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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Function And Regulation Of The Tip60-P400 Complex In Embryonic Stem Cells: A Dissertation, Poshen B. Chen Aug 2015

Function And Regulation Of The Tip60-P400 Complex In Embryonic Stem Cells: A Dissertation, Poshen B. Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The following work examines the mechanisms by which Tip60-p400 chromatin remodeling complex regulates gene expression in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Tip60-p400 complex has distinct functions in undifferentiated and differentiated cells. While Tip60-p400 is often associated with gene activation in differentiated cells, its most prominent function in ESCs is to repress differentiation-related genes. I show that Tip60-p400 interacts with Hdac6 and other proteins to form a unique form of the complex in ESCs. Tip60-Hdac6 interaction is stem cell specific and is necessary for Tip60-p400 mediated gene regulation, indicating that Tip60- p400 function is controlled in part through the regulation of Hdac6 ...


Molecular Landscape Of Induced Reprogramming: A Dissertation, Chao-Shun Yang Feb 2014

Molecular Landscape Of Induced Reprogramming: A Dissertation, Chao-Shun Yang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Recent breakthroughs in creating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) provide alternative means to obtain embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells without destroying embryos by introducing four reprogramming factors (Oct3/4, Sox2, and Klf4/c-Myc or Nanog/Lin28) into somatic cells. However, the molecular basis of reprogramming is largely unknown. To address this question, we employed microRNAs, small molecules, and conducted genome-wide RNAi screen, to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of reprogramming.

First we showed that depleting miR-21 and miR-29a enhances reprogramming in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We also showed that p53 and ERK1/2 pathways are regulated by miR-21 and miR-29a ...


Morphogenetic Requirements For Embryo Patterning And The Generation Of Stem Cell-Derived Mice: A Dissertation, Yeonsoo Yoon Jul 2013

Morphogenetic Requirements For Embryo Patterning And The Generation Of Stem Cell-Derived Mice: A Dissertation, Yeonsoo Yoon

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Cell proliferation and differentiation are tightly regulated processes required for the proper development of multi-cellular organisms. To understand the effects of cell proliferation on embryo patterning in mice, we inactivated Aurora A, a gene essential for completion of the cell cycle. We discovered that inhibiting cell proliferation leads to different outcomes depending on the tissue affected. If the epiblast, the embryonic component, is compromised, it leads to gastrulation failure. However, when Aurora A is inactivated in extra-embryonic tissues, mutant embryos fail to properly establish the anteroposterior axis. Ablation of Aurora A in the epiblast eventually leads to abnormal embryos composed ...