processing bodies (p-bodies). It is hypothesized that E4 ...


Stochastic Analysis Of A Mammalian Circadian Clock Model: Small Protein Number Effects, David W. Morgens, Blerta Shtylla Nov 2017

Stochastic Analysis Of A Mammalian Circadian Clock Model: Small Protein Number Effects, David W. Morgens, Blerta Shtylla

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

The circadian clock, responsible for coordinating organism function with daily and seasonal changes in the day-night cycle, is controlled by a complex protein network that constitutes a robust biochemical oscillator. Deterministic ordinary differential equation models have been used extensively to model the behavior of these central clocks. However, due to the small number of proteins involved in the circadian oscillations, mathematical models that track stochastic variations in the numbers of clock proteins may reveal more complex and biologically relevant behaviors. In this paper, we compare the response of a robust yet detailed deterministic model for the mammalian circadian clock with ...


Examining The Electrical Excitation, Calcium Signaling, And Mechanical Contraction Cycle In A Heart Cell, Kristen Deetz, Nygel Foster, Darius Leftwich, Chad Meyer, Shalin Patel, Carlos Barajas, Matthias K. Gobbert, Zana Coulibaly Nov 2017

Examining The Electrical Excitation, Calcium Signaling, And Mechanical Contraction Cycle In A Heart Cell, Kristen Deetz, Nygel Foster, Darius Leftwich, Chad Meyer, Shalin Patel, Carlos Barajas, Matthias K. Gobbert, Zana Coulibaly

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

As the leading cause of death in the United States, heart disease has become a principal concern in modern society. Cardiac arrhythmias can be caused by a dysregulation of calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes. Calcium dysregulation, however, is not yet fully understood and is not easily predicted; this provides motivation for the subsequent research. Excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is the process through which cardiomyocytes undergo contraction from an action potential. Calcium induced calcium release (CICR) is the mechanism through which electrical excitation is coupled with mechanical contraction through calcium signaling. The study of the interplay between electrical excitation, calcium signaling, and mechanical ...


About Logan Weihe And Beloved Microcosm, Logan M. Weihe Nov 2017

About Logan Weihe And Beloved Microcosm, Logan M. Weihe

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

No abstract provided.


Pam-1 Localizations In The Regulation Of Autophagy During Caenorhabditis Elegans Oogenesis, Ashley N. Munie Nov 2017

Pam-1 Localizations In The Regulation Of Autophagy During Caenorhabditis Elegans Oogenesis, Ashley N. Munie

Steeplechase: An ORCA Student Journal

Autophagy, the cell's recycling system, is a highly-conserved survival mechanism of the cell. Autophagy has been implicated in the mediation of the removal of cytotoxic aggregates, such as those linked to neurodegenerative disorders like Huntington and Alzheimer disease. Studies in several model organisms have identified numerous genes involved in mediating autophagy, including the Puromycin sensitive aminopeptidase (Psa). The Caenorhabditis elegans orthologue of Psa, pam-1, also governs fertility. Along with apoptosis, a form of regulated cell death, autophagy has been found to be required for efficient C. elegans oogenesis. When autophagy is suppressed through RNAi in worms harboring a pam-1 ...


Investigation Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract And Its Cancer-Selective Antiproliferative Properties, Reagen H. Welch, Ashlee H. Tietje Nov 2017

Investigation Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract And Its Cancer-Selective Antiproliferative Properties, Reagen H. Welch, Ashlee H. Tietje

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Moringa oleifera is a tree native to a number of Asian, African, and Central American countries and has been used in traditional medicine for an assortment of medicinal uses for centuries. Due to bioactive compounds within Moringa leaves, it is believed that Moringa leaf extract may possess cancer-selective antiproliferative properties. Previous research has been conducted in regards to this topic, but poor experimental design due to lack of necessary controls limits the legitimacy of anticancer claims. While previous research has shown that Moringa leaf extract has the potential to kill cancer cells, the research fails to demonstrate the effects of ...


Characterization Of Different Molecular Markers For Identification Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi In Pakistani Population, Faizan Muttiullah, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-I- Abbas, Sabiha Shamim Sep 2017

Characterization Of Different Molecular Markers For Identification Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhi In Pakistani Population, Faizan Muttiullah, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-I- Abbas, Sabiha Shamim

Journal of Bioresource Management

Typhoid is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi that is usually diagnosed by using serologic and immuno-chromatographic techniques in developing counties including Pakistan, which is thought to be an unreliable diagnostic method. For accurate diagnosis we used molecular techniques to amplify 204 bp StyR-36 and 498 bp flagellin gene for the identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. This study was done on 58 individuals diagnosed positive of typhoid via serologic tests and 50 healthy individuals as a control group. Success rate of amplification for flagellin gene was 77.58% while that for StyR-36 gene was 68.97% showing that flagellin ...


Spatiotemporal Regulation Of Atg1 Kinase Activation In Selective Autophagy, Ning Sun Jun 2017

Spatiotemporal Regulation Of Atg1 Kinase Activation In Selective Autophagy, Ning Sun

D.U.Quark

Autophagy is a potent intracellular degradation system and thus its activation requires exquisite regulation to maintain cellular homeostasis. Atg1, a serine-threonine protein kinase, is essential in both selective and non-selective autophagy. New findings suggest that in selective autophagy, Atg1 is activated at the vacuole by convergence of two independent recruitment pathways to prevent aberrant autophagy induction.


Hsp70 Conformational Plasticity Allows For Expansive Chaperone Role, Megan Bean Jun 2017

Hsp70 Conformational Plasticity Allows For Expansive Chaperone Role, Megan Bean

D.U.Quark

The Hsp70 system is an essential component of chaperone activity in many organisms. Hsp70 functions include: protein folding, aggregation prevention, trafficking, and enzyme regulation. Hsp70’s ability to bind such a vast array of substrates suggests wide range of conformational plasticity. By utilizing a single mode optical tweezers technique, Mashaghi1 et al., confirms previous theories Hsp70 binds and stabilizes extended peptide segments but also partially folded and near-native protein.


Autophagy Inhibition In Pain: Role Of A Microrna, Andrea Stevens Jun 2017

Autophagy Inhibition In Pain: Role Of A Microrna, Andrea Stevens

D.U.Quark

Neuropathic pain caused by peripheral nerve injury (PNI) leads to the activation and infiltration of microglial cells and to a neuroinflammatory-induced pain state. miRNAs and autophagy are two main factors and/or mechanisms which have the ability to alter the pain state. In this study, miR-195 was shown to be markedly increased after PNI and associated with the pain phenotype. In addition, inhibition of autophagy in vivo led to p62 accumulation, decreased production of LC3, and inhibition of ATG14.


Plasmodium Falciparum 26s Proteasome Network: A Mystery Solved, Christina Grogan Jun 2017

Plasmodium Falciparum 26s Proteasome Network: A Mystery Solved, Christina Grogan

D.U.Quark

One ofthe most devastating diseases thatthreatens the world population is malaria. The 26S proteasome complex of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which was previously unknown, was characterized by the authors through an affinity purification protocol that isolated functional 26S proteasome complexes. This allowed for the identification of subunit composition and PfUSP14, a proteasomeassociated deubiquitinase. This new understanding presents a potential target to disrupt protein regulation in thequest for effective antimalarial strategies.


The General Amino Acid Permease Gap1 Is Regulated Differentially By Torc1 Activation And Inhibition, Ray Bowman Jun 2017

The General Amino Acid Permease Gap1 Is Regulated Differentially By Torc1 Activation And Inhibition, Ray Bowman

D.U.Quark

How does cell signaling in response to extracellular stressors impact the trafficking of membrane proteins? In particular, the TORC1 complex plays a key role in this process and while some details of this system have reported, in a recent Journal of Biological Chemistry publication, Andre’s group has revealed new details of this pathway focusing on the general amino acid permease Gap1 as a model cargo. Andre et al. describe a novel and distinct pathway wherein ubiquitylation and downregulation of Gap1 is regulated not only by amino acid-induced activation of TORC1, but also by numerous sources of TORC1 inhibition and ...


The Generation, Exploitation And Future Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Jacob Steenwyk Oct 2015

The Generation, Exploitation And Future Of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Jacob Steenwyk

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

The foundational advancements of John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka have improved understanding of dedifferen- tiation of cells to a pluripotent state. The seminal discovery established a novel system to study disease pathogenesis, drug screening, and toxicity, as well as sprouted the new field of regenerative medicine. In this article, the method- ology to obtain dedifferentiated cells, known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, subsequent validation, and application of which are reviewed. The experiments investigated here aim to demonstrate the capacity of iPS cells to replace the ethically-gray human embryonic cells by developing human livers and viable, healthy animals. It is ...


Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Neurodegeneration Is Independent Of The Ryanodine Receptor In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Lyndsay E.A. Young, Daniel C. Williams Oct 2015

Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Neurodegeneration Is Independent Of The Ryanodine Receptor In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Lyndsay E.A. Young, Daniel C. Williams

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Despite the significant impacts on human health caused by neurodegeneration, our understanding of the degeneration process is incomplete. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is emerging as a genetic model organism well suited for identification of conserved cellular mechanisms and molecular pathways of neurodegeneration. Studies in the worm have identified factors that contribute to neurodegeneration, including excitotoxicity and stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Disruption of the gene unc-68, which encodes the ryanodine receptor, abolishes excitotoxic cell death, indicating a role for calcium (Ca2+) signaling in neurodegeneration. We tested the requirement for unc-68 in ROS-mediated neurodegeneration using the genetically encoded ...


Characterization Of The Role That Alternative Ribonucleotide Reductases Play In Restoring Replication In The Presence Of Hydroxyurea In Escherichia Coli, Michael Sadek Jun 2015

Characterization Of The Role That Alternative Ribonucleotide Reductases Play In Restoring Replication In The Presence Of Hydroxyurea In Escherichia Coli, Michael Sadek

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

DNA replication is essential for cells to grow and divide. Ribonucleotide reductase is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the formation of deoxyribonucleotides that are used in DNA synthesis during replication. Hydroxyurea is a chemotherapeutic agent that is thought to work by specifically inhibiting the ribonuceotide reductase to prevent replication. However, recent studies in E. coli have shown that following an initial period of inhibition, DNA synthesis then recovers in the presence of hydroxyurea, suggesting that the mode of death and cellular response to hydroxyurea is more complex than originally proposed. The E.coli genome encodes three ribonucleotide reductases ...


Terahertz Imaging Platform To Characterize The Growth Of In-Vitro Breast Tumors, Scarlett-Marie Acklin Jan 2015

Terahertz Imaging Platform To Characterize The Growth Of In-Vitro Breast Tumors, Scarlett-Marie Acklin

Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal

This study aimed at evaluating the ideal plating method and density for imaging with the terahertz (THz) spectrometer. In this study, different methods were used to grow in-vitro tumors using the 4T1 cell line. Here, attempts to grow breast tumors in-vitro were conducted. Results were produced in two environments, flat-bottomed plates and round-bottomed multiwell plates. The second method allowed for faster clumping and increased cell aggregation, producing tumors up to 7mm. Terahertz spectroscopy produced images that correlated well to photomicrographs taken of the in-vitro tumors. This methodology shows great promise for providing a reliable, parameter-controlled source of in-vitro breast tumors ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford Jun 2014

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


Metabolic Rescue Of “Glucose Addicted” Cancer Cells In Vitro, Paolo Vignali Mar 2013

Metabolic Rescue Of “Glucose Addicted” Cancer Cells In Vitro, Paolo Vignali

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Transformations in the glycolytic metabolism of neoplasms modulate their robust cellular division. This characteristic leads to an “addiction” to glucose for continued proliferation and viability. This study investigated whether glucose metabolites could rescue cellular viability in glucose-starvation conditions, a model of the inter-tumoral nutrient-deficient environment. Findings illustrated potential cellular viability rescue with pyruvate addition in glucose-deprived conditions, yet the same potential was not observed with lactic acid, a metabolite that exists at characteristically high concentrations within the intertumoral microenvironment. These results could implicate a predominance of certain metabolic pathways in nutrient-starved cells. Molecular transport capacities across plasma membranes are tied ...


Diverse Mechanisms Of Trinucleotide Repeat Disorders: An Exploration Of Fragile X Syndrome And Huntington’S Disease, Cara Strobel Jan 2013

Diverse Mechanisms Of Trinucleotide Repeat Disorders: An Exploration Of Fragile X Syndrome And Huntington’S Disease, Cara Strobel

Undergraduate Review

Trinucleotide repeat disorders are an umbrella group of genetic diseases that have been well described clinically for a long time; however, the scientific community is only beginning to understand their molecular basis. They are classified in two basic groups depending on the location of the relevant triplet repeats in a coding or a non-coding region of the genome. Repeat expansion past a disease-specific threshold results in molecular and cellular abnormalities that manifest themselves as disease symptoms. Repeat expansion is postulated to occur via slippage during DNA replication and/or transcription-mediated DNA repair. Trinucleotide repeat disorders are characterized by genetic anticipation ...


Investigating A Conformational Change In The Enzyme Neurolysin, Fei Xiong Nov 2011

Investigating A Conformational Change In The Enzyme Neurolysin, Fei Xiong

Kaleidoscope

No abstract provided.


Investigating Calmodulin-Long Qt Syndrome Restorative Interactions Through Combinatorial Approaches, Michael Bricken Nov 2011

Investigating Calmodulin-Long Qt Syndrome Restorative Interactions Through Combinatorial Approaches, Michael Bricken

Kaleidoscope

No abstract provided.


Evolution Of Gene Structure In Multicellular Eukaryotes, Maria Hester Jan 2009

Evolution Of Gene Structure In Multicellular Eukaryotes, Maria Hester

Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal

We investigated the patterns of intron conservation in eukaryotes for five different genes. The genes examined were ribosomal proteins L8, S14 and S17, along with elongation factor 2B and triose phosphate isomerase. Intron conservation for S14, S17, and triose phosphate isomerase was determined for 32 species representing the major branches of multicellular eukaryotes. For 25 conserved introns 16 were phase 0, five were phase 1, and four were phase 2. Triose phosphate isomerase had five of nine conserved introns shared between plants and animals, where S14 had one of nine and S17 had one of seven. However, there were two ...


Water. New Waters And New Life, Juan Enriquez Jul 2007

Water. New Waters And New Life, Juan Enriquez

New England Journal of Public Policy

An excerpt from an article about life sciences taken from the proceedings of the Education for Public Inquiry and International Citizenship (EPIIC) Symposium held at Tufts University in Massachusetts in February 2005 is presented.


Calcium-Stimulated Regulatory Volume Decrease In Salmo Salar And Alligator Mississipiensis Erythrocytes, Chloe Wormser Feb 2007

Calcium-Stimulated Regulatory Volume Decrease In Salmo Salar And Alligator Mississipiensis Erythrocytes, Chloe Wormser

Eukaryon

The mechanisms by which cells compensate for volume fluctuations are not clearly understood and vary among species. Research efforts in our lab have focused on elucidating the pathways involved in regulatory volume decrease (RVD), the process activated in response to cell swelling that allows for volume recovery. Previously, fluorescence microscopy studies performed by Light et al. (2005) revealed that in salmon red blood cells, cell swelling elicits a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (visualized using fluorescence microscopy and the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4-AM). This was most likely due Ca2+ influx from the extracellular environment, because it was not observed in cells ...


The Effects Of Nematode Infection And Mi-Mediated Resistance In Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) On Plant Fitness, Brandon P. Corbett Jan 2007

The Effects Of Nematode Infection And Mi-Mediated Resistance In Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) On Plant Fitness, Brandon P. Corbett

Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal

The Mi gene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a single, dominant resistance (R) gene that confers resistance against several species of insects and root-knot nematodes. Tis study examined the impact of root-knot nematode infestation and the plant growth and reproduction of near-isogenic tomato cultivars with and without Mi. The objectives of this experiment were to examine the potential fitness costs and benefits of the R gene-mediated herbivore resistance, and to explore the role of nematodes as a selection pressure favoring plants that carry Mi. Mi-mediated resistance dramatically reduced nematode reproduction on tomato. In the presence of nematodes, plants that carried ...


Design Of A Bioreactor To Study The Role Of Red Blood Cells In The Transport Of Nitric Oxide In The Microcirculation, Nupura Bhise, Mahendra Kavdia Jan 2007

Design Of A Bioreactor To Study The Role Of Red Blood Cells In The Transport Of Nitric Oxide In The Microcirculation, Nupura Bhise, Mahendra Kavdia

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in physiological functions like vasodilation, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The endothelium-derived NO diffuses into the vascular lumen where it interacts with flowing blood as well as the smooth muscles where it modulates vascular tone. However, uncertainty exists on how NO escapes the rapid scavenging by hemoglobin (Hb) and reaches smooth muscles. Several proposed hypotheses include 1) a reduced reaction rate of NO with Hb contained inside red blood cells (RBCs) and 2) NO preservation in the bound form of s-nitrosohemoglobin or nitrite. The mechanism and magnitude of reduction of NO reaction ...


A Novel Steroid Receptor Elucidates Non-Classical Signal Pathways, Chloe Wormser Jan 2006

A Novel Steroid Receptor Elucidates Non-Classical Signal Pathways, Chloe Wormser

Eukaryon

Cell signaling is a vital mechanism that ensures homeostatic conditions within a biological system. Steroid hormones and their specific receptors play a crucial role in the signaling network. It now appears that a new class of receptor has been isolated, which may finally answer the question of whether a physiologically relevant membrane steroid receptor actually exists.


Pathways Of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Hiv As A Model System?, Chelsea Bueter, Michelle Mckinzey, Chloe Salzmann, Michael Zorniak Jan 2006

Pathways Of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Hiv As A Model System?, Chelsea Bueter, Michelle Mckinzey, Chloe Salzmann, Michael Zorniak

Eukaryon

Skeletal Muscle Atrophy (SMA) is a phenomenon found in many diseases and disorders. SMA is characterized by protein degradation induced by various pathways. Ten years ago, little was known about the mechanisms that lead from these disorders to protein degradation. Current research focuses on the mechanisms thought to induce SMA. It is now known that many of these pathways involve ubiquitin conjugate accumulation and increased proteasome activity resulting in rapid protein degradation and decreased synthesis. HIV associated proteins, such as Vpr, cause overexpression of atrogin-1 which promotes atrophy. Cachexia operates mainly through the IKK/NF¨ºB pathway and MuRF-1 Ub-ligase ...