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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Nuclear Import Of Smad: A Dissertation, Xiaochu Chen Aug 2011

Nuclear Import Of Smad: A Dissertation, Xiaochu Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Signal transduction by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) cytokines is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that depends on the Smad proteins to transduce an extracellular stimulus into the nucleus. In the unstimulated state, Smads spontaneously shuttle across the nuclear envelope and distribute throughout the cell. Upon TGF-β or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) stimulation, the receptor-activated Smads are phosphorylated, assemble into complexes with Smad4, and become mostly localized in the nucleus. Such signal-induced nuclear translocation of activated Smads is essential for TGF-β–dependent gene regulation that is critical for embryonic development and homeostasis. The molecular machinery responsible for this process ...


The Importance Of The Centrosomal Localization Sequence Of Cyclin E For Promoting Centrosome Duplication: A Dissertation, Joshua J. Nordberg May 2011

The Importance Of The Centrosomal Localization Sequence Of Cyclin E For Promoting Centrosome Duplication: A Dissertation, Joshua J. Nordberg

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

This thesis comprises three separate studies that investigate the consequences of supernumary centrosomes, the effect of centrosome loss, and a control mechanism for regulating CDK2/cyclin E activity in centrosome duplication.

The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing center of the cell. When the cell enters mitosis, it is of critical importance that the cell has exactly two centrosomes in order to properly segregate the chromosomes to two daughter cells. Supernumary centrosomes are a problem for the cell in that they increase the incidence of chromosomal instability. Aberrant centrosome numbers are seen in a number of cancers, and there has been ...


Functional Analysis Of Ing1 And Ing4 In Cell Growth And Tumorigenesis: A Dissertation, Andrew H. Coles May 2008

Functional Analysis Of Ing1 And Ing4 In Cell Growth And Tumorigenesis: A Dissertation, Andrew H. Coles

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The five member Inhibitor of Growth (ING) gene family has been proposed to participate in the regulation of cell growth, DNA repair, inflammation, chromatin remodeling, and tumor suppression. All ING proteins contain a PHD motif implicated in binding to methylated histones and are components of large chromatin remodeling complexes containing histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, suggesting a role for ING proteins in regulating gene transcription. Additionally, forced overexpression studies performed in vitro have indicated that several ING proteins can interact with the p53 tumor suppressor protein and/or the NF-кB protein complex. Since these two proteins play ...


Cloning And Cell Cycle Analysis Of Numa, A Phosphoprotein That Oscillates Between The Nucleus And The Mitotic Spindle, Cynthia A. Sparks Sep 1995

Cloning And Cell Cycle Analysis Of Numa, A Phosphoprotein That Oscillates Between The Nucleus And The Mitotic Spindle, Cynthia A. Sparks

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The overall objective of this study was to identify novel proteins of the nuclear matrix in order to contribute to a better understanding of nuclear structure and organization. To accomplish this, a monoclonal antibody specific for the nuclear matrix was used to screen a human λgt11 expression library. Several cDNAs were isolated, cloned, sequenced, and shown to represent NuMA, the nuclear mitotic spindle apparatus protein. Further characterization of the gene and RNA was undertaken in an effort to obtain information about NuMA. The NuMA gene was present at a single site on human chromosome 11q13. Northern and PCR analysis of ...