Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Articles 1 - 30 of 59

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Adaptor Protein 2 (Ap-2) Complex Is Essential For Functional Axogenesis In Hippocampal Neurons, Jae Won Kyung, In Ha Cho, Sukmook Lee, Woo Keun Song, Timothy A. Ryan, Michael B. Hoppa, Sung Hyun Kim Jan 2017

Adaptor Protein 2 (Ap-2) Complex Is Essential For Functional Axogenesis In Hippocampal Neurons, Jae Won Kyung, In Ha Cho, Sukmook Lee, Woo Keun Song, Timothy A. Ryan, Michael B. Hoppa, Sung Hyun Kim

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The complexity and diversity of a neural network requires regulated elongation and branching of axons, as well as the formation of synapses between neurons. In the present study we explore the role of AP-2, a key endocytic adaptor protein complex, in the development of rat hippocampal neurons. We found that the loss of AP-2 during the early stage of development resulted in impaired axon extension and failed maturation of the axon initial segment (AIS). Normally the AIS performs two tasks in

concert, stabilizing neural polarity and generating action potentials. In AP-2 silenced axons polarity is established, however there is a ...


A Cascade Of Multiple Proteins And Lipids Catalyzes Membrane Fusion, William Wickner, Josep Rizo Jan 2017

A Cascade Of Multiple Proteins And Lipids Catalyzes Membrane Fusion, William Wickner, Josep Rizo

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Recent studies suggest revisions to the SNARE paradigm of membrane fusion. Membrane tethers and/or SNAREs recruit proteins of the Sec 1/Munc18 family to catalyze SNARE assembly into trans-complexes. SNARE-domain zippering draws the bilayers into immediate apposition and provides a platform to position fusion triggers such as Sec 17/α-SNAP and/or synaptotagmin, which insert their apolar "wedge" domains into the bilayers, initiating the lipid rearrangements of fusion.


Biophysical And Functional Characterization Of Rhesus Macaque Igg Subclasses, Austin W. Boesch, Nana Yaw Osei-Owusu, Andrew R. Crowley, Thach H. Chu, Ying Chan, Joshua Weiner, Pranay Bharadwaj, Rufus Hards, Mark Adamo, Scott Gerber, Sarah Cocklin, Joern Schmitz, Adam Miles, Joshua Eckman, Aaron J. Belli, Keith Reimann, Margaret E. Ackerman Dec 2016

Biophysical And Functional Characterization Of Rhesus Macaque Igg Subclasses, Austin W. Boesch, Nana Yaw Osei-Owusu, Andrew R. Crowley, Thach H. Chu, Ying Chan, Joshua Weiner, Pranay Bharadwaj, Rufus Hards, Mark Adamo, Scott Gerber, Sarah Cocklin, Joern Schmitz, Adam Miles, Joshua Eckman, Aaron J. Belli, Keith Reimann, Margaret E. Ackerman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Antibodies raised in Indian rhesus macaques [Macaca mulatta (MM)] in many preclinical vaccine studies are often evaluated in vitro for titer, antigen-recognition breadth, neu- tralization potency, and/or effector function, and in vivo for potential associations with protection. However, despite reliance on this key animal model in translation of promising candidate vaccines for evaluation in first in man studies, little is known about the proper- ties of MM immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and how they may compare to human IgG subclasses. Here, we evaluate the binding of MM IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 to human Fc gamma receptors (FcγR) and ...


Oxidative Stress In Oocytes During Midprophase Induces Premature Loss Of Cohesion And Chromosome Segregation Errors, Adrienne T. Perkins, Thomas M. Das, Lauren C. Panzera, Sharon E. Bickel Oct 2016

Oxidative Stress In Oocytes During Midprophase Induces Premature Loss Of Cohesion And Chromosome Segregation Errors, Adrienne T. Perkins, Thomas M. Das, Lauren C. Panzera, Sharon E. Bickel

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In humans, errors in meiotic chromosome segregation that produce aneuploid gametes increase dramatically as women age, a phenomenon termed the "maternal age effect." During meiosis, cohesion between sister chromatids keeps recombinant homologs physically attached and premature loss of cohesion can lead to missegregation of homologs during meiosis I. A growing body of evidence suggests that meiotic cohesion deteriorates as oocytes age and contributes to the maternal age effect. One hallmark of aging cells is an increase in oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, increased oxidative damage in older oocytes may be one of the factors that leads ...


A Mitochondria-Anchored Isoform Of The Actin-Nucleating Spire Protein Regulates Mitochondrial Division, Uri Manor, Sadie Bartholomew, Gonen Golani, Eric Christenson, Michael Kozlov, Henry Higgs, James Spudich, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz Aug 2015

A Mitochondria-Anchored Isoform Of The Actin-Nucleating Spire Protein Regulates Mitochondrial Division, Uri Manor, Sadie Bartholomew, Gonen Golani, Eric Christenson, Michael Kozlov, Henry Higgs, James Spudich, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction ...


Polyq-Dependent Rna–Protein Assemblies Control Symmetry Breaking, Changhwan Lee, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter Jul 2015

Polyq-Dependent Rna–Protein Assemblies Control Symmetry Breaking, Changhwan Lee, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Dendritic growth in fungi and neurons requires that multiple axes of polarity are established and maintained within the same cytoplasm. We have discovered that transcripts encoding key polarity factors including a formin, Bni1, and a polarisome scaffold, Spa2, are nonrandomly clustered in the cytosol to initiate and maintain sites of polarized growth in the fungus Ashbya gossypii. This asymmetric distribution requires the mRNAs to interact with a polyQ-containing protein, Whi3, and a Pumilio protein with a low-complexity sequence, Puf2. Cells lacking Whi3 or Puf2 had severe defects in establishing new sites of polarity and failed to localize Bni1 protein. Interaction ...


Targeting Neddylation Induces Dna Damage And Checkpoint Activation And Sensitizes Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells To Alkylating Agents, C Paiva, J C. Godbersen, A Berger, J R. Brown, A V. Danilov Jul 2015

Targeting Neddylation Induces Dna Damage And Checkpoint Activation And Sensitizes Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells To Alkylating Agents, C Paiva, J C. Godbersen, A Berger, J R. Brown, A V. Danilov

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Microenvironment-mediated upregulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in CLL cells resident in the lymph node and bone marrow promotes apoptosis evasion and clonal expansion. We recently reported that MLN4924 (pevonedistat), an investigational agent that inhibits the NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE), abrogates stromal-mediated NF-κB pathway activity and CLL cell survival. However, the NAE pathway also assists degradation of multiple other substrates. MLN4924 has been shown to induce DNA damage and cell cycle arrest, but the importance of this mechanism in primary neoplastic B cells has not been studied. Here we mimicked the lymph node microenvironment using CD40 ...


Analysis Of The Candida Albicans Phosphoproteome, S. D. Willger, Z. Liu, R. A. Olarte, M. E. Adamo, J E. Stajich, L C. Myers, A N. Kettenbach, D A. Hogan Mar 2015

Analysis Of The Candida Albicans Phosphoproteome, S. D. Willger, Z. Liu, R. A. Olarte, M. E. Adamo, J E. Stajich, L C. Myers, A N. Kettenbach, D A. Hogan

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. C. albicans regulation has been studied in many contexts, including morphological transitions, mating competence, biofilm forma- tion, stress resistance, and cell wall synthesis. Analysis of kinase- and phosphatase-deficient mutants has made it clear that pro- tein phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of these pathways. In this study, to further our understanding of phosphorylation in C. albicans regulation, we performed a deep analysis of the phosphoproteome in C. albicans. We identified 19,590 unique peptides that corresponded to 15,906 unique phosphosites on 2 ...


Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari Oct 2013

Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

One of the objectives in the development of effective cancer therapy is induction of tumor-selective cell death. Toward this end, we have identified a small peptide that, when introduced into cells via a TAT cell-delivery system, shows a remarkably potent cytoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, whereas sparing normal cells and tissues. This fusion peptide was named killer FLIP as its sequence was derived from the C-terminal domain of c-FLIP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Using structure activity analysis, we determined the minimal bioactive core of killerFLIP, namely killerFLIP-E. Structural analysis of cells using ...


P53'S Choice Of Myocardial Death Or Survival: Oxygen Protects Infarct Myocardium By Recruiting P53 On Nos3 Promoter Through Regulation Of P53-Lys118 Acetylation, Rajan Gogna, Esha Madan, Mahmood Khan, Uttam Pati, Periannan Kuppusamy Aug 2013

P53'S Choice Of Myocardial Death Or Survival: Oxygen Protects Infarct Myocardium By Recruiting P53 On Nos3 Promoter Through Regulation Of P53-Lys118 Acetylation, Rajan Gogna, Esha Madan, Mahmood Khan, Uttam Pati, Periannan Kuppusamy

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Myocardial infarction, an irreversible cardiac tissue damage, involves progressive loss of cardiomyocytes due to p53-mediated apoptosis. Oxygenation is known to promote cardiac survival through activation of NOS3 gene. We hypothesized a dual role for p53, which, depending on oxygenation, can elicit apoptotic death signals or NOS3-mediated survival signals in the infarct heart. p53 exhibited a differential DNA-binding, namely, BAX-p53RE in the infarct heart or NOS3-p53RE in the oxygenated heart, which was regulated by oxygen-induced, post- translational modification of p53. In the infarct heart, p53 was heavily acetylated at Lys118 residue, which was exclusively reversed in the oxygenated heart, apparently regulated ...


Oncogenic Transformation Of Mammary Epithelial Cells By Transforming Growth Factor Beta Independent Of Mammary Stem Cell Regulation, Karen A. Dunphy, Jae-Hong Seo, Daniel J. Kim, Amy L. Roberts, James Direnzo, Amanda Balboni Jul 2013

Oncogenic Transformation Of Mammary Epithelial Cells By Transforming Growth Factor Beta Independent Of Mammary Stem Cell Regulation, Karen A. Dunphy, Jae-Hong Seo, Daniel J. Kim, Amy L. Roberts, James Direnzo, Amanda Balboni

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

BackgroundTransforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is transiently increased in the mammary gland during involution and by radiation. While TGFβ normally has a tumour suppressor role, prolonged exposure to TGFβ can induce an oncogenic epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program in permissive cells and initiate the generation of cancer stem cells. Our objective is to mimic the transient exposure to TGFβ during involution to determine the persistent effects on premalignant mammary epithelium.


Blt1 And Mid1 Provide Overlapping Membrane Anchors To Position The Division Plane In Fission Yeast, Merce Guzman-Vendrell, Suzanne Baldissard, Maria Almonacid, Adeline Mayeux, Anne Paoletti, James B. Moseley Nov 2012

Blt1 And Mid1 Provide Overlapping Membrane Anchors To Position The Division Plane In Fission Yeast, Merce Guzman-Vendrell, Suzanne Baldissard, Maria Almonacid, Adeline Mayeux, Anne Paoletti, James B. Moseley

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Spatial control of cytokinesis is essential for proper cell division. The molecular mechanisms that anchor the dynamic assembly and constriction of the cytokinetic ring at the plasma membrane remain unclear. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the cytokinetic ring is assembled in the cell middle from cortical node precursors that are positioned by the anillin-like protein Mid1. During mitotic entry, cortical nodes mature and then compact into a contractile ring positioned in the cell middle. The molecular link between Mid1 and medial cortical nodes remains poorly defined. Here we show that Blt1, a previously enig- matic cortical node protein, promotes ...


Condensin Ii Promotes The Formation Of Chromosome Territories By Inducing Axial Compaction Of Polyploid Interphase Chromosomes, Christopher R. R. Bauer, Tom A. Hartl, Giovanni Bosco Aug 2012

Condensin Ii Promotes The Formation Of Chromosome Territories By Inducing Axial Compaction Of Polyploid Interphase Chromosomes, Christopher R. R. Bauer, Tom A. Hartl, Giovanni Bosco

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The eukaryotic nucleus is both spatially and functionally partitioned. This organization contributes to the maintenance, expression, and transmission of genetic information. Though our ability to probe the physical structure of the genome within the nucleus has improved substantially in recent years, relatively little is known about the factors that regulate its organization or the mechanisms through which specific organizational states are achieved. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster Condensin II induces axial compaction of interphase chromosomes, globally disrupts interchromosomal interactions, and promotes the dispersal of peri-centric heterochromatin. These Condensin II activities compartmentalize the nucleus into discrete chromosome territories and indicate ...


A Fap46 Mutant Provides New Insights Into The Function And Assembly Of The C1d Complex Of The Ciliary Central Apparatus, Jason M. Brown, Christen G. Dipetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith, George B. Witman Apr 2012

A Fap46 Mutant Provides New Insights Into The Function And Assembly Of The C1d Complex Of The Ciliary Central Apparatus, Jason M. Brown, Christen G. Dipetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith, George B. Witman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Virtually all motile eukaryotic cilia and flagella have a '9+2' axoneme in which nine doublet microtubules surround two singlet microtubules. Associated with the central pair of microtubules are protein complexes that form at least seven biochemically and structurally distinct central pair projections. Analysis of mutants lacking specific projections has indicated that each may play a unique role in the control of flagellar motility. One of these is the C1d projection previously shown to contain the proteins FAP54, FAP46, FAP74 and FAP221/Pcdp1, which exhibits Ca(2+)-sensitive calmodulin binding. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a Chlamydomonas ...


Heterogeneity In Mitochondrial Morphology And Membrane Potential Is Independent Of The Nuclear Division Cycle In Multinucleate Fungal Cells, John P. Gerstenberger, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter Jan 2012

Heterogeneity In Mitochondrial Morphology And Membrane Potential Is Independent Of The Nuclear Division Cycle In Multinucleate Fungal Cells, John P. Gerstenberger, Patricia Occhipinti, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In the multinucleate filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii, nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm. We hypothesize that the division cycle machinery has a limited zone of influence in the cytoplasm to promote nuclear autonomy. Mitochondria in cultured mammalian cells undergo cell cycle-specific changes in morphology and membrane potential and therefore can serve as a reporter of the cell cycle state of the cytoplasm. To evaluate if the cell cycle state of nuclei in A. gossypii can influ


Axl2 Integrates Polarity Establishment, Maintenance, And Environmental Stress Response In The Filamentous Fungus Ashbya Gossypii, Jonathan F. Anker, Amy S. Gladfelter Oct 2011

Axl2 Integrates Polarity Establishment, Maintenance, And Environmental Stress Response In The Filamentous Fungus Ashbya Gossypii, Jonathan F. Anker, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In budding yeast, new sites of polarity are chosen with each cell cycle and polarization is transient. In filamentous fungi, sites of polarity persist for extended periods of growth and new polarity sites can be established while existing sites are maintained. How the polarity establishment machinery functions in these distinct growth forms found in fungi is still not well understood. We have examined the function of Axl2, a transmembrane bud site selection protein discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. A. gossypii does not divide by budding and instead exhibits persistent highly polarized growth, and multiple axes ...


Roles Of Ras1 Membrane Localization During Candida Albicans Hyphal Growth And Farnesol Response, Amy E. Piispanen, Ophelie Bonnefoi, Sarah Carden, Aurelie Deveau Sep 2011

Roles Of Ras1 Membrane Localization During Candida Albicans Hyphal Growth And Farnesol Response, Amy E. Piispanen, Ophelie Bonnefoi, Sarah Carden, Aurelie Deveau

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Many Ras GTPases localize to membranes via C-terminal farnesylation and palmitoylation, and localization regulates function. In Candida albicans, a fungal pathogen of humans, Ras1 links environmental cues to morphogenesis. Here, we report the localization and membrane dynamics of Ras1, and we characterize the roles of conserved C-terminal cysteine residues, C287 and C288, which are predicted sites of palmitoylation and farnesylation, respectively. GFP-Ras1 is localized uniformly to plasma membranes in both yeast and hyphae, yet Ras1 plasma membrane mobility was reduced in hyphae compared to that in yeast. Ras1-C288S was mislocalized to the cytoplasm and could not support hyphal development. Ras1-C287S ...


Septin Filaments Exhibit A Dynamic, Paired Organization That Is Conserved From Yeast To Mammals, Bradley S. Demay, Xiaobo Bai, Louisa Howard, Patricia Occhipinti, Rebecca A. Meseroll, Elias T. Spiliotis, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy S. Gladfelter May 2011

Septin Filaments Exhibit A Dynamic, Paired Organization That Is Conserved From Yeast To Mammals, Bradley S. Demay, Xiaobo Bai, Louisa Howard, Patricia Occhipinti, Rebecca A. Meseroll, Elias T. Spiliotis, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The septins are conserved, GTP-binding proteins important for cytokinesis, membrane compartmentalization, and exocytosis. However, it is unknown how septins are arranged within higher-order structures in cells. To determine the organization of septins in live cells, we developed a polarized fluorescence microscopy system to monitor the orientation of GFP dipole moments with high spatial and temporal resolution. When GFP was fused to septins, the arrangement of GFP dipoles reflected the underlying septin organization. We demonstrated in a filamentous fungus, a budding yeast, and a mammalian epithelial cell line that septin proteins were organized in an identical highly ordered fashion. Fluorescence anisotropy ...


Pcdp1 Is A Central Apparatus Protein That Binds Ca2+-Calmodulin And Regulates Ciliary Motility, Christen G. Dipetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith Apr 2010

Pcdp1 Is A Central Apparatus Protein That Binds Ca2+-Calmodulin And Regulates Ciliary Motility, Christen G. Dipetrillo, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

For all motile eukaryotic cilia and flagella, beating is regulated by changes in intraciliary calcium concentration. Although the mechanism for calcium regulation is not understood, numerous studies have shown that calmodulin (CaM) is a key axonemal calcium sensor. Using anti-CaM antibodies and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii axonemal extracts, we precipitated a complex that includes four polypeptides and that specifically interacts with CaM in high [Ca2+]. One of the complex members, FAP221, is an orthologue of mammalian Pcdp1 (primary ciliary dyskinesia protein 1). Both FAP221 and mammalian Pcdp1 specifically bind CaM in high [Ca2+]. Reduced expression of Pcdp1 complex members in ...


Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole Oct 2009

Integral Membrane Proteins Brr6 And Apq12 Link Assembly Of The Nuclear Pore Complex To Lipid Homeostasis In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Christine A. Hodge, Vineet Choudhary, Michael J. Wolyniak, John J. Scarcelli, Roger Schneiter, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking Apq12, a nuclear envelope (NE)-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) integral membrane protein, are defective in assembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), possibly because of defects in regulating membrane fluidity. We identified BRR6, which encodes an essential integral membrane protein of the NE-ER, as a dosage suppressor of apq12 Delta. Cells carrying the temperature-sensitive brr6-1 allele have been shown to have defects in nucleoporin localization, mRNA metabolism and nuclear transport. Electron microscopy revealed that brr6-1 cells have gross NE abnormalities and proliferation of the ER. brr6-1 cells were hypersensitive to compounds that affect membrane biophysical properties and ...


Mtorc1 Hyperactivity Inhibits Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis Via Increased Hexokinase Ii And Glut1 Expression, Sustained Mcl-1 Expression, And Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3Β Inhibition, Prashanth T. Bhaskar, Veronique Nogueira, Krushna C. Patra, Sang-Min Jeon, Youngkyu Park, R. Brooks Robey, Nissim Hay Sep 2009

Mtorc1 Hyperactivity Inhibits Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis Via Increased Hexokinase Ii And Glut1 Expression, Sustained Mcl-1 Expression, And Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3Β Inhibition, Prashanth T. Bhaskar, Veronique Nogueira, Krushna C. Patra, Sang-Min Jeon, Youngkyu Park, R. Brooks Robey, Nissim Hay

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The current concept is that Tsc-deficient cells are sensitized to apoptosis due to the inhibition of Akt activity by the negative feedback mechanism induced by the hyperactive mTORC1. Unexpectedly, however, we found that Tsc1/2-deficient cells exhibit increased resistance to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. mTORC1 hyperactivity contributes to the apoptotic resistance of serum-deprived Tsc1/2-deficient cells in part by increasing the growth factor-independent expression of hexokinase II (HKII) and GLUT1. mTORC1-mediated increase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) abundance, which occurs in the absence of serum in normoxic Tsc2-deficient cells, contributes to these changes. Increased HIF1α abundance in these cells is attributed ...


Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling Of The Cyclic Amp-Dependent Signaling Pathway During Morphogenic Transitions Of Candida Albicans, Yong-Sun Bahn, Matthew Molenda, Janet F. Staab, Courtney A. Lyman, Laura J. Gordon, Paula Sundstrom Dec 2007

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling Of The Cyclic Amp-Dependent Signaling Pathway During Morphogenic Transitions Of Candida Albicans, Yong-Sun Bahn, Matthew Molenda, Janet F. Staab, Courtney A. Lyman, Laura J. Gordon, Paula Sundstrom

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that causes systemic candidiasis as well as superficial mucosal candidiasis. In response to the host environment, C. albicans transitions between yeast and hyphal forms. In particular, hyphal growth is important in facilitating adhesion and invasion of host tissues, concomitant with the expression of various hypha-specific virulence factors. In previous work, we showed that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in morphogenic transitions and virulence of C. albicans by studying genes encoding adenylate cyclase-associated protein (CAP1) and high-affinity phosphodiesterase (PDE2) (Y. S. Bahn, J. Staab, and P. Sundstrom, Mol ...


A Conserved Cam- And Radial Spoke–Associated Complex Mediates Regulation Of Flagellar Dynein Activity, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith Nov 2007

A Conserved Cam- And Radial Spoke–Associated Complex Mediates Regulation Of Flagellar Dynein Activity, Erin E. Dymek, Elizabeth F. Smith

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

For virtually all cilia and eukaryotic flagella, the second messengers calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate are implicated in modulating dynein- driven microtubule sliding to regulate beating. Calmodulin (CaM) localizes to the axoneme and is a key calcium sensor involved in regulating motility. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identify members of a CaM-containing complex that are involved in regulating dynein activity. This complex includes flagellar-associated protein 91 (FAP91), which shares considerable sequence similarity to AAT-1, a protein originally identified in testis as an A-kinase anchor protein (AKAP)- binding protein. FAP91 directly interacts with radial spoke protein 3 (an AKAP), which ...


Role Of Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics In Activation Of The Cyclic Amp Pathway And Hwp1 Gene Expression In Candida Albicans, Michael J. Wolyniak, Paula Sundstrom Oct 2007

Role Of Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics In Activation Of The Cyclic Amp Pathway And Hwp1 Gene Expression In Candida Albicans, Michael J. Wolyniak, Paula Sundstrom

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Changes in gene expression during reversible bud-hypha transitions of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans permit adaptation to environmental conditions that are critical for proliferation in host tissues. Our previous work has shown that the hypha-specific adhesin gene HWP1 is up-regulated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway. However, little is known about the potential influences of determinants of cell morphology on HWP1 gene expression. We found that blocking hypha formation with cytochalasin A, which destabilizes actin filaments, and with latrunculin A, which sequesters actin monomers, led to a loss of HWP1 gene expression. In contrast, high levels of HWP1 ...


The Yeast Integral Membrane Protein Apq12 Potentially Links Membrane Dynamics To Assembly Of Nuclear Pore Complexes, John J. Scarcelli, Christin A. Hodge, Charles N. Cole Aug 2007

The Yeast Integral Membrane Protein Apq12 Potentially Links Membrane Dynamics To Assembly Of Nuclear Pore Complexes, John J. Scarcelli, Christin A. Hodge, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Although the structure and function of components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) have been the focus of many studies, relatively little is known about NPC biogenesis. In this study, we report that Apq12 is required for efficient NPC biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Apq12 is an integral membrane protein of the nuclear envelope (NE) and endoplasmic reticulum. Cells lacking Apq12 are cold sensitive for growth, and a subset of their nucleoporins (Nups), those that are primarily components of the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, mislocalize to the cytoplasm. APQ12 deletion also causes defects in NE morphology. In the absence of ...


Regulation Of Meiotic Cohesion And Chromosome Core Morphogenesis During Pachytene In Drosophila Oocytes, Radhika S. Khetani, Sharon E. Bickel Jul 2007

Regulation Of Meiotic Cohesion And Chromosome Core Morphogenesis During Pachytene In Drosophila Oocytes, Radhika S. Khetani, Sharon E. Bickel

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

During meiosis, cohesion between sister chromatids is required for normal levels of homologous recombination, maintenance of chiasmata and accurate chromosome segregation during both divisions. In Drosophila, null mutations in the ord gene abolish meiotic cohesion, although how ORD protein promotes cohesion has remained elusive. We show that SMC subunits of the cohesin complex colocalize with ORD at centromeres of ovarian germ-line cells. In addition, cohesin SMCs and ORD are visible along the length of meiotic chromosomes during pachytene and remain associated with chromosome cores following DNase I digestion. In flies lacking ORD activity, cohesin SMCs fail to accumulate at oocyte ...


A 368-Base-Pair Cis-Acting Hwp1 Promoter Region, Hcr, Of Candida Albicans Confers Hypha-Specific Gene Regulation And Binds Architectural Transcription Factors Nhp6 And Gcf1p, Samin Kim, Michael J. Wolyniak, Janet F. Staab, Paula Sundstrom Apr 2007

A 368-Base-Pair Cis-Acting Hwp1 Promoter Region, Hcr, Of Candida Albicans Confers Hypha-Specific Gene Regulation And Binds Architectural Transcription Factors Nhp6 And Gcf1p, Samin Kim, Michael J. Wolyniak, Janet F. Staab, Paula Sundstrom

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

To elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the expression of the hypha-specific adhesin gene HWP1 of Candida albicans, its promoter was dissected and analyzed using a green fluorescent protein reporter gene. A 368-bp region, the HWP1 control region (HCR), was critical for activation under hypha-inducing conditions and conferred developmental regulation to a heterologous ENO1 promoter. A more distal region of the promoter served to amplify the level of promoter activation. Using gel mobility shift assays, a 249-bp subregion of HCR, HCRa, was found to bind at least four proteins from crude extracts of yeasts and hyphae with differing binding patterns dependent ...


The Yeast Orthologue Of Grasp65 Forms A Complex With A Coiled-Coil Protein That Contributes To Er To Golgi Traffic, Rudy Behnia, Francis A. Barr, John J. Flanagan, Charles Barlowe, Sean Munro Jan 2007

The Yeast Orthologue Of Grasp65 Forms A Complex With A Coiled-Coil Protein That Contributes To Er To Golgi Traffic, Rudy Behnia, Francis A. Barr, John J. Flanagan, Charles Barlowe, Sean Munro

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The mammalian Golgi protein GRASP65 is required in assays that reconstitute cisternal stacking and vesicle tethering. Attached to membranes by an N-terminal myristoyl group, it recruits the coiled-coil protein GM130. The relevance of this system to budding yeasts has been unclear, as they lack an obvious orthologue of GM130, and their only GRASP65 relative (Grh1) lacks a myristoylation site and has even been suggested to act in a mitotic checkpoint. In this study, we show that Grh1 has an N-terminal amphipathic helix that is N-terminally acetylated and mediates association with the cis-Golgi. We find that Grh1 forms a complex with ...


Following Temperature Stress, Export Of Heat Shock Mrna Occurs Efficiently In Cells With Mutations In Genes Normally Important For Mrna Export, Christiane Rollenhagen, Christine A. Hodge, Charles N. Cole Jan 2007

Following Temperature Stress, Export Of Heat Shock Mrna Occurs Efficiently In Cells With Mutations In Genes Normally Important For Mrna Export, Christiane Rollenhagen, Christine A. Hodge, Charles N. Cole

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Heat shock leads to accumulation of polyadenylated RNA in nuclei of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, transcriptional induction of heat shock genes, and efficient export of polyadenylated heat shock mRNAs. These studies were conducted to examine the requirements for export of mRNA following heat shock. We used in situ hybridization to detect SSA4 mRNA (encoding Hsp70) and flow cytometry to measure the amount of Ssa4p-green fluorescent protein (GFP) produced following heat shock. Npl3p and Yra1p are mRNA-binding proteins recruited to nascent mRNAs and are essential for proper mRNA biogenesis and export. Heat shock mRNA was exported efficiently in temperature-sensitive npl3, yra1, and ...


Limited Functional Redundancy And Oscillation Of Cyclins In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Fungal Cells, A. Katrin Hungerbuehler, Peter Philippsen, Amy S. Gladfelter Nov 2006

Limited Functional Redundancy And Oscillation Of Cyclins In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Fungal Cells, A. Katrin Hungerbuehler, Peter Philippsen, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Cyclin protein behavior has not been systematically investigated in multinucleated cells with asynchronous mitoses. Cyclins are canonical oscillating cell cycle proteins, but it is unclear how fluctuating protein gradients can be established in multinucleated cells where nuclei in different stages of the division cycle share the cytoplasm. Previous work in A. gossypii, a filamentous fungus in which nuclei divide asynchronously in a common cytoplasm, demonstrated that one G1 and one B-type cyclin do not fluctuate in abundance across the division cycle. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of all G1 and B-type cyclins in A. gossypii to determine whether any ...