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Articles 1 - 5 of 5

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

High-Resolution Proteomic And Lipidomic Analysis Of Exosomes And Microvesicles From Different Cell Sources, Reka A. Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Hannah E. Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R. Narain, Marian Difiglia, Michael A. Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova Nov 2016

High-Resolution Proteomic And Lipidomic Analysis Of Exosomes And Microvesicles From Different Cell Sources, Reka A. Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Hannah E. Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R. Narain, Marian Difiglia, Michael A. Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova

Open Access Articles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We identified 3,532 proteins and 1,961 lipid species in the screen. Exosomes differed from MVs in several different areas: (a) The protein patterns of exosomes were ...


Dna Methylation Directs Genomic Localization Of Mbd2 And Mbd3 In Embryonic Stem Cells, Sarah J. Hainer, Kurtis N. Mccannell, Jun Yu, Ly-Sha Ee, Lihua (Julie) Zhu, Oliver J. Rando, Thomas G. Fazzio Nov 2016

Dna Methylation Directs Genomic Localization Of Mbd2 And Mbd3 In Embryonic Stem Cells, Sarah J. Hainer, Kurtis N. Mccannell, Jun Yu, Ly-Sha Ee, Lihua (Julie) Zhu, Oliver J. Rando, Thomas G. Fazzio

Open Access Articles

Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic and regulatory mark that functions in part through recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes containing methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. Two MBD proteins, Mbd2 and Mbd3, were previously shown to bind methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA, respectively; however, both of these findings have been disputed. Here, we investigated this controversy using experimental approaches and re-analysis of published data and find no evidence for methylation-independent functions of Mbd2 or Mbd3. We show that chromatin localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 is highly overlapping and, unexpectedly, we find Mbd2 and Mbd3 are interdependent for chromatin association. Further investigation reveals that ...


A Widely Employed Germ Cell Marker Is An Ancient Disordered Protein With Reproductive Functions In Diverse Eukaryotes, Michelle A. Carmell, Gregoriy A. Dokshin, Helen Skaletsky, Yueh-Chiang Hu, Josien C. Van Wolfswinkel, Kyomi J. Igarashi, Daniel W. Bellott, Michael Nefedov, Peter W. Reddien, George C. Enders, Vladimir N. Uversky, Craig C. Mello, David C. Page Oct 2016

A Widely Employed Germ Cell Marker Is An Ancient Disordered Protein With Reproductive Functions In Diverse Eukaryotes, Michelle A. Carmell, Gregoriy A. Dokshin, Helen Skaletsky, Yueh-Chiang Hu, Josien C. Van Wolfswinkel, Kyomi J. Igarashi, Daniel W. Bellott, Michael Nefedov, Peter W. Reddien, George C. Enders, Vladimir N. Uversky, Craig C. Mello, David C. Page

Open Access Articles

The advent of sexual reproduction and the evolution of a dedicated germline in multicellular organisms are critical landmarks in eukaryotic evolution. We report an ancient family of GCNA (germ cell nuclear antigen) proteins that arose in the earliest eukaryotes, and feature a rapidly evolving intrinsically disordered region (IDR). Phylogenetic analysis reveals that GCNA proteins emerged before the major eukaryotic lineages diverged; GCNA predates the origin of a dedicated germline by a billion years. Gcna gene expression is enriched in reproductive cells across eukarya - either just prior to or during meiosis in single-celled eukaryotes, and in stem cells and germ cells ...


Regulation Of X-Linked Gene Expression During Early Mouse Development By Rlim, Feng Wang, Jongdae Shin, Jeremy Shea, Jun Yu, Ana Boskovic, Meg Byron, Xiaochun Zhu, Alex K. Shalek, Aviv Regev, Jeanne B. Lawrence, Eduardo M. Torres, Lihua J. Zhu, Oliver J. Rando, Ingolf Bach Sep 2016

Regulation Of X-Linked Gene Expression During Early Mouse Development By Rlim, Feng Wang, Jongdae Shin, Jeremy Shea, Jun Yu, Ana Boskovic, Meg Byron, Xiaochun Zhu, Alex K. Shalek, Aviv Regev, Jeanne B. Lawrence, Eduardo M. Torres, Lihua J. Zhu, Oliver J. Rando, Ingolf Bach

Open Access Articles

Mammalian X-linked gene expression is highly regulated as female cells contain two and male one X chromosome (X). To adjust the X gene dosage between genders, female mouse preimplantation embryos undergo an imprinted form of X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) that requires both Rlim (also known as Rnf12) and the long non-coding RNA Xist. Moreover, it is thought that gene expression from the single active X is upregulated to correct for bi-allelic autosomal (A) gene expression. We have combined mouse genetics with RNA-seq on single mouse embryos to investigate functions of Rlim on the temporal regulation of iXCI and Xist. Our ...


Apontic Regulates Somatic Stem Cell Numbers In Drosophila Testes, Amanda J. Monahan, Michelle Starz-Gaiano Mar 2016

Apontic Regulates Somatic Stem Cell Numbers In Drosophila Testes, Amanda J. Monahan, Michelle Starz-Gaiano

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Microenvironments called niches maintain resident stem cell populations by balancing self-renewal with differentiation, but the genetic regulation of this process is unclear. The niche of the Drosophila testis is well-characterized and genetically tractable, making it ideal for investigating the molecular regulation of stem cell biology. The JAK/STAT pathway, activated by signals from a niche component called the hub, maintains both germline and somatic stem cells.

RESULTS: This study investigated the molecular regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway in the stem cells of the Drosophila testis. We determined that the transcriptional regulator Apontic (Apt) acts in the somatic (cyst ...