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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Nuclear Import Of Smad: A Dissertation, Xiaochu Chen Aug 2011

Nuclear Import Of Smad: A Dissertation, Xiaochu Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Signal transduction by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) cytokines is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that depends on the Smad proteins to transduce an extracellular stimulus into the nucleus. In the unstimulated state, Smads spontaneously shuttle across the nuclear envelope and distribute throughout the cell. Upon TGF-β or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) stimulation, the receptor-activated Smads are phosphorylated, assemble into complexes with Smad4, and become mostly localized in the nucleus. Such signal-induced nuclear translocation of activated Smads is essential for TGF-β–dependent gene regulation that is critical for embryonic development and homeostasis. The molecular machinery responsible for this process ...


Biomimetic Synthetic Tissue Scaffolds For Bone Regeneration: A Dissertation, Tera M. Filion Potts Jul 2011

Biomimetic Synthetic Tissue Scaffolds For Bone Regeneration: A Dissertation, Tera M. Filion Potts

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Injury to bone is one of the most prevalent and costly medical conditions. Clinical treatment of volumetric bone loss or hard-to-heal bony lesions often requires the use of proper bone grafting materials, with or without adjuvant anabolic therapeutics. Despite significant problems associated with autografting (donor site morbidity, limited supplies) and allografting (disease transmissions, high graft failure rates) procedures, synthetic bone grafts remain the least utilized clinically. Existing synthetic orthopaedic biomaterials rarely possess a combination of bone-like structural and biochemical properties required for robust osteointegration, scalable and user-friendly characteristics indispensable for successful clinical translations. This thesis tests the hypothesis that by ...


The Importance Of The Centrosomal Localization Sequence Of Cyclin E For Promoting Centrosome Duplication: A Dissertation, Joshua J. Nordberg May 2011

The Importance Of The Centrosomal Localization Sequence Of Cyclin E For Promoting Centrosome Duplication: A Dissertation, Joshua J. Nordberg

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

This thesis comprises three separate studies that investigate the consequences of supernumary centrosomes, the effect of centrosome loss, and a control mechanism for regulating CDK2/cyclin E activity in centrosome duplication.

The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing center of the cell. When the cell enters mitosis, it is of critical importance that the cell has exactly two centrosomes in order to properly segregate the chromosomes to two daughter cells. Supernumary centrosomes are a problem for the cell in that they increase the incidence of chromosomal instability. Aberrant centrosome numbers are seen in a number of cancers, and there has been ...