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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Nuclear Import Of Smad: A Dissertation, Xiaochu Chen Aug 2011

Nuclear Import Of Smad: A Dissertation, Xiaochu Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Signal transduction by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) cytokines is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that depends on the Smad proteins to transduce an extracellular stimulus into the nucleus. In the unstimulated state, Smads spontaneously shuttle across the nuclear envelope and distribute throughout the cell. Upon TGF-β or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) stimulation, the receptor-activated Smads are phosphorylated, assemble into complexes with Smad4, and become mostly localized in the nucleus. Such signal-induced nuclear translocation of activated Smads is essential for TGF-β–dependent gene regulation that is critical for embryonic development and homeostasis. The molecular machinery responsible for this process ...


Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Akt Isoform-Specific Regulation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes: A Dissertation, Xiarong Shi Sep 2010

Mitochondrial Dysfunction And Akt Isoform-Specific Regulation In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes: A Dissertation, Xiarong Shi

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Excess food consumption and/or lack of exercise have dramatically contributed to the prevalence of overweight (BMI≥25) and obesity (BMI≥30) in modern society. The obesity epidemic has been linked to the rise in type 2 diabetes. In recent years, evidence has pointed to a close association between mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue (WAT) and insulin resistance, a key feature of type 2 diabetes. In order to dissect the cause and effect relationship between WAT mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance, we established an in vitro cell line system to investigate this issue. We artificially introduced mitochondrial dysfunction in ...


Functional Analysis Of Ing1 And Ing4 In Cell Growth And Tumorigenesis: A Dissertation, Andrew H. Coles May 2008

Functional Analysis Of Ing1 And Ing4 In Cell Growth And Tumorigenesis: A Dissertation, Andrew H. Coles

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The five member Inhibitor of Growth (ING) gene family has been proposed to participate in the regulation of cell growth, DNA repair, inflammation, chromatin remodeling, and tumor suppression. All ING proteins contain a PHD motif implicated in binding to methylated histones and are components of large chromatin remodeling complexes containing histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, suggesting a role for ING proteins in regulating gene transcription. Additionally, forced overexpression studies performed in vitro have indicated that several ING proteins can interact with the p53 tumor suppressor protein and/or the NF-кB protein complex. Since these two proteins play ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of A Human H4 Histone Gene Is Mediated By Multiple Elements Interacting With Similar Transcription Factors: A Dissertation, Thomas J. Last May 1998

Transcriptional Regulation Of A Human H4 Histone Gene Is Mediated By Multiple Elements Interacting With Similar Transcription Factors: A Dissertation, Thomas J. Last

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Synthesis of histone proteins occurs largely during the S phase of the cell cycle and coincides with DNA replication to provide adequate amounts of histones necessary to properly package newly replicated DNA. Controlling transcription from cell cycle dependent and proliferation specific genes, including histone H4, is an important level of regulation in the overall governance of the cell growth process. Coordination of histone gene transcription results from the cumulative effects of cell signaling pathways, dynamic chromatin structure and multiple transcription factor interactions. The research of this dissertation focused on the characterization and identification of transcription factors interacting on the human ...


Molecular Characterization Of Mitofilin, A Novel, Mitochondrial, Coiled Coil Protein, And The Relationship Between Organism Complexity And Coiled Coil Protein-Mediated Structure: A Dissertation, Paul R. Odgren Nov 1995

Molecular Characterization Of Mitofilin, A Novel, Mitochondrial, Coiled Coil Protein, And The Relationship Between Organism Complexity And Coiled Coil Protein-Mediated Structure: A Dissertation, Paul R. Odgren

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In the course of experiments designed to identify and characterize structural proteins of the nuclear matrix, one antibody was generated which recognized an extraction-resistant cytoplasmic protein. This antibody was used as the starting point in the cloning and molecular characterization of a novel protein of the inter-membrane space of the mitochondrion which has been named mitofilin. Mitofilin is expressed in all human cell types, and murine homologues also exist. Mitofilin associates only with mitochondria and not with other membrane-bounded organelles such as Golgi or endoplasmic reticulum. This observation has been confirmed both by biochemical fractionation and multi-label fluorescence microscopy. Recombinant ...


Cloning And Cell Cycle Analysis Of Numa, A Phosphoprotein That Oscillates Between The Nucleus And The Mitotic Spindle, Cynthia A. Sparks Sep 1995

Cloning And Cell Cycle Analysis Of Numa, A Phosphoprotein That Oscillates Between The Nucleus And The Mitotic Spindle, Cynthia A. Sparks

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The overall objective of this study was to identify novel proteins of the nuclear matrix in order to contribute to a better understanding of nuclear structure and organization. To accomplish this, a monoclonal antibody specific for the nuclear matrix was used to screen a human λgt11 expression library. Several cDNAs were isolated, cloned, sequenced, and shown to represent NuMA, the nuclear mitotic spindle apparatus protein. Further characterization of the gene and RNA was undertaken in an effort to obtain information about NuMA. The NuMA gene was present at a single site on human chromosome 11q13. Northern and PCR analysis of ...