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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Supervillin Binds The Rac/Rho-Gef Trio And Increases Trio-Mediated Rac1 Activation, Kyonghee Son, Tara Smith, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2015

Supervillin Binds The Rac/Rho-Gef Trio And Increases Trio-Mediated Rac1 Activation, Kyonghee Son, Tara Smith, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

We investigated cross-talk between the membrane-associated, myosin II-regulatory protein supervillin and the actin-regulatory small GTPases Rac1, RhoA, and Cdc42. Supervillin knockdown reduced Rac1-GTP loading, but not the GTP loading of RhoA or Cdc42, in HeLa cells with normal levels of the Rac1-activating protein Trio. No reduction in Rac1-GTP loading was observed when supervillin levels were reduced in Trio-depleted cells. Conversely, overexpression of supervillin isoform 1 (SV1) or, especially, isoform 4 (SV4) increased Rac1 activation. Inhibition of the Trio-mediated Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange (GEF) activity with ITX3 partially blocked the SV4-mediated increase in Rac1-GTP. Both SV4 and SV1 co-localized with Trio ...


Gamma-Sarcoglycan Is Required For The Response Of Archvillin To Mechanical Stimulation In Skeletal Muscle, Janelle Spinazzola, Tara Smith, Min Liu, Elizabeth Luna, Elisabeth Barton Mar 2015

Gamma-Sarcoglycan Is Required For The Response Of Archvillin To Mechanical Stimulation In Skeletal Muscle, Janelle Spinazzola, Tara Smith, Min Liu, Elizabeth Luna, Elisabeth Barton

Elizabeth J. Luna

Loss of gamma-sarcoglycan (gamma-SG) induces muscle degeneration and signaling defects in response to mechanical load, and its absence is common to both Duchenne and limb girdle muscular dystrophies. Growing evidence suggests that aberrant signaling contributes to the disease pathology; however, the mechanisms of gamma-SG-mediated mechanical signaling are poorly understood. To uncover gamma-SG signaling pathway components, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens and identified the muscle-specific protein archvillin as a gamma-SG and dystrophin interacting protein. Archvillin protein and message levels were significantly upregulated at the sarcolemma of murine gamma-SG-null (gsg-/-) muscle but delocalized in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscle. Similar elevation of archvillin protein ...


Differential Muscle Hypertrophy Is Associated With Satellite Cell Numbers And Akt Pathway Activation Following Activin Type Iib Receptor Inhibition In Mtm1 P.R69c Mice, Michael Lawlor, Marissa Viola, Hui Meng, Rachel Edelstein, Fujun Liu, Ke Yan, Elizabeth Luna, Alexandra Lerch-Gaggl, Raymond Hoffmann, Christopher Pierson, Anna Buj-Bello, Jennifer Lachey, Scott Pearsall, Lin Yang, Cecilia Hillard, Alan Beggs Oct 2014

Differential Muscle Hypertrophy Is Associated With Satellite Cell Numbers And Akt Pathway Activation Following Activin Type Iib Receptor Inhibition In Mtm1 P.R69c Mice, Michael Lawlor, Marissa Viola, Hui Meng, Rachel Edelstein, Fujun Liu, Ke Yan, Elizabeth Luna, Alexandra Lerch-Gaggl, Raymond Hoffmann, Christopher Pierson, Anna Buj-Bello, Jennifer Lachey, Scott Pearsall, Lin Yang, Cecilia Hillard, Alan Beggs

Elizabeth J. Luna

X-linked myotubular myopathy is a congenital myopathy caused by deficiency of myotubularin. Patients often present with severe perinatal weakness, requiring mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. We recently reported that an activin receptor type IIB inhibitor produced hypertrophy of type 2b myofibers and modest increases of strength and life span in the severely myopathic Mtm1δ4 mouse model of X-linked myotubular myopathy. We have now performed a similar study in the less severely symptomatic Mtm1 p.R69C mouse in hopes of finding greater treatment efficacy. Activin receptor type IIB inhibitor treatment of Mtm1 p.R69C animals produced behavioral and ...


Supervillin Binding To Myosin Ii And Synergism With Anillin Are Required For Cytokinesis, Tara C. Smith, Peter C. Fridy, Yinyin Li, Shruti Basil, Sneha Arjun, Ryan M. Friesen, John D. Leszyk, Brian T. Chait, Michael P. Rout, Elizabeth J. Luna Oct 2013

Supervillin Binding To Myosin Ii And Synergism With Anillin Are Required For Cytokinesis, Tara C. Smith, Peter C. Fridy, Yinyin Li, Shruti Basil, Sneha Arjun, Ryan M. Friesen, John D. Leszyk, Brian T. Chait, Michael P. Rout, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Cytokinesis, the process in which cytoplasm is apportioned between dividing daughter cells, requires coordination of myosin II function, membrane trafficking and central spindle organization. Most known regulators act during late cytokinesis; a few, including the myosin II-binding proteins anillin and supervillin, act earlier. Anillin's role in scaffolding the membrane cortex with the central spindle is well established, but the mechanism of supervillin action is relatively uncharacterized. We show here that two regions within supervillin affect cell division: residues 831-1281, which bind central spindle proteins, and residues 1-170, which bind the myosin II heavy chain (MHC) and the long form ...


Supervillin-Mediated Suppression Of P53 Protein Enhances Cell Survival, Zhiyou Fang, Elizabeth Luna Apr 2013

Supervillin-Mediated Suppression Of P53 Protein Enhances Cell Survival, Zhiyou Fang, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Integrin-based adhesions promote cell survival as well as cell motility and invasion. We show here that the adhesion regulatory protein supervillin increases cell survival by decreasing levels of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and downstream target genes. RNAi-mediated knockdown of a new splice form of supervillin (isoform 4) or both isoforms 1 and 4 increases the amount of p53 and cell death, whereas p53 levels decrease after overexpression of either supervillin isoform. Cellular responses to DNA damage induced by etoposide or doxorubicin include down-regulation of endogenous supervillin coincident with increases in p53. In DNA-damaged supervillin knockdown cells, p53 knockdown or ...


An N-Terminal, 830 Residues Intrinsically Disordered Region Of The Cytoskeleton-Regulatory Protein Supervillin Contains Myosin Ii- And F-Actin-Binding Sites, Stanislav Fedechkin, Jacob Brockerman, Elizabeth Luna, Michail Lobanov, Oxana Galzitskaya, Serge Smirnov Jan 2013

An N-Terminal, 830 Residues Intrinsically Disordered Region Of The Cytoskeleton-Regulatory Protein Supervillin Contains Myosin Ii- And F-Actin-Binding Sites, Stanislav Fedechkin, Jacob Brockerman, Elizabeth Luna, Michail Lobanov, Oxana Galzitskaya, Serge Smirnov

Elizabeth J. Luna

Supervillin, the largest member of the villin/gelsolin family, is a cytoskeleton regulating, peripheral membrane protein. Supervillin increases cell motility and promotes invasive activity in tumors. Major cytoskeletal interactors, including filamentous actin and myosin II, bind within the unique supervillin amino terminus, amino acids 1-830. The structural features of this key region of the supervillin polypeptide are unknown. Here, we utilize circular dichroism and bioinformatics sequence analysis to demonstrate that the N-terminal part of supervillin forms an extended intrinsically disordered region (IDR). Our combined data indicate that the N-terminus of human and bovine supervillin sequences (positions 1-830) represents an IDR ...


Human Genome-Wide Association And Mouse Knockout Approaches Identify Platelet Supervillin As An Inhibitor Of Thrombus Formation Under Shear Stress, Leonard Edelstein, Elizabeth Luna, Ian Gibson, Molly Bray, Ying Jin, Altaf Kondkar, Srikanth Nagalla, Nacima Hadjout-Rabi, Tara Smith, Daniel Covarrubias, Stephen Jones, Firdos Ahmad, Moritz Stolla, Xianguo Kong, Zhiyou Fang, Wolfgang Bergmeier, Chad Shaw, Suzanne Leal, Paul Bray Jan 2013

Human Genome-Wide Association And Mouse Knockout Approaches Identify Platelet Supervillin As An Inhibitor Of Thrombus Formation Under Shear Stress, Leonard Edelstein, Elizabeth Luna, Ian Gibson, Molly Bray, Ying Jin, Altaf Kondkar, Srikanth Nagalla, Nacima Hadjout-Rabi, Tara Smith, Daniel Covarrubias, Stephen Jones, Firdos Ahmad, Moritz Stolla, Xianguo Kong, Zhiyou Fang, Wolfgang Bergmeier, Chad Shaw, Suzanne Leal, Paul Bray

Elizabeth J. Luna

BACKGROUND: High shear force critically regulates platelet adhesion and thrombus formation during ischemic vascular events. To identify genetic factors that influence platelet thrombus formation under high shear stress, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and confirmatory experiments in human and animal platelets. METHODS AND RESULTS: Closure times in the shear-dependent Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100® were measured on healthy, non-diabetic European Americans (n=125) and African Americans (n=116). A GWAS significant association (p<5X10(-8)) was identified with 2 SNPs within the SVIL gene (chr 10p11.23) in African-Americans but not European Americans. Microarray analyses of human platelet ...


Novel Interactors And A Role For Supervillin In Early Cytokinesis, Tara Smith, Zhiyou Fang, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2011

Novel Interactors And A Role For Supervillin In Early Cytokinesis, Tara Smith, Zhiyou Fang, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Supervillin, the largest member of the villin/gelsolin/flightless family, is a peripheral membrane protein that regulates each step of cell motility, including cell spreading. Most known interactors bind within its amino (N)-terminus. We show here that the supervillin carboxy (C)-terminus can be modeled as supervillin-specific loops extending from gelsolin-like repeats plus a villin-like headpiece. We have identified 27 new candidate interactors from yeast two-hybrid screens. The interacting sequences from 12 of these proteins (BUB1, EPLIN/LIMA1, FLNA, HAX1, KIF14, KIFC3, MIF4GD/SLIP1, ODF2/Cenexin, RHAMM, STARD9/KIF16A, Tks5/SH3PXD2A, TNFAIP1) co-localize with and mis-localize EGFP-supervillin in mammalian ...


The Membrane-Associated Protein, Supervillin, Accelerates F-Actin-Dependent Rapid Integrin Recycling And Cell Motility, Zhiyou Fang, Norio Takizawa, Korey Wilson, Tara Smith, Anna Delprato, Michael Davidson, David Lambright, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2011

The Membrane-Associated Protein, Supervillin, Accelerates F-Actin-Dependent Rapid Integrin Recycling And Cell Motility, Zhiyou Fang, Norio Takizawa, Korey Wilson, Tara Smith, Anna Delprato, Michael Davidson, David Lambright, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

In migrating cells, the cytoskeleton coordinates signal transduction and redistribution of transmembrane proteins, including integrins and growth factor receptors. Supervillin is an F-actin- and myosin II-binding protein that tightly associates with signaling proteins in cholesterol-rich, 'lipid raft' membrane microdomains. We show here that supervillin also can localize with markers for early and sorting endosomes (EE/SE) and with overexpressed components of the Arf6 recycling pathway in the cell periphery. Supervillin tagged with the photoswitchable fluorescent protein, tdEos, moves both into and away from dynamic structures resembling podosomes at the basal cell surface. Rapid integrin recycling from EE/SE is inhibited ...


Supervillin Slows Cell Spreading By Facilitating Myosin Ii Activation At The Cell Periphery, Norio Takizawa, Reiko Ikebe, Mitsuo Ikebe, Elizabeth J. Luna Jan 2010

Supervillin Slows Cell Spreading By Facilitating Myosin Ii Activation At The Cell Periphery, Norio Takizawa, Reiko Ikebe, Mitsuo Ikebe, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

During cell migration, myosin II modulates adhesion, cell protrusion and actin organization at the leading edge. We show that an F-actin- and membrane-associated scaffolding protein, called supervillin (SV, p205), binds directly to the subfragment 2 domains of nonmuscle myosin IIA and myosin IIB and to the N-terminus of the long form of myosin light chain kinase (L-MLCK). SV inhibits cell spreading via an MLCK- and myosin II-dependent mechanism. Overexpression of SV reduces the rate of cell spreading, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous SV increases it. Endogenous and EGFP-tagged SV colocalize with, and enhance the formation of, cortical bundles of F-actin ...


Supervillin Reorganizes The Actin Cytoskeleton And Increases Invadopodial Efficiency, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Tara C. Smith, Zhiyou Fang, Norio Takizawa, Elizabeth J. Luna Jan 2010

Supervillin Reorganizes The Actin Cytoskeleton And Increases Invadopodial Efficiency, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Tara C. Smith, Zhiyou Fang, Norio Takizawa, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Tumor cells use actin-rich protrusions called invadopodia to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) and invade tissues; related structures, termed podosomes, are sites of dynamic ECM interaction. We show here that supervillin (SV), a peripheral membrane protein that binds F-actin and myosin II, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton and potentiates invadopodial function. Overexpressed SV induces redistribution of lamellipodial cortactin and lamellipodin/RAPH1/PREL1 away from the cell periphery to internal sites and concomitantly increases the numbers of F-actin punctae. Most punctae are highly dynamic and colocalize with the podosome/invadopodial proteins, cortactin, Tks5, and cdc42. Cortactin binds SV sequences in vitro and contributes ...


Dictyostelium Discoideum Plasma Membranes Contain An Actin-Nucleating Activity That Requires Ponticulin, An Integral Membrane Glycoprotein, A. Shariff, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Dictyostelium Discoideum Plasma Membranes Contain An Actin-Nucleating Activity That Requires Ponticulin, An Integral Membrane Glycoprotein, A. Shariff, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

In previous equilibrium binding studies, Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes have been shown to bind actin and to recruit actin into filaments at the membrane surface. However, little is known about the kinetic pathway(s) through which actin assembles at these, or other, membranes. We have used actin fluorescently labeled with N-(1-pyrenyl)iodoacetamide to examine the kinetics of actin assembly in the presence of D. discoideum plasma membranes. We find that these membranes increase the rate of actin polymerization. The rate of membrane-mediated actin polymerization is linearly dependent on membrane protein concentrations up to 20 micrograms/ml. Nucleation (the association ...


Ponticulin Plays A Role In The Positional Stabilization Of Pseudopods, D. C. Shutt, D. Wessels, K. Wagenknecht, A. Chandrasekhar, Anne L. Hitt, Elizabeth J. Luna, D. R. Soll Mar 2008

Ponticulin Plays A Role In The Positional Stabilization Of Pseudopods, D. C. Shutt, D. Wessels, K. Wagenknecht, A. Chandrasekhar, Anne L. Hitt, Elizabeth J. Luna, D. R. Soll

Elizabeth J. Luna

Ponticulin is a 17-kD glycoprotein that represents a major high affinity link between the plasma membrane and the cortical actin network of Dictyostelium. To assess the role of ponticulin in pseudopod extension and retraction, the motile behavior of two independently generated mutants lacking ponticulin was analyzed using computer-assisted two- and three-dimensional motion analysis systems. More than half of the lateral pseudopods formed off the substratum by ponticulin-minus cells slipped relative to the substratum during extension and retraction. In contrast, all pseudopods formed off the substratum by wild-type cells were positionally fixed in relation to the substratum. Ponticulin-minus cells also formed ...


Mutant Rac1b Expression In Dictyostelium: Effects On Morphology, Growth, Endocytosis, Development, And The Actin Cytoskeleton, S. Palmieri, Thomas Nebl, Robert Pope, D. Seastone, E. Lee, E. Hinchcliffe, Greenfield Sluder, D. Knecht, J. Cardelli, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

Mutant Rac1b Expression In Dictyostelium: Effects On Morphology, Growth, Endocytosis, Development, And The Actin Cytoskeleton, S. Palmieri, Thomas Nebl, Robert Pope, D. Seastone, E. Lee, E. Hinchcliffe, Greenfield Sluder, D. Knecht, J. Cardelli, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Rac1 is a small G-protein in the Ras superfamily that has been implicated in the control of cell growth, adhesion, and the actin-based cytoskeleton. To investigate the role of Rac1 during motile processes, we have established Dictyostelium cell lines that conditionally overexpress epitope-tagged Dictyostelium discoideum wild-type Rac1B (DdRac1B) or a mutant DdRac1B protein. Expression of endogenous levels of myc- or GFP-tagged wild-type DdRac1B had minimal effect on cellular morphologies and behaviors. By contrast, expression of a constitutively active mutant (G12-->V or Q61-->L) or a dominant negative mutant (T17-->N) generated amoebae with characteristic cellular defects. The morphological appearance ...


A Membrane Cytoskeleton From Dictyostelium Discoideum. Ii. Integral Proteins Mediate The Binding Of Plasma Membranes To F-Actin Affinity Beads, Elizabeth J. Luna, C. M. Goodloe-Holland, H. M. Ingalls Mar 2008

A Membrane Cytoskeleton From Dictyostelium Discoideum. Ii. Integral Proteins Mediate The Binding Of Plasma Membranes To F-Actin Affinity Beads, Elizabeth J. Luna, C. M. Goodloe-Holland, H. M. Ingalls

Elizabeth J. Luna

In novel, low-speed sedimentation assays, highly purified, sonicated Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membrane fragments bind to F-actin beads (fluorescein-labeled F-actin on antifluorescein IgG-Sephacryl S-1000 beads). Binding was found to be (a) specific, since beads containing bound fluorescein-labeled ovalbumin or beads without bound fluorescein-labeled protein do not bind membranes, (b) saturable at approximately 0.6 microgram of membrane protein per microgram of bead-bound F-actin, (c) rapid with a t1/2 of 4-20 min, and (d) apparently of reasonable affinity since the off rate is too slow to be measured by present techniques. Using low-speed sedimentation assays, we found that sonicated plasma membrane ...


Ponticulin Is An Atypical Membrane Protein, Anne L. Hitt, Tze Hong Lu, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Ponticulin Is An Atypical Membrane Protein, Anne L. Hitt, Tze Hong Lu, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

We have cloned and sequenced ponticulin, a 17,000-dalton integral membrane glycoprotein that binds F-actin and nucleates actin assembly. A single copy gene encodes a developmentally regulated message that is high during growth and early development, but drops precipitously during cell streaming at approximately 8 h of development. The deduced amino acid sequence predicts a protein with a cleaved NH2-terminal signal sequence and a COOH-terminal glycosyl anchor. These predictions are supported by amino acid sequencing of mature ponticulin and metabolic labeling with glycosyl anchor components. Although no alpha-helical membrane-spanning domains are apparent, several hydrophobic and/or sided beta-strands, each long ...


Binding And Assembly Of Actin Filaments By Plasma Membranes From Dictyostelium Discoideum, M. A. Schwartz, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Binding And Assembly Of Actin Filaments By Plasma Membranes From Dictyostelium Discoideum, M. A. Schwartz, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

The binding of native, 125I-Bolton-Hunter-labeled actin to purified Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes was measured using a sedimentation assay. Binding was saturable only in the presence of the actin capping protein, gelsolin. In the presence of gelsolin, the amount of actin bound at saturation to three different membrane preparations was 80, 120, and 200 micrograms/mg of membrane protein. The respective concentrations of actin at half-saturation were 8, 12, and 18 micrograms/ml. The binding curves were sigmoidal, indicating positive cooperativity at low actin concentrations. This cooperativity appeared to be due to actin-actin associations during polymerization, since phalloidin converted the curve ...


A Membrane Cytoskeleton From Dictyostelium Discoideum. I. Identification And Partial Characterization Of An Actin-Binding Activity, Elizabeth J. Luna, V. M. Fowler, J. Swanson, D. Branton, D. L. Taylor Mar 2008

A Membrane Cytoskeleton From Dictyostelium Discoideum. I. Identification And Partial Characterization Of An Actin-Binding Activity, Elizabeth J. Luna, V. M. Fowler, J. Swanson, D. Branton, D. L. Taylor

Elizabeth J. Luna

Dictyostelium discoideum plasma membranes isolated by each of three procedures bind F-actin. The interactions between these membranes and actin are examined by a novel application of falling ball viscometry. Treating the membranes as multivalent actin-binding particles analogous to divalent actin-gelation factors, we observe large increases in viscosity (actin cross-linking) when membranes of depleted actin and myosin are incubated with rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin. Pre-extraction of peripheral membrane proteins with chaotropes or the inclusion of Triton X-100 during the assay does not appreciably diminish this actin cross-linking activity. Lipid vesicles, heat-denatured membranes, proteolyzed membranes, or membranes containing endogenous actin show minimal ...


Patellin1, A Novel Sec14-Like Protein, Localizes To The Cell Plate And Binds Phosphoinositides, T. Peterman, Yamini Ohol, Lisa Mcreynolds, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

Patellin1, A Novel Sec14-Like Protein, Localizes To The Cell Plate And Binds Phosphoinositides, T. Peterman, Yamini Ohol, Lisa Mcreynolds, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Membrane trafficking is central to construction of the cell plate during plant cytokinesis. Consequently, a detailed understanding of the process depends on the characterization of molecules that function in the formation, transport, targeting, and fusion of membrane vesicles to the developing plate, as well as those that participate in its consolidation and maturation into a fully functional partition. Here we report the initial biochemical and functional characterization of patellin1 (PATL1), a novel cell-plate-associated protein that is related in sequence to proteins involved in membrane trafficking in other eukaryotes. Analysis of the Arabidopsis genome indicated that PATL1 is one of a ...


Identification By Peptide Analysis Of The Spectrin-Binding Protein In Human Erythrocytes, Elizabeth Luna, G. Kidd, D. Branton Mar 2008

Identification By Peptide Analysis Of The Spectrin-Binding Protein In Human Erythrocytes, Elizabeth Luna, G. Kidd, D. Branton

Elizabeth J. Luna

One-dimensional and two-dimensional peptide-mapping techniques are used to identify the protein which gives rise to the 72,000 dalton alpha-chymotryptic fragment previously shown to be the membrane attachment site for spectrin. Peptide maps of the 72,000 dalton fragment are very different from maps of Bands 1, 2, 2.9, 3, 3.1, 4.1, and 4.2 and very similar to maps of the apparently closely homologous polypeptides, Bands 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and 2.6. Limited proteolysis of erythrocyte membranes is shown to generate Band 3', another polypeptide which has been associated with spectrin-binding activity. Peptide ...


Supervillin (P205): A Novel Membrane-Associated, F-Actin-Binding Protein In The Villin/Gelsolin Superfamily, Kersi N. Pestonjamasp, Robert K. Pope, J. D. Wulfkuhle, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Supervillin (P205): A Novel Membrane-Associated, F-Actin-Binding Protein In The Villin/Gelsolin Superfamily, Kersi N. Pestonjamasp, Robert K. Pope, J. D. Wulfkuhle, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Actin-binding membrane proteins are involved in both adhesive interactions and motile processes. We report here the purification and initial characterization of p205, a 205-kD protein from bovine neutrophil plasma membranes that binds to the sides of actin filaments in blot overlays. p205 is a tightly bound peripheral membrane protein that cosediments with endogenous actin in sucrose gradients and immunoprecipitates. Amino acid sequences were obtained from SDS-PAGE-purified p205 and used to generate antipeptide antibodies, immunolocalization data, and cDNA sequence information. The intracellular localization of p205 in MDBK cells is a function of cell density and adherence state. In subconfluent cells, p205 ...


Direct Binding Of F-Actin To Ponticulin, An Integral Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein, C. Chia, Anne Hitt, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

Direct Binding Of F-Actin To Ponticulin, An Integral Plasma Membrane Glycoprotein, C. Chia, Anne Hitt, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

We have developed an 125I-labeled F-actin blot overlay assay for the identification of F-actin-binding proteins after transfer to nitrocellulose from SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Two major F-actin-binding proteins from Dictyostelium discoideum, a cytoplasmic 30 kDa protein and a 17 kDa integral membrane protein, and two minor membrane polypeptides of 19 kDa and 15 kDa were detected by this method. Using F-actin affinity and immunoaffinity chromatography, the 17 kDa polypeptide was identified as ponticulin, a previously described actin-binding glycoprotein from D. discoideum plasma membranes (Wuestehube, L.J., and Luna, E.J., [1987]: J. Cell Biol. 105:1741-1751). The binding of F-actin to ponticulin ...


Merlin Differs From Moesin In Binding To F-Actin And In Its Intra- And Intermolecular Interactions, L. Huang, E. Ichimaru, Kersi Pestonjamasp, X. Cui, H. Nakamura, G. Lo, F. Lin, Elizabeth Luna, H. Furthmayr Mar 2008

Merlin Differs From Moesin In Binding To F-Actin And In Its Intra- And Intermolecular Interactions, L. Huang, E. Ichimaru, Kersi Pestonjamasp, X. Cui, H. Nakamura, G. Lo, F. Lin, Elizabeth Luna, H. Furthmayr

Elizabeth J. Luna

The neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene encodes merlin, a protein with homology to the cell membrane/F-actin linking proteins, moesin, ezrin and radixin. Unlike these closely related proteins, merlin lacks a C-terminal F-actin binding site detectable by actin blot overlays, and the GFP-tagged merlin C-terminal domain co-distributes with neither stress fibers nor cortical actin in NIH3T3 cells. Merlin also differs from the other three proteins in its inter- and intramolecular domain interactions, as shown by in vitro binding and yeast two-hybrid assays. As is true for ezrin, moesin and radixin, the N- and C-terminal domains of merlin type ...


A Stable, High Capacity, F-Actin Affinity Column, Elizabeth Luna, Y. Wang, E. Voss, D. Branton, D. Taylor Mar 2008

A Stable, High Capacity, F-Actin Affinity Column, Elizabeth Luna, Y. Wang, E. Voss, D. Branton, D. Taylor

Elizabeth J. Luna

A high capacity F-actin affinity matrix is constructed by binding fluorescyl-actin to rabbit anti-fluorescein IgG that is covalently bound to Sepharose 4B. When stabilized with phalloidin, the actin remains associated with the Sepharose beads during repeated washes, activates the ATPase activity of myosin subfragment 1, and specifically binds 125I-heavy meromyosin and 125I-tropomyosin. The associations between the F-actin affinity matrix and the iodinated F-actin binding proteins are monitored both by affinity chromatography and by a rapid, low speed sedimentation assay. Anti-fluorescein IgG-Sepharose should be generally useful as a matrix for the immobilization of proteins containing accessible, covalently bound fluorescein groups.


Smooth Muscle Archvillin: A Novel Regulator Of Signaling And Contractility In Vascular Smooth Muscle, Samudra S. Gangopadhyay, Norio Takizawa, Cynthia Gallant, Amy L. Barber, Hyun-Dong Je, Tara C. Smith, Elizabeth J. Luna, Kathleen G. Morgan Mar 2008

Smooth Muscle Archvillin: A Novel Regulator Of Signaling And Contractility In Vascular Smooth Muscle, Samudra S. Gangopadhyay, Norio Takizawa, Cynthia Gallant, Amy L. Barber, Hyun-Dong Je, Tara C. Smith, Elizabeth J. Luna, Kathleen G. Morgan

Elizabeth J. Luna

The mechanisms by which protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) govern smooth-muscle contractility remain unclear. Calponin (CaP), an actin-binding protein and PKC substrate, mediates signaling through ERK1/2. We report here that CaP sequences containing the CaP homology (CH) domain bind to the C-terminal 251 amino acids of smooth-muscle archvillin (SmAV), a new splice variant of supervillin, which is a known actin- and myosin-II-binding protein. The CaP-SmAV interaction is demonstrated by reciprocal yeast two-hybrid and blot-overlay assays and by colocalization in COS-7 cells. In differentiated smooth muscle, endogenous SmAV and CaP co-fractionate and co-translocate to the cell ...


Supervillin Modulation Of Focal Adhesions Involving Trip6/Zrp-1, Norio Takizawa, Tara C. Smith, Thomas Nebl, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Stephen J. Palmieri, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Anka G. Ehrhardt, Laura M. Hoffman, Mary C. Beckerle, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Supervillin Modulation Of Focal Adhesions Involving Trip6/Zrp-1, Norio Takizawa, Tara C. Smith, Thomas Nebl, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Stephen J. Palmieri, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Anka G. Ehrhardt, Laura M. Hoffman, Mary C. Beckerle, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Cell-substrate contacts, called focal adhesions (FAs), are dynamic in rapidly moving cells. We show that supervillin (SV)--a peripheral membrane protein that binds myosin II and F-actin in such cells--negatively regulates stress fibers, FAs, and cell-substrate adhesion. The major FA regulatory sequence within SV (SV342-571) binds to the LIM domains of two proteins in the zyxin family, thyroid receptor-interacting protein 6 (TRIP6) and lipoma-preferred partner (LPP), but not to zyxin itself. SV and TRIP6 colocalize within large FAs, where TRIP6 may help recruit SV. RNAi-mediated decreases in either protein increase cell adhesion to fibronectin. TRIP6 partially rescues SV effects on ...


F-Actin And Myosin Ii Binding Domains In Supervillin, Yu Chen, Norio Takizawa, Jessica Crowley, Sang Oh, Cheryl Gatto, Taketoshi Kambara, Osamu Sato, Xiang-Dong Li, Mitsuo Ikebe, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2008

F-Actin And Myosin Ii Binding Domains In Supervillin, Yu Chen, Norio Takizawa, Jessica Crowley, Sang Oh, Cheryl Gatto, Taketoshi Kambara, Osamu Sato, Xiang-Dong Li, Mitsuo Ikebe, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Detergent-resistant membranes contain signaling and integral membrane proteins that organize cholesterol-rich domains called lipid rafts. A subset of these detergent-resistant membranes (DRM-H) exhibits a higher buoyant density ( approximately 1.16 g/ml) because of association with membrane skeleton proteins, including actin, myosin II, myosin 1G, fodrin, and an actin- and membrane-binding protein called supervillin (Nebl, T., Pestonjamasp, K. N., Leszyk, J. D., Crowley, J. L., Oh, S. W., and Luna, E. J. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 43399-43409). To characterize interactions among DRM-H cytoskeletal proteins, we investigated the binding partners of the novel supervillin N terminus, specifically amino acids 1-830 ...


Domain Analysis Of Supervillin, An F-Actin Bundling Plasma Membrane Protein With Functional Nuclear Localization Signals, J. D. Wulfkuhle, I. E. Donina, N. H. Stark, Robert K. Pope, Kersi N. Pestonjamasp, M. L. Niswonger, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Domain Analysis Of Supervillin, An F-Actin Bundling Plasma Membrane Protein With Functional Nuclear Localization Signals, J. D. Wulfkuhle, I. E. Donina, N. H. Stark, Robert K. Pope, Kersi N. Pestonjamasp, M. L. Niswonger, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

A growing number of actin-associated membrane proteins have been implicated in motile processes, adhesive interactions, and signal transduction to the cell nucleus. We report here that supervillin, an F-actin binding protein originally isolated from bovine neutrophil plasma membranes, contains functional nuclear targeting signals and localizes at or near vinculin-containing focal adhesion plaques in COS7-2 and CV1 cells. Overexpression of full-length supervillin in these cells disrupts the integrity of focal adhesion plaques and results in increased levels of F-actin and vinculin. Localization studies of chimeric proteins containing supervillin sequences fused with the enhanced green fluorescent protein indicate that: (1) the amino ...


The Integral Membrane Protein, Ponticulin, Acts As A Monomer In Nucleating Actin Assembly, C. P. Chia, A. Shariff, S. A. Savage, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

The Integral Membrane Protein, Ponticulin, Acts As A Monomer In Nucleating Actin Assembly, C. P. Chia, A. Shariff, S. A. Savage, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

Ponticulin, an F-actin binding transmembrane glycoprotein in Dictyostelium plasma membranes, was isolated by detergent extraction from cytoskeletons and purified to homogeneity. Ponticulin is an abundant membrane protein, averaging approximately 10(6) copies/cell, with an estimated surface density of approximately 300 per microns2. Ponticulin solubilized in octylglucoside exhibited hydrodynamic properties consistent with a ponticulin monomer in a spherical or slightly ellipsoidal detergent micelle with a total molecular mass of 56 +/- 6 kD. Purified ponticulin nucleated actin polymerization when reconstituted into Dictyostelium lipid vesicles, but not when a number of commercially available lipids and lipid mixtures were substituted for the endogenous ...


Archvillin, A Muscle-Specific Isoform Of Supervillin, Is An Early Expressed Component Of The Costameric Membrane Skeleton, Sang W. Oh, Robert K. Pope, Kelly P. Smith, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Thomas Nebl, Jeanne B. Lawrence, Elizabeth J. Luna Mar 2008

Archvillin, A Muscle-Specific Isoform Of Supervillin, Is An Early Expressed Component Of The Costameric Membrane Skeleton, Sang W. Oh, Robert K. Pope, Kelly P. Smith, Jessica Lynn Crowley, Thomas Nebl, Jeanne B. Lawrence, Elizabeth J. Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

The membrane skeleton protein supervillin binds tightly to both F-actin and membranes and can potentiate androgen receptor activity in non-muscle cells. We report that muscle, which constitutes the principal tissue source for supervillin sequences, contains a approximately 250 kDa isoform of supervillin that localizes within nuclei and with dystrophin at costameres, regions of F-actin membrane attachment in skeletal muscle. The gene encoding this protein, 'archvillin' (Latin, archi; Greek, archos; 'principal' or 'chief'), contains an evolutionarily conserved, muscle-specific 5' leader sequence. Archvillin cDNAs also contain four exons that encode approximately 47 kDa of additional muscle-specific protein sequence in the form of ...