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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

The 'Pseudomonas Aeruginosa' Psl Polysaccharide Is A Social But Noncheatable Trait In Biofilms, Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E. Roberts, Kasper N. Kragh, Vernita D. Gordon, Jaime B. Hutchison, Rosalind J. Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A. West, Stephen P. Diggle Jun 2017

The 'Pseudomonas Aeruginosa' Psl Polysaccharide Is A Social But Noncheatable Trait In Biofilms, Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E. Roberts, Kasper N. Kragh, Vernita D. Gordon, Jaime B. Hutchison, Rosalind J. Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A. West, Stephen P. Diggle

Biology Faculty Publications

Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides populationlevel benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic ...


Macrophages Are Necessary For Epimorphic Regeneration In African Spiny Mice, Jennifer Simkin, Thomas R. Gawriluk, John C. Gensel, Ashley W. Seifert May 2017

Macrophages Are Necessary For Epimorphic Regeneration In African Spiny Mice, Jennifer Simkin, Thomas R. Gawriluk, John C. Gensel, Ashley W. Seifert

Biology Faculty Publications

How the immune system affects tissue regeneration is not well understood. In this study, we used an emerging mammalian model of epimorphic regeneration, the African spiny mouse, to examine cell-based inflammation and tested the hypothesis that macrophages are necessary for regeneration. By directly comparing inflammatory cell activation in a 4 mm ear injury during regeneration (Acomys cahirinus) and scarring (Mus musculus), we found that both species exhibited an acute inflammatory response, with scarring characterized by stronger myeloperoxidase activity. In contrast, ROS production was stronger and more persistent during regeneration. By depleting macrophages during injury, we demonstrate a functional requirement for ...


Characterization Of A New Oda3 Allele, Oda3-6, Defective In Assembly Of The Outer Dynein Arm-Docking Complex In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Jason M. Brown, Matthew Mosley, Daniela Montes-Berrueta, Yuqing Hou, Fan Yang, Chasity Scarbrough, George B. Witman, Maureen Wirschell Mar 2017

Characterization Of A New Oda3 Allele, Oda3-6, Defective In Assembly Of The Outer Dynein Arm-Docking Complex In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Jason M. Brown, Matthew Mosley, Daniela Montes-Berrueta, Yuqing Hou, Fan Yang, Chasity Scarbrough, George B. Witman, Maureen Wirschell

Biology Faculty Publications

We have used an insertional mutagenesis approach to generate new C. reinhardtii motility mutants. Of 56 mutants isolated, one is a new allele at the ODA3 locus, called oda3-6. Similar to the previously characterized oda3 alleles, oda3-6 has a slow-jerky swimming phenotype and reduced swimming speed. The oda3-6 mutant fails to assemble the outer dynein arm motor and outer dynein arm—docking complex (ODA-DC) in the ciliary axoneme due to an insertion in the 5’ end of the DCC1 gene, which encodes the DC1 subunit of the ODA-DC. Transformation of oda3-6 with the wild-type DCC1 gene rescues the mutant swimming ...


Evolutionary Adaptations Of Biofilms Infecting Cystic Fibrosis Lungs Promote Mechanical Toughness By Adjusting Polysaccharide Production, Kristin Kovach, Megan Davis-Fields, Yasuhiko Irie, Kanishk Jain, Shashvat Doorwar, Katherine Vuong, Numa Dhamani, Kishore Mohanty, Ahmed Touhami, Vernita D. Gordon Jan 2017

Evolutionary Adaptations Of Biofilms Infecting Cystic Fibrosis Lungs Promote Mechanical Toughness By Adjusting Polysaccharide Production, Kristin Kovach, Megan Davis-Fields, Yasuhiko Irie, Kanishk Jain, Shashvat Doorwar, Katherine Vuong, Numa Dhamani, Kishore Mohanty, Ahmed Touhami, Vernita D. Gordon

Biology Faculty Publications

Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, largely polysaccharides. Multiple types of extracellular polymeric substances can be produced by a single bacterial strain. The distinct polymer components of biofilms are known to provide chemical protection, but little is known about how distinct extracellular polysaccharides may also protect biofilms against mechanical stresses such as shear or phagocytic engulfment. Decades-long infections of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients are natural models for studies of biofilm fitness under pressure from antibiotics and the immune system. In cystic fibrosis infections, production of the extracellular ...


An Undergraduate Cell Biology Lab: Western Blotting To Detect Proteins From Drosophila Eye, Neha Gogia, Ankita Sarkar, Amit Singh Jan 2017

An Undergraduate Cell Biology Lab: Western Blotting To Detect Proteins From Drosophila Eye, Neha Gogia, Ankita Sarkar, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

We have developed an undergraduate laboratory to allow detection and localization of proteins in the compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster, a.k.a fruit fly. This lab was a part of the undergraduate curriculum of the cell biology laboratory course aimed to demonstrate the use of Western Blotting technique to study protein localization in the adult eye of Drosophila. Western blotting, a two-day laboratory exercise, can be used to detect the presence of proteins of interests from total protein isolated from a tissue. The first day involves isolation of proteins from the tissue and SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide) gel electrophoresis ...


Real-Time Quantitative Pcr To Demonstrate Gene Expression In An Undergraduate Lab, Abijeet Singh Mehta, Amit Singh Jan 2017

Real-Time Quantitative Pcr To Demonstrate Gene Expression In An Undergraduate Lab, Abijeet Singh Mehta, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

The objective of this teaching note is to develop a laboratory exercise, which allows students to get a hands-on experience of a molecular biology technique to analyze gene expression. The short duration of the biology laboratory for an undergraduate curriculum is the biggest challenge with the development of new labs. An important part of cell biology or molecular biology undergraduate curriculum is to study gene expression. There are many labs to study gene expression in qualitative manner. The commonly used reporter gene expression studies are primarily qualitative. However, there is no hands-on experience exercise to quantitatively determine gene expression. Therefore ...