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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Targets And Functions Of The Microrna-200 Family In The Developing Skin And Hair Follicle, Jaimee Elizabeth Hoefert Jan 2018

Targets And Functions Of The Microrna-200 Family In The Developing Skin And Hair Follicle, Jaimee Elizabeth Hoefert

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The microRNA-200 (miR-200) family is well known for preventing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer. However, the targets and functions of this family in normal epithelial tissues remain unclear. This five-member microRNA (miRNA) family also presents a unique platform for studying miRNA-mediated regulation, as they share two nearly-identical seed sequences. The results presented within this dissertation establish a role for these miRNAs in governing hair follicle morphogenesis and fine-tuning cell specification by regulating cell adhesion, polarity, and signaling pathways. By directly ligating miRNAs to their targeted mRNA regions, numerous miR-200 family targets are identified, many of which are involved ...


Tissue Retention Of Norrin: A Ligand Required For Retinal Vascularization, Lavan Khandan Jan 2017

Tissue Retention Of Norrin: A Ligand Required For Retinal Vascularization, Lavan Khandan

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The Norrin ligand is a small (14 kDa) cystine-knot protein, required for the proper vascularization of retinal, cerebellar and inner ear neural tissue. Both inherited human disorders and murine genetic studies implicate Norrin mutations in major ocular and visual defects, including retinal hypovascularization. In this thesis, I describe the property of Norrin enrichment at specific layers in the retina. I address the question of whether proper Norrin distribution in retinal tissue is required for vascularization. To do so, I used ex vivo ligand in-situ staining to interrogate differences amongst vertebrate Norrin orthologues in retinal tissue retention. I then used sequence ...


Elucidating The Ligand-Specific Role Of Tetraspanin12 As An Essential Co-Activator In Norrin/Frizzled4 Signaling And Retinal Vascularization, Maria B. Lai Jan 2017

Elucidating The Ligand-Specific Role Of Tetraspanin12 As An Essential Co-Activator In Norrin/Frizzled4 Signaling And Retinal Vascularization, Maria B. Lai

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Genetic evidence indicates that specific combinations of accessory proteins and ligands mediate vascular Frizzled (FZD) signaling via beta-catenin in different CNS structures. Accessory proteins in FZD receptor complexes are thought to determine ligand-selectivity and signaling amplitude. In the retina, TSPAN12 is an essential co-activator in Norrin/FZD4 signaling to mediate angiogenesis. The genes encoding mediators of Norrin/FZD4 signaling are linked to familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), an inherited retinal disease that can lead to blindness. Yet, the molecular function of TSPAN12 and the specific cell type in which TSPAN12 functions in the retina remains poorly understood. Here, I utilized binding ...


The Multiple Functions Of Efhc1 In Tetrahymena And Xenopus, Ying Zhao Jan 2015

The Multiple Functions Of Efhc1 In Tetrahymena And Xenopus, Ying Zhao

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The basal body is the microtubule-organizing center that nucleates the axoneme of the cilium. Both basal bodies and cilia are complex intracellular organelles composed of hundreds of polypeptides found throughout the eukaryotes. Different types of cilia have various and often over-lapping functions, from driving fluid flow and cellular motility, to the establishment of distinct cellular domains and morphologies, to mediating and modulating intracellular signaling involved in tissue patterning. Dysfunction of basal body or ciliary components has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. EFHC1 is conserved from single cell alga to human beings. Members of this protein family contain ...


Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess Jan 2014

Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is a remarkable organ system that is required for almost all animal life. In vertebrates, skeletal muscle can alter its functional and molecular characteristics in response to pathologic and physiologic stimuli. Additionally, adult muscle retains the ability to regenerate following injury, activating progenitor cells much like the process of muscle formation during embryonic development. Much work has been done to characterize the changes in gene expression that occur during regeneration, and this knowledge has been invaluable in treatment of muscle wasting diseases, such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Further expanding the complexity of gene expression changes is the discovery ...


The Function Of Centralspindlin In Drosophila Development, Michael Craig Sfregola Jan 2013

The Function Of Centralspindlin In Drosophila Development, Michael Craig Sfregola

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Centralspindlin is an essential protein complex in all metazoans well-studied for its essential role in cytokinesis. Emerging evidence suggests centralspindlin has important interphase functions as well. Through its regulation of Rho family small GTPases at the plasma membrane, the centralspindlin complex is able to effect a number of cellular process including cell adhesion and cell migration. In this thesis I explored centralspindlin's function in development and tissue morphogenesis. In addition I investigated potential nuclear functions of the centralspindlin complex. To address these potential functions of centralspindlin I used the model organism Drosophila melanogaster.

I found centralspindlin is essential for ...


The Drosophila Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Tie Instructs Function Of The Bantam Microrna In The Response To Ionizing Radiation, Amber Bilak Jan 2012

The Drosophila Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Tie Instructs Function Of The Bantam Microrna In The Response To Ionizing Radiation, Amber Bilak

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Life or death choices of cells in Drosophila depend on the accumulation of critical levels of pro-apoptotic factors such as hid. Ionizing radiation (IR) causes lesions to macromolecules in cells that trigger damage responses and result in death of cells expressing critical amounts of hid. Cells are eliminated by apoptosis to prevent the transfer of damaged genetic material to daughter cells. However, some cells must be preserved in order for organisms to survive and regenerate. Therefore, genes that limit apoptosis can enhance organismal survival. The ban miRNA limits apoptosis after IR exposure by regulating the 3'UTR of hid. Though ...