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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Muscle Degeneration In A Zebrafish Model Of Lysosomal Related Myopathy, Elizabeth Coffey May 2019

Muscle Degeneration In A Zebrafish Model Of Lysosomal Related Myopathy, Elizabeth Coffey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Muscle development and homeostasis are critical for normal muscle function. A key aspect of muscle physiology during development, growth and homeostasis is modulation of protein turnover. Protein turnover is the balance between synthesis and degradation of muscle proteins. The rate of protein degradation is the major factor underlying overall muscle growth during development. Protein degradation mainly takes place in the lysosome. The efficiency of lysosomal protein degradation depends upon lysosomal pH, which is generated and maintained by proton pumps. Despite the importance of protein degradation in muscle growth during development, the impact of dysregulated lysosomal pH on muscle development, growth ...


Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Ligands Regulate Dimer Selection., Jamie S. Rush Dec 2018

Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Ligands Regulate Dimer Selection., Jamie S. Rush

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There are thirteen known endogenous EGF-like ligands. We previously reported that Betacellulin (BTC) increases ligand-mediated corneal wound healing more than Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) [Peterson et al. (2014) IOVS 55(5):2870-80], although the molecular reason for this is unknown. Despite being better at promoting wound healing via enhanced cell migration, BTC has reduced receptor affinity and weaker induction of EGFR phosphorylation. These data indicate that BTC’s response is not due to enhanced affinity or EGFR-kinase activity. Receptor phosphorylation and proximity ligation assays indicate that BTC treatment significantly increases ErbB3 phosphorylation and EGFR:ErbB3 heterodimers. BTC traffics EGFR at ...


Characterization Of Phosphorylated G Protein Function And Membrane Culstering By Super Resolution Imaging, Sarah A. Alamer Aug 2018

Characterization Of Phosphorylated G Protein Function And Membrane Culstering By Super Resolution Imaging, Sarah A. Alamer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Heterotrimeric G proteins play crucial roles in various signal transduction pathways, where they act as molecular switches in transducing a signal from G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the plasma membrane to downstream effectors. Although their mechanism of action is mostly concentrated at the plasma membrane, their dynamic membrane organization and how it is regulated are not understood. Due to the diffraction limited resolution of fluorescence microscopy, studying the precise organization of membrane proteins can be challenging. In this study, we took advantage of super-resolution fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (FPALM) to overcome this challenge. Dictyostelium discoideum was used as a ...


Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney Aug 2018

Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR dimerizes with another ErbB family receptor, leading to kinase domain activation and transphosphorylation of C-terminus tyrosine residues. These phosphotyrosines act as crucial regulators of EGFR signaling as effector proteins dock to the receptor at these sites. The receptor undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis into early endosomes, where it can then be trafficked to a lysosome for degradation. However, the kinase domain of EGFR retains its activity during trafficking, suggesting that EGFR can continue ...


Unfolded Protein Response Pathways In Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis., Kyle R. Bohnert Aug 2018

Unfolded Protein Response Pathways In Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis., Kyle R. Bohnert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Skeletal muscle mass, contractile properties, and metabolic function are regulated through the coordinated activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways and genetic reprogramming. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a pivotal role in protein folding and calcium homeostasis in many cell types, including skeletal muscle. Disruption of calcium levels or accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen leads to stress, which results in the activation of a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Further, recent studies have suggested that in certain conditions, UPR pathways can be activated independent of ER stress. However, the role of ER stress and the ...


Pi3k/Akt Signaling Activates Hsf1 To Preserve Proteostasis And Sustain Growth, Zijian Tang May 2018

Pi3k/Akt Signaling Activates Hsf1 To Preserve Proteostasis And Sustain Growth, Zijian Tang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Signaling through oncogenic PI3K/AKT kinase pathway is crucial to cell and organ growth. Phosphorylation by AKT has long been perceived as a key factor to enhance protein biosynthesis that enables cell growth and survival. Here, we report that HSF1, the master regulator of the proteotoxic stress response (PSR), is a new AKT substrate. Beyond mobilizing the PSR under heat shock, the AKT-mediated HSF1 activation supports robust growth. In a mouse model of human megalencephaly, expression of a constitutively active PI3KCAsuffices to drive brain overgrowth, and strikingly, it also provokes proteomic chaos including protein aggregation and amyloidogenesis. Deletion of ...


Tarbp2 -Mediated Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Gene Expression During Murine Embryonic Development And Spermatogenesis, Sri Ramulu N. Pullagura May 2018

Tarbp2 -Mediated Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Gene Expression During Murine Embryonic Development And Spermatogenesis, Sri Ramulu N. Pullagura

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Micro RNAs (miRNAs), which are ~22 nucleotide (nt) long RNA molecules and several RNA binding proteins (RBPs) engage in an RNA dependent post-transcriptional gene silencing process known as RNA interference (RNAi). In the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway, an enzyme known as DICER cleaves the ~70nt pre-miRNA to a ~22nt long miRNA that is loaded into the RNAi effector mechanism, the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC).

Several in vitro studies provide suggestive evidence that mammalian double stranded RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs), such as TARBP2, act as DICER cofactors in miRNA processing and RISC loading to promote RNAi activity. A screen attempting ...


Evaluating The Interaction Between The Human Mealanocortin-2 Receptor And The Accessory Protein, Mrap1: Chimeric Receptor And Alanine Substitution Studies On Transmembrane Domain 4, Extracellular Loop 2, And Transmembrane Domain 5, Perry Victoria Davis Jan 2018

Evaluating The Interaction Between The Human Mealanocortin-2 Receptor And The Accessory Protein, Mrap1: Chimeric Receptor And Alanine Substitution Studies On Transmembrane Domain 4, Extracellular Loop 2, And Transmembrane Domain 5, Perry Victoria Davis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) is the most complex due to its trafficking and ligand selectivity requirements for proper activation. The MC2R requires the melanocortin receptor accessory protein-1 (MRAP1) for proper trafficking and activation of the receptor by the melanocortin hormone, ACTH. MRAP1 is a single transmembrane-spanning domain protein that creates a homodimer with another MRAP1 protein. Furthermore, MRAP2 creates a heterodimer with the MC2R. Previous studies have shown that the MRAP1 protein contains an activation motif required for activation of MC2R and this activation motif located on the extracellular space side of the plasma membrane of the cell. The objective ...


Environmental And Physiological Regulation Of Yellow Stingray Color Change, Theresa Rose Gunn Jan 2018

Environmental And Physiological Regulation Of Yellow Stingray Color Change, Theresa Rose Gunn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many reef fishes exhibit dynamic coloration and body patterns that can change under nervous or hormonal control. Several species of benthic sharks and rays likely alter melanin in the skin to provide background matching for camouflage. The yellow stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis) is a benthically-oriented elasmobranch with elaborate spot patterns that provide effective camouflage within its habitats. This patterning, when coupled with the ability to alter melanin in response to background color, could increase background matching effectiveness in these species. The yellow stingray has been anecdotally noted to lighten or darken skin color.However, it is unclear whether this type of ...


Origins Of Animal Cell Adhesion, Jennyfer Mora Mitchell Jan 2018

Origins Of Animal Cell Adhesion, Jennyfer Mora Mitchell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A fundamental requirement for multicellularity is cell adhesion. This includes mechanisms by which cells adhere to each other and to their secreted extracellular matrix (ECM). Two well characterized adhesion complexes in animals include: 1) adherens junctions (AJs), which are involved in cell-cell adhesion and composed of cadherin receptors, p120-, α- and β-catenin, and 2) focal adhesions (FAs), which are involved in cell-ECM adhesion and include proteins such as integrins, vinculin, paxillin, talin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The molecular components of AJs are widely conserved in animals, and largely absent in non-animals. In contrast, the molecular components of FAs have ...


Superresolved Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Spatial Arrangement Of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (Hiv-1) Envelope Glycoprotein At Sites Of Viral Assembly, Carmen Anne Buttler Jan 2018

Superresolved Three-Dimensional Analysis Of The Spatial Arrangement Of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (Hiv-1) Envelope Glycoprotein At Sites Of Viral Assembly, Carmen Anne Buttler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates by forcing infected host cells to produce new virus particles, which assemble form protein components on the inner leaflet of the host cell's plasma membrane. This involves incorporation of the essential viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) into a structural lattice of viral Gag proteins. The mechanism of Env recruitment and incorporation is not well understood. To better define this process, we seek to describe the timing of Env-Gag encounters during particle assembly by measuring angular positions of Env proteins about the surfaces of budding particles. Using three-dimensional superresolution microscopy, we show that Env ...


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers Aug 2017

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...


The Regulation Of Rotavirus–Infected Ht29.F8 And Ma104 Cells Treated With Arachidin 1 Or Arachidin 3, Caleb M. Witcher May 2017

The Regulation Of Rotavirus–Infected Ht29.F8 And Ma104 Cells Treated With Arachidin 1 Or Arachidin 3, Caleb M. Witcher

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rotavirus (RV) infections cause severe life threatening diarrhea in young children and immunocompromised individuals. Several effective vaccines have been developed for young children but are not protective against all strains of RV, and there are no anti-RV therapeutics. Our laboratory has discovered a decrease in the number of infectious simian RV particles (SA114f) in human intestinal cell line, HT29.f8 cells with the addition of either of two stilbenoids, arachidin-1 (A1) or arachidin-3 (A3). This suggests effects on the host cell and RV replication. We examined the cellular effects of human RV strain (Wa) on a human intestinal cell line ...


Identifying The Signaling Mechanisms Of Egfr-Mediated Apoptosis., Nicole Marion Jackson May 2017

Identifying The Signaling Mechanisms Of Egfr-Mediated Apoptosis., Nicole Marion Jackson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a 170-kilodalton transmembrane protein that belongs to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Upon ligand-mediated activation, the EGFR is responsible for cell growth, proliferation, and tissue homeostasis; however, the EGFR is overexpressed in many human malignancies, including MDA-MB-468 cells, a metastatic breast epithelial cell line. Studies within this cell line, and other cell lines characterized with high EGFR levels, have shown that EGF stimulation results in the induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms and signaling effectors implicated in this process have yet to be elucidated. The overarching research goal of this dissertation ...


Dense Core Vesicle Heterogeneity In Anterior Pituitary Cells, Kelly Sinak Jan 2017

Dense Core Vesicle Heterogeneity In Anterior Pituitary Cells, Kelly Sinak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Peptides, which are packaged in dense core vesicles, are an integral part of the function of the endocrine and neurological systems. The dense core vesicles function as an efficient form of peptide storage prior to regulated exocytosis. Two different dense core specific transmembrane proteins traffic different when comparted to retained prolactin cores, offering evidence of heterogeneity of vesicles within a single cell. By comparing synaptotagmin 1 and 7 distribution in male rat and lactating female lactotrophs, a distinct pattern emerges. Cells that retain prolactin cores after exocytosis correspond with those that contain synaptotagmin 1. This finding is a reversal for ...


Endothelial Hspa12b Is A Novel Protein For The Preservation Of Cardiovascular Function In Polymicrobial Sepsis Via Exosome Mir-126, Xia Zhang Aug 2016

Endothelial Hspa12b Is A Novel Protein For The Preservation Of Cardiovascular Function In Polymicrobial Sepsis Via Exosome Mir-126, Xia Zhang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sepsis is the most frequent cause of mortality in most intensive care units. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a major complication associated with sepsis, with high mortality rates up to 70%. Currently, there is no effective treatment approach for sepsis.

The integrity of the endothelium is fundamental for the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Sepsis induces endothelial cell injury which is the key factor for multiple organ failure. The increased expression of adhesion molecules and chemokines in endothelial cell promotes leukocytes infiltration into the tissue. The loss of tight junction proteins and increased permeability of the endothelial cells will provoke tissue hypoxia ...


Isolation Of Egfr-Containing Early Endosomes., Julie A. Gosney Aug 2016

Isolation Of Egfr-Containing Early Endosomes., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This spatial regulation of the receptor is an important regulator of receptor expression as it mediates its degradation. Endocytosis also has implications on EGFR downstream signaling, though the details are not fully understood. The goal of this thesis is to develop a method to isolate early endosomes in order to study downstream effectors associated with activated EGFR in this compartment. HeLa cells were used to test various ...


Identification Of Host Factors Required For Yersinia Pestis Macrophage Intracellular Survival And Their Impact On Vacuole Maturation, Acidification And Trafficking., Michael Graylin Connor May 2016

Identification Of Host Factors Required For Yersinia Pestis Macrophage Intracellular Survival And Their Impact On Vacuole Maturation, Acidification And Trafficking., Michael Graylin Connor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Y. pestis is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of plague. This bacterium, while most noted or the Black Death during the European 14th century, is not a historic pathogen but a re-emerging pandemic with both domestic and global impact. Y. pestis is capable of colonizing the macrophage, and actively subverts phagolysosome maturation to establish a replicative niche known as the Yersinia containing vacuole (YCV). The exploited host factors required to support the YCV are unknown. Here we identified a comprehensive list of host factors required for Y. pestis survival through a genome-wide RNAi high-throughput screen. We ...


The Apoptotic And Inhibitory Effects Of Phylloquinone In The U937 Cell Line, Tesha E. Blair May 2016

The Apoptotic And Inhibitory Effects Of Phylloquinone In The U937 Cell Line, Tesha E. Blair

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Phylloquinone is a natural analog of vitamin K that has been shown to both inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. This study examined these effects in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell line, known as U937. Cell growth inhibition and apoptosis were assessed through the quantification of cell density and area, following treatment with several concentrations of phylloquinone. In addition, apoptosis was detected and quantified using immunofluorescent markers of apoptosis (i.e. annexin V, APO-BrdU). Treatment with phylloquinone resulted in reduced overall cell density, increased overall cell area, and an increased frequency of apoptosis in U937 ...


Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton May 2016

Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Endogenous and exogenous agents that can damage DNA are a constant threat to genome stability in all living cells. In response, cells have evolved an array of mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the cells damaged beyond repair. One of these mechanisms is nucleotide excision repair (NER) which is the major repair pathway responsible for removing a wide variety of bulky DNA lesions. Deficiency, or mutation, in one or several of the NER repair proteins is responsible for many diseases, including cancer. Prokaryotic NER involves only three proteins to recognize and incise a damaged site, while eukaryotic NER ...


Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely May 2016

Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule that functions to facilitate bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 has also been reported to affect many aspects of human host cell physiology, including evoking cell death in various types of cells. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggerred cell death remains unclear. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in one or more caspases. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in cells, probably through the direct induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Previous ...


Akap150 Dynamics In Anterior Pituitary Cells, Kristen E. Dew Jan 2016

Akap150 Dynamics In Anterior Pituitary Cells, Kristen E. Dew

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cellular communication occurs as a result of changes in signaling pathways. A well-studied signaling pathway is through G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In gonadotropes, GPCR stimulation by GnRH leads to the activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Activated PKA can phosphorylate ion channels, potentially causing an influx of calcium, depolarization and secretion of hormones. A scaffolding protein known as AKAP150 anchors PKA near L-type calcium channels. In addition, AKAP150 anchors phosphatases, which provides temporal control during signaling events. It was recently shown that AKAP150 is mobile in neuronal dendrites, providing regulation to where the signaling cascade occurs in the cell ...


Thinking Beyond The Fried Egg Model: How Accurately Do Students Perceive Cells In A Living Context?, Milissa Knox Dec 2015

Thinking Beyond The Fried Egg Model: How Accurately Do Students Perceive Cells In A Living Context?, Milissa Knox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This exploratory study investigated three aspects of introductory undergraduate biology students’ understanding about cells. The study, which took place at the University of Maine with voluntary students in Basic Biology (“BIO100”) in the summer and fall of 2009, examined (1) students’ pre-course perceptions of cells as they exist in a living context and (2) gains in students’ perception and knowledge about cells after completing the one-semester course (BIO100). Results are based on lecture exam scores, pre-post surveys developed as a part of this thesis, and interviews with two groups of biology students. A total of 498 students participated in the ...


Regulation Of Synaptogenesis By The Mirna Pathway And Fmr/P Bodies, Jacqueline Rochelle Furlong Jan 2015

Regulation Of Synaptogenesis By The Mirna Pathway And Fmr/P Bodies, Jacqueline Rochelle Furlong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA is facilitated by different mechanisms, such as microRNA (miRNA) induced gene silencing or fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) mediated repression either independent of or acting through cytoplasmic RNA Processing bodies (P bodies). DPTP99A, Lar, and Wg have known functions during synaptogenesis and may be targets of miR-8. Here, we provide evidence that miR-8 regulates DPTP99A in vitro. Non-endogenous miR-8 expressed using an UAS driver regulates Lar. Endogenous miR-8 may regulate DPTP99A in vivo. Here we show that FMRP is capable of colocalizing with the P body components: DCP1, HPat, and Me31B, but not CCR4. We ...


Rab8 Directs Tubulation And Furrow Ingression During Epithelial Formation In Drosophila Melanogaster, Lauren Mackenzie Mavor Jan 2015

Rab8 Directs Tubulation And Furrow Ingression During Epithelial Formation In Drosophila Melanogaster, Lauren Mackenzie Mavor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the most fundamental changes in cell morphology is the formation of a plasma membrane furrow. The Drosophila embryo undergoes several cycles of rapid furrow ingression during early development, which culminates in the formation of an epithelial sheet. Previous studies have demonstrated the requirement for intracellular trafficking pathways in furrow ingression; however, the pathways that link compartmental behaviors with cortical furrow ingression events have remained unclear. This research shows that Rab8, a small GTPase associated with late exocytic trafficking events, demonstrates striking dynamic behaviors in vivo; transitioning from punctate structures to a stable association with the cortex during furrow ...


The Role Of Stem Cells In Adipose Tissue Remodeling., Candice Reshay Holden 1988- Dec 2014

The Role Of Stem Cells In Adipose Tissue Remodeling., Candice Reshay Holden 1988-

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The work presented in this dissertation outlines the role of stem cells in the remodeling of adipose tissue under conditions of nutrient excess. Obesity-induced variations in adipose tissue stem cell distribution were uncovered by analysis of the stromal vascular fraction isolated from mice fed a high fat diet for several weeks. Bone marrow cell transplantation was used to determine the derivation of progenitor cells found in adipose tissue; and supplementation of depleted progenitor cell populations achieved via direct cell transplantation, helped to determine the contribution of these progenitor cells to the remodeling process. The dissertation is presented in five chapters ...


Cellular Coping Mechanisms To Hypoxia In The Longhorn Sculpin (Myoxocephalus Octodecemspinosus) Brain, Kelly Heino Jan 2014

Cellular Coping Mechanisms To Hypoxia In The Longhorn Sculpin (Myoxocephalus Octodecemspinosus) Brain, Kelly Heino

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The loss of neurological function due to hypoxia remains to be a challenge in many species due to the lack of knowledge and understanding of cellular responses. To investigate cellular responses and survival strategies of the brain during hypoxia and post-hypoxia recovery in a moderate hypoxia-tolerant species, with the hopes of identifying possible therapeutic remedies, thirty Longhorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus, were challenged with acute hypoxia (40% O2 saturation for 1 h) and twelve additional sculpin were used as controls (~90% O2 saturation). Fish were sampled at each of the following time points: control/normoxic conditions (T=0 h); hypoxic ...


Regulation Of Chromosome Segregation In Drosophila Meiosis, Zhi Hao Guo Jan 2014

Regulation Of Chromosome Segregation In Drosophila Meiosis, Zhi Hao Guo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sister-chromatid cohesion is maintained by Cohesin complex. Separase releases the cohesion through the cleavage of the kleisin subunit of Cohesin complex. Separase is regulated by its inhibitor, Securin/Pim. These processes are well studied in mitosis but little is known for meiosis. I found that Separase is required for the proper separation of homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids in Drosophila meiosis. Its function is inhibited by Securin/Pim during the process. I showed that the common kleisin subunit, Rad21, is not likely to be the meiotic target of Separase and that Rad21 and another common Cohesin component, SMC3/CAP, does ...


New Insights Into The Roles Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In The Regulation Of Nucleotide Excision Repair And Dna Damage-Induced Cell Death, Zhengke Li Dec 2013

New Insights Into The Roles Of Human Dna Damage Checkpoint Protein Atr In The Regulation Of Nucleotide Excision Repair And Dna Damage-Induced Cell Death, Zhengke Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Integrity of the human genome is frequently threatened by endogenous and exogenous DNA damaging reagents that may lead to genome instability and cancer. Cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the damaged cells beyond repair and to prevent diverse diseases. Among these are ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR)-mediated DNA damage checkpoint and nucleotide excision repair (NER) that are the major pathways by which cells handle ultraviolet C (UV-C)- or other exogenous genotoxin-induced bulky DNA damage. However, it is unclear how these 2 pathways may be coordinated. In this study we show that ATR physically ...


Vitamin E (Tocotrienols) And Prostate Cancer: A Proteomics Approach., Christian Mbangha Muenyi Aug 2007

Vitamin E (Tocotrienols) And Prostate Cancer: A Proteomics Approach., Christian Mbangha Muenyi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Proteomics is the large scale study of proteins in cells or organisms. The purpose of this study was to characterize the proteomic alterations occurring in a prostate cancer (LNCaP) cell line after treatment with delta-tocotrienol (a form of vitamin E not very prevalent from most dietary sources). We found that both gamma- and delta-tocotrienols induced time and concentration dependent growth inhibition and programmed cell dead (apoptosis) in LNCaP cells. Secondly, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to characterize changes in protein expression levels associated with this treatment. Our results show that a specific set of proteins are regulated at both ...