Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 31 - 60 of 62

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Mechanical Test Methods For Assessing Porcine Carotid And Uterine Artery Burst Pressure Following Ex Vivo Ultrasonic Ligature Seal And Transection, Carissa M. Krane, Margaret Pinnell, Courtney Gardner, Mercedes Thompson, James Coleman, Robert Wilkens Jul 2011

Mechanical Test Methods For Assessing Porcine Carotid And Uterine Artery Burst Pressure Following Ex Vivo Ultrasonic Ligature Seal And Transection, Carissa M. Krane, Margaret Pinnell, Courtney Gardner, Mercedes Thompson, James Coleman, Robert Wilkens

Biology Faculty Publications

A test method was developed to identify those variables important for assessing the performance of ultrasonic surgical devices in ex vivo ligature sealing of porcine carotid and uterine arteries. Ruggedness testing using a small sample size in pilot experiments was conducted using a newly developed test method in an effort to assess the usefulness of this methodology and to identify test variables that might warrant further testing. The development of this test method included the use of a custom-designed prototypic tension device for load-controlled ex vivo vessel stretching during saline perfusion and subsequent seal and transection of porcine arteries with ...


Design Of A Factorial Experiment With Randomization Restrictions To Assess Medical Device Performance On Vascular Tissue, Wiebke Diestelkamp, Carissa M. Krane, Margaret Pinnell May 2011

Design Of A Factorial Experiment With Randomization Restrictions To Assess Medical Device Performance On Vascular Tissue, Wiebke Diestelkamp, Carissa M. Krane, Margaret Pinnell

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Energy-based surgical scalpels are designed to efficiently transect and seal blood vessels using thermal energy to promote protein denaturation and coagulation. Assessment and design improvement of ultrasonic scalpel performance relies on both in vivo and ex vivo testing. The objective of this work was to design and implement a robust, experimental test matrix with randomization restrictions and predictive statistical power, which allowed for identification of those experimental variables that may affect the quality of the seal obtained ex vivo.

Methods: The design of the experiment included three factors: temperature (two levels); the type of solution used to perfuse the ...


Endo-Porter–Mediated Delivery Of Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligos (Pmos) In Erythrocyte Suspension Cultures From Cope's Gray Treefrog Hyla Chrysoscelis, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Matthew V. Puccetti, James Frisbie, David L. Goldstein, Carissa M. Krane May 2011

Endo-Porter–Mediated Delivery Of Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligos (Pmos) In Erythrocyte Suspension Cultures From Cope's Gray Treefrog Hyla Chrysoscelis, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Matthew V. Puccetti, James Frisbie, David L. Goldstein, Carissa M. Krane

Biology Faculty Publications

Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis, is a freeze-tolerant anuran that accumulates cryoprotective glycerol during cold acclimation. H. chrysoscelis erythrocytes express the aquaglyceroporin HC-3, which facilitates transmembrane glycerol and water movement. Aquaglyceroporins have no pharmacological inhibitors, and no genetic knockout tools currently exist for H. chrysoscelis. A phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligo (PMO)–mediated expression knockdown approach was therefore pursued to provide a model for testing the role of HC-3. We describe a novel procedure optimized for specific, efficient knockdown of HC-3 expression in amphibian erythrocyte suspensions cultured at nonmammalian physiological temperatures using Endo-Porter. Our protocol includes three critical components: pre-incubation at ...


Drosophila Adult Eye Model To Teach Scanning Electron Microscopy In An Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory, Meghana Tare, Oorvashi Roy Puli, Sarah M. Oros, Amit Singh Dec 2009

Drosophila Adult Eye Model To Teach Scanning Electron Microscopy In An Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory, Meghana Tare, Oorvashi Roy Puli, Sarah M. Oros, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

We have devised an undergraduate laboratory exercise to study tissue morphology using fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, as the model organism. Drosophila can be reared in a cost effective manner in a short period of time. This experiment was a part of the undergraduate curriculum of the cell biology laboratory course aimed to demonstrate the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique to study the morphology of adult eye of Drosophila. The adult eye of Drosophila is a compound eye, which comprises of 800 unit eyes, and serves as an excellent model for SEM studies. We used flies that were mutant ...


Rapid Evolution Of Sex-Pheromone-Producing Enzyme In Drosophila, Troy R. Shirangi, Héloïse D. Dufour, Thomas M. Williams, Sean B. Carroll Aug 2009

Rapid Evolution Of Sex-Pheromone-Producing Enzyme In Drosophila, Troy R. Shirangi, Héloïse D. Dufour, Thomas M. Williams, Sean B. Carroll

Biology Faculty Publications

A wide range of organisms use sex pheromones to communicate with each other and to identify appropriate mating partners. While the evolution of chemical communication has been suggested to cause sexual isolation and speciation, the mechanisms that govern evolutionary transitions in sex pheromone production are poorly understood. Here, we decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid evolution in the expression of a gene involved in sex pheromone production in Drosophilid flies. Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (e.g., dienes) are produced female-specifically, notably via the activity of the desaturase DESAT-F, and are potent pheromones for male courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. We ...


Altered Regulation Of Aquaporin Gene Expression In Allergen And Il-13-Induced Mouse Models Of Asthma, Carissa M. Krane, Bijia Deng, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Casey A. Mcdonald, Stephen Pazdziorko, Lawrence Mason, Samuel Goldman, Marion Kasaian, Divya Chaudhary, Cara Williams, Melisa W.Y. Ho Apr 2009

Altered Regulation Of Aquaporin Gene Expression In Allergen And Il-13-Induced Mouse Models Of Asthma, Carissa M. Krane, Bijia Deng, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Casey A. Mcdonald, Stephen Pazdziorko, Lawrence Mason, Samuel Goldman, Marion Kasaian, Divya Chaudhary, Cara Williams, Melisa W.Y. Ho

Biology Faculty Publications

IL-13 is known to affect many processes that contribute to an asthmatic phenotype, including inflammation, fibrosis, and mucus production. Members of the aquaporin (AQP) family of transmembrane water channels are targets of regulation in models of lung injury and inflammation. Therefore, we examined AQP mRNA and protein expression in allergen and IL-13-induced mouse models of asthma. Lungs from ovalbumin sensitized and ovalbumin challenged (OVA/OVA) and IL-13 treated mice showed airway thickening, increased mucus production, and pulmonary eosinophilia. Pulmonary function tests showed a significant increase in methacholine-induced airway hyperreactivity in OVA/OVA and IL-13-treated mice as compared with controls. Quantitative ...


Patterning Defects In Silkworm Embryos Analysed Through Cuticle Preparations, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, K. P. Gopinathan Jan 2009

Patterning Defects In Silkworm Embryos Analysed Through Cuticle Preparations, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, K. P. Gopinathan

Biology Faculty Publications

The mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, a holometabolous lepidopteran insect, has a metameric body plan. Due to its functional adaptation, B. mori presents some unique deviations in its pal/ern from the evolutionarily advanced dipteran insect, Drosophila melanogaster. Previous studies on mutant phenotype analysis in B. mori have been carried out in late stages of larval development. Here we employ, the cuticle preparation approach during embryonic development to study morphological landmarks associated with B. mori, Eri, another race a/silkworm, and pattern defects associated with Ekp mutant of B.mori. The homeotic mutant Ekp, generates ectopic abdominallegs, a feature previously documented ...


A Cell Biology Laboratory Exercise To Study Sub-Cellular Organelles In Drosophila, Meghana Tare, Amit Singh Dec 2008

A Cell Biology Laboratory Exercise To Study Sub-Cellular Organelles In Drosophila, Meghana Tare, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

The fast-changing scenario of undergraduate education puts emphasis on introducing students to hands-on techniques as part of their laboratory courses. In order to cater to large numbers of students and the time constraints involved with undergraduate level laboratory courses, there is a need for development of experiments that are cost effective and can be completed in a defined time frame. We have devised a laboratory exercise for teaching cell biology using the Drosophila melanogaster model. Drosophila can be reared in a short period of time in a cost effective manner. We used Drosophila tissue to study the sub-cellular organization of ...


Mutations Affecting A Putative Mutla Endonuclease Motif Impact Multiple Dna Mismatch Repair Functions, Naz Erdeniz, Megan Nguyen, Suzanne M. Deschênes, R. Michael Liskay Oct 2007

Mutations Affecting A Putative Mutla Endonuclease Motif Impact Multiple Dna Mismatch Repair Functions, Naz Erdeniz, Megan Nguyen, Suzanne M. Deschênes, R. Michael Liskay

Biology Faculty Publications

Mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) lead to increased mutation rates and higher recombination between similar, but not identical sequences, as well as resistance to certain DNA methylating agents. Recently, a component of human MMR machinery, MutLα, has been shown to display a latent endonuclease activity. The endonuclease active site appears to include a conserved motif, DQHA(X)2E(X)4E, within the COOH-terminus of human PMS2. Substitution of the glutamic acid residue (E705) abolished the endonuclease activity and mismatch-dependent excision in vitro. Previously, we showed that the PMS2-E705K mutation and the corresponding mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...


Comparative Functional Analysis Of Aquaporins/Glyceroporins In Mammals And Anurans, Carissa M. Krane, David L. Goldstein Jul 2007

Comparative Functional Analysis Of Aquaporins/Glyceroporins In Mammals And Anurans, Carissa M. Krane, David L. Goldstein

Biology Faculty Publications

Maintenance of fluid homeostasis is critical to establishing and maintaining normal physiology. The landmark discovery of membrane water channels (aquaporins; AQPs) ushered in a new area in osmoregulatory biology that has drawn from and contributed to diverse branches of biology, from molecular biology and genomics to systems biology and evolution, and from microbial and plant biology to animal and translational physiology. As a result, the study of AQPs provides a unique and integrated backdrop for exploring the relationships between genes and genome systems, the regulation of gene expression, and the physiologic consequences of genetic variation. The wide species distribution of ...


The E705k Mutation In Hpms2 Exerts Recessive, Not Dominant, Effects On Mismatch Repair, Suzanne M. Deschênes, Guy Tomer, Megan Nguyen, Naz Erdeniz, Nicole C. Juba, Natalia Sepúlveda, Jenna E. Pisani, R. Michael Liskay May 2007

The E705k Mutation In Hpms2 Exerts Recessive, Not Dominant, Effects On Mismatch Repair, Suzanne M. Deschênes, Guy Tomer, Megan Nguyen, Naz Erdeniz, Nicole C. Juba, Natalia Sepúlveda, Jenna E. Pisani, R. Michael Liskay

Biology Faculty Publications

The hPMS2 mutation E705K is associated with Turcot syndrome. To elucidate the pathogenesis of hPMS2-E705K, we modeled this mutation in yeast and characterized its expression and effects on mutation avoidance in mammalian cells. We found that while hPMS2-E705K (pms1-E738K in yeast) did not significantly affect hPMS2 (Pms1p in yeast) stability or interaction with MLH1, it could not complement the mutator phenotype in MMR-deficient mouse or yeast cells. Furthermore, hPMS2-E705K/pms1-E738K inhibited MMR in wild-type (WT) mammalian cell extracts or yeast cells only when present in excess amounts relative to WT PMS2. Our results strongly suggest that hPMS2-E705K is a recessive ...


Lobe And Serrate Are Required For Cell Survival During Early Eye Development In Drosophila, Amit Singh, Xiao Shi, Kwang-Wook Choi Nov 2006

Lobe And Serrate Are Required For Cell Survival During Early Eye Development In Drosophila, Amit Singh, Xiao Shi, Kwang-Wook Choi

Biology Faculty Publications

Organogenesis involves an initial surge of cell proliferation, leading to differentiation. This is followed by cell death in order to remove extra cells. During early development, there is little or no cell death. However, there is a lack of information concerning the genes required for survival during the early cell-proliferation phase. Here, we show that Lobe (L) and the Notch (N) ligand Serrate (Ser), which are both involved in ventral eye growth, are required for cell survival in the early eye disc. We observed that the loss-of-ventral-eye phenotype in L or Ser mutants is due to the induction of cell ...


The Fat Cadherin Acts Through The Hippo Tumor-Suppressor Pathway To Regulate Tissue Size, Maria Willecke, Fisun Hamaratoglu, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ryan Udan, Chiao-Lin Chen, Chunyao Tao, Xinwei Zhang, Georg Halder Nov 2006

The Fat Cadherin Acts Through The Hippo Tumor-Suppressor Pathway To Regulate Tissue Size, Maria Willecke, Fisun Hamaratoglu, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ryan Udan, Chiao-Lin Chen, Chunyao Tao, Xinwei Zhang, Georg Halder

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway has emerged as a key signaling pathway that controls tissue size in Drosophila. Merlin, the Drosophila homolog of the human Neurofibromatosis type-2 (NF2) tumor-suppressor gene, and the related protein Expanded are the most upstream components of the Hippo pathway identified so far. However, components acting upstream of Expanded and Merlin, such as transmembrane receptors, have not yet been identified.

Results: Here, we report that the protocadherin Fat acts as an upstream component in the Hippo pathway. Fat is a known tumor-suppressor gene in Drosophila, and fat mutants have severely overgrown imaginal discs. We found that ...


Expression Of The Primary Carbohydrate Component Of The Bordetella Bronchiseptica Biofilm Matrix Is Dependent On Growth Phase But Independent Of Bvg Regulation, Yasuhiko Irie, Andrew Preston, Ming H. Yuk Sep 2006

Expression Of The Primary Carbohydrate Component Of The Bordetella Bronchiseptica Biofilm Matrix Is Dependent On Growth Phase But Independent Of Bvg Regulation, Yasuhiko Irie, Andrew Preston, Ming H. Yuk

Biology Faculty Publications

We previously showed that the Bvg virulence control system regulates biofilm formation in Bordetella bronchiseptica (Y. Irie, S. Mattoo, and M. H. Yuk, J. Bacteriol. 186:5692-5698, 2004). Analyses of the extracellular components of B. bronchiseptica biofilm matrix revealed that the major sugar component in the matrix was xylose, and linkage analysis indicated a majority of it to be in a 4-linked polymeric form. The production of xylose was independent of Bvg regulation but instead was dependent on bacterial growth phase. In addition, N-acetyl-glucosamine in the matrix was found to be important for the initial development of the biofilm ...


Eye Development At The Houston "Fly Meeting", Amit Singh Jan 2006

Eye Development At The Houston "Fly Meeting", Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Meeting report: The 47th Annual Drosophila Research Conference or "Fly Meeting" took place at Houston, Texas, USA from March 29th- April 2nd, 2006, under the aegis of the Genetics Society of America. The Fly Meeting provides an excellent opportunity for fly researchers to present their work and to get a snapshot of recent developments and upcoming trends in their research field. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a very versatile model to study growth, patterning, neural development, evolution, systemetics and various other facets of biomedical science. The topics presented in the meeting covered a very broad spectrum of fly research ...


Empirical Analysis Of The Str Profiles Resulting From Conceptual Mixtures, David R. Paoletti, Travis E. Doom, Carissa M. Krane, Michael L. Raymer, Dan E. Krane Nov 2005

Empirical Analysis Of The Str Profiles Resulting From Conceptual Mixtures, David R. Paoletti, Travis E. Doom, Carissa M. Krane, Michael L. Raymer, Dan E. Krane

Biology Faculty Publications

Samples containing DNA from two or more individuals can be difficult to interpret. Even ascertaining the number of contributors can be challenging and associated uncertainties can have dramatic effects on the interpretation of testing results. Using an FBI genotypes dataset, containing complete genotype information from the 13 Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) loci for 959 individuals, all possible mixtures of three individuals were exhaustively and empirically computed. Allele sharing between pairs of individuals in the original dataset, a randomized dataset and datasets of generated cousins and siblings was evaluated as were the number of loci that were necessary to reliably ...


Atypical Pkciota Contributes To Poor Prognosis Through Loss Of Apical-Basal Polarity And Cyclin E Overexpression In Ovarian Cancer, Astrid M. Eder, Xiaomei Sui, Daniel G. Rosen, Laura K. Nolden, Kwai Wa Cheng, John P. Lahad, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Karen H. Lu, Carla L. Warneke, Edward N. Atkinson, Isabelle Bedrosian, Khandan Keyomarsi, Wen-Lin Kuo, Joe W. Gray, Jerry C. P. Yin, Jinsong Liu, Georg Halder, Gordon B. Mills Aug 2005

Atypical Pkciota Contributes To Poor Prognosis Through Loss Of Apical-Basal Polarity And Cyclin E Overexpression In Ovarian Cancer, Astrid M. Eder, Xiaomei Sui, Daniel G. Rosen, Laura K. Nolden, Kwai Wa Cheng, John P. Lahad, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Karen H. Lu, Carla L. Warneke, Edward N. Atkinson, Isabelle Bedrosian, Khandan Keyomarsi, Wen-Lin Kuo, Joe W. Gray, Jerry C. P. Yin, Jinsong Liu, Georg Halder, Gordon B. Mills

Biology Faculty Publications

We show that atypical PKCι, which plays a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity, is genomically amplified and overexpressed in serous epithelial ovarian cancers. Furthermore, PKCι protein is markedly increased or mislocalized in all serous ovarian cancers. An increased PKCι DNA copy number is associated with decreased progression-free survival in serous epithelial ovarian cancers. In a Drosophila in vivo epithelial tissue model, overexpression of persistently active atypical PKC results in defects in apical-basal polarity, increased Cyclin E protein expression, and increased proliferation. Similar to the Drosophila model, increased PKCι proteins levels are associated with ...


Group 13 Hox Proteins Interact With The Mh2 Domain Of R-Smads And Modulate Smad Transcriptional Activation Functions Independent Of Hox Dna Binding Capability, Thomas M. Williams, Melissa E. Williams, Joanne H. Heaton, Thomas D. Gelehrter, Jeffrey W. Innis Aug 2005

Group 13 Hox Proteins Interact With The Mh2 Domain Of R-Smads And Modulate Smad Transcriptional Activation Functions Independent Of Hox Dna Binding Capability, Thomas M. Williams, Melissa E. Williams, Joanne H. Heaton, Thomas D. Gelehrter, Jeffrey W. Innis

Biology Faculty Publications

Interactions with co-factors provide a means by which HOX proteins exert specificity. To identify candidate protein interactors of HOXA13, we created and screened an E11.5–E12.5, distal limb bud yeast two-hybrid prey library. Among the interactors, we isolated the BMP-signaling effector Smad5, which interacted with the paralogous HOXD13 but not with HOXA11 or HOXA9, revealing unique interaction capabilities of the AbdB-like HOX proteins. Using deletion mutants, we determined that the MH2 domain of Smad5 is necessary for HOXA13 interaction.

This is the first report demonstrating an interaction between HOX proteins and the MH2 domain of Smad proteins ...


Myod Targets Chromatin Remodeling Complexes To The Myogenin Locus Prior To Forming A Stable Dna-Bound Complex, Ivana L. De La Serna, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Charlotte A. Berkes, Donald A. Bergstrom, Caroline S. Dacwag, Stephen J. Tapscott, Anthony N. Imbalzano May 2005

Myod Targets Chromatin Remodeling Complexes To The Myogenin Locus Prior To Forming A Stable Dna-Bound Complex, Ivana L. De La Serna, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Charlotte A. Berkes, Donald A. Bergstrom, Caroline S. Dacwag, Stephen J. Tapscott, Anthony N. Imbalzano

Biology Faculty Publications

The activation of muscle-specific gene expression requires the coordinated action of muscle regulatory proteins and chromatin-remodeling enzymes. Microarray analysis performed in the presence or absence of a dominant-negative BRG1 ATPase demonstrated that approximately one-third of MyoD-induced genes were highly dependent on SWI/SNF enzymes. To understand the mechanism of activation, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitations analyzing the myogenin promoter. We found that H4 hyperacetylation preceded Brg1 binding in a MyoD-dependent manner but that MyoD binding occurred subsequent to H4 modification and Brg1 interaction. In the absence of functional SWI/SNF enzymes, muscle regulatory proteins did not bind to the myogenin promoter ...


The Bvg Virulence Control System Regulates Biofilm Formation In Bordetella Bronchiseptica, Yasuhiko Irie, Seema Mattoo, Ming H. Yuk Sep 2004

The Bvg Virulence Control System Regulates Biofilm Formation In Bordetella Bronchiseptica, Yasuhiko Irie, Seema Mattoo, Ming H. Yuk

Biology Faculty Publications

Bordetella species utilize the BvgAS (Bordetella virulence gene) two-component signal transduction system to sense the environment and regulate gene expression among at least three phases: a virulent Bvg+ phase, a nonvirulent Bvg phase, and an intermediate Bvgi phase. Genes expressed in the Bvg+ phase encode known virulence factors, including adhesins such as filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and fimbriae, as well as toxins such as the bifunctional adenylate cyclase/hemolysin (ACY). Previous studies showed that in the Bvgi phase, FHA and fimbriae continue to be expressed, but ACY expression is significantly downregulated. In this report, we determine that Bordetella bronchiseptica ...


Drosophila As An Emerging Model To Study Metastasis, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Georg Halder Mar 2004

Drosophila As An Emerging Model To Study Metastasis, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Georg Halder

Biology Faculty Publications

Metastasis is the primary cause of human cancer-related deaths. Two recent studies describe a system for testing how multiple genetic events synergize to promote neoplastic growth and metastasis in Drosophila, paving the way for systematic approaches to understanding metastasis using the powerful tools of Drosophila genetics.


Initial State Of The Drosophila Eye Before Dorsoventral Specification Is Equivalent To Ventral, Amit Singh, Kwang-Wook Choi Nov 2003

Initial State Of The Drosophila Eye Before Dorsoventral Specification Is Equivalent To Ventral, Amit Singh, Kwang-Wook Choi

Biology Faculty Publications

Dorsoventral (DV) patterning is crucial for eye development in invertebrates and higher animals. DV lineage restriction is the primary event in undifferentiated early eye primordia of Drosophila. InDrosophila eye disc, a dorsal-specific GATA family transcription factor pannier (pnr) controls Iroquois-Complex (Iro-C) genes to establish the dorsal eye fate whereas Lobe (L), which is involved in controlling a Notch ligand Serrate (Ser), is specifically required for ventral growth. However, fate of eye disc cells before the onset of dorsal expression of pnr and Iro-C is not known. We show that L/Ser are expressed in entire early eye disc before ...


Shar-Pei Mediates Cell Proliferation Arrest During Imaginal Disc Growth In Drosophila, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Riitta Nolo, Chunyao Tao, Patrik Verstreken, P. Robin Hiesinger, Hugo J. Bellen, Georg Halder Dec 2002

Shar-Pei Mediates Cell Proliferation Arrest During Imaginal Disc Growth In Drosophila, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Riitta Nolo, Chunyao Tao, Patrik Verstreken, P. Robin Hiesinger, Hugo J. Bellen, Georg Halder

Biology Faculty Publications

During animal development, organ size is determined primarily by the amount of cell proliferation, which must be tightly regulated to ensure the generation of properly proportioned organs. However, little is known about the molecular pathways that direct cells to stop proliferating when an organ has attained its proper size. We have identified mutations in a novel gene, shar-pei, that is required for proper termination of cell proliferation during Drosophila imaginal disc development. Clones of shar-pei mutant cells in imaginal discs produce enlarged tissues containing more cells of normal size. We show that this phenotype is the result of both increased ...


Eye Suppression, A Novel Function Of Teashirt, Requires Wingless Signaling, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Y. Henry Sun Sep 2002

Eye Suppression, A Novel Function Of Teashirt, Requires Wingless Signaling, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Y. Henry Sun

Biology Faculty Publications

Teashirt (tsh) encodes a Drosophila zinc-finger protein. Misexpression of tsh has been shown to induce ectopic eye formation in the antenna. We report that tsh can suppress eye development. This novel function of tsh is due to the induction of homothorax (hth), a known repressor of eye development, and requires Wingless (WG) signaling. Interestingly, tsh has different functions in the dorsal and ventral eye, suppressing eye development close to the ventral margin, while promoting eye development near the dorsal margin. It affects both growth of eye disc and retinal cell differentiation.


Functional Requirement Of Aquaporin-5 In Plasma Membranes Of Sweat Glands, Lene N. Nejsum, Tae-Hwan Kwon, Uffe B. Jensen, Ornella Fumagalli, Jørgen Frøkiaer, Carissa M. Krane, Anil G. Menon, Landon S. King, Peter C. Agre, Søren Nielsen Jan 2002

Functional Requirement Of Aquaporin-5 In Plasma Membranes Of Sweat Glands, Lene N. Nejsum, Tae-Hwan Kwon, Uffe B. Jensen, Ornella Fumagalli, Jørgen Frøkiaer, Carissa M. Krane, Anil G. Menon, Landon S. King, Peter C. Agre, Søren Nielsen

Biology Faculty Publications

The distribution and function of aquaporins (AQPs) have not previously been defined in sweat glands. In this study, AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 mRNA were demonstrated in rat paw by reverse transcription (RT)–PCR, but AQP2 and AQP4 were not. AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 protein were confirmed in these tissues by immunoblotting. AQP1 was identified in capillary endothelial cells by immunohistochemical labeling, but not in sweat glands or epidermis. Abundant AQP3 expression was seen in basal levels of epidermis, but not in sweat glands. AQP2 and AQP4 were not observed in either skin or sweat glands. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed abundant AQP5 ...


The Wings Of Bombyx Mori Develop From Larval Discs Exhibiting An Early Differentiated State: A Preliminary Report, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh, K. P. Gopinathan Jun 2001

The Wings Of Bombyx Mori Develop From Larval Discs Exhibiting An Early Differentiated State: A Preliminary Report, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh, K. P. Gopinathan

Biology Faculty Publications

Lepidopteran insects present a complex organization of appendages which develop by various mechanisms. In the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, a pair of meso- and meta-thoracic discs located on either side in the larvae gives rise to the corresponding fore- and hind-wings of the adult. These discs do not experience massive cell rearrangements during metamorphosis and display the adult wing vein pattern. We have analysed wing development in B. mori by two approaches, viz., expression of patterning genes in larval wing discs, and regulatory capacities of larval discs following explantation or perturbation. Expression of Nubbin is seen all over the presumptive ...


Salivary Acinar Cells From Aquaporin 5-Deficient Mice Have Decreased Membrane Water Permeability And Altered Cell Volume Regulation, Carissa M. Krane, James E. Melvin, Ha-Van Nguyen, Linda Richardson, Jennifer E. Towne, Thomas Doetschman, Anil G. Menon Jun 2001

Salivary Acinar Cells From Aquaporin 5-Deficient Mice Have Decreased Membrane Water Permeability And Altered Cell Volume Regulation, Carissa M. Krane, James E. Melvin, Ha-Van Nguyen, Linda Richardson, Jennifer E. Towne, Thomas Doetschman, Anil G. Menon

Biology Faculty Publications

Aquaporins (AQPs) are channel proteins that regulate the movement of water through the plasma membrane of secretory and absorptive cells in response to osmotic gradients. In the salivary gland, AQP5 is the major aquaporin expressed on the apical membrane of acinar cells. Previous studies have shown that the volume of saliva secreted by AQP5-deficient mice is decreased, indicating a role for AQP5 in saliva secretion; however, the mechanism by which AQP5 regulates water transport in salivary acinar cells remains to be determined. Here we show that the decreased salivary flow rate and increased tonicity of the saliva secreted byAqp5 ...


Aquaporin 5-Deficient Mouse Lungs Are Hyperresponsive To Cholinergic Stimulation, Carissa M. Krane, Christopher N. Fortner, Arthur R. Hand, Dennis W. Mcgraw, John N. Lorenz, Susan E. Wert, Jennifer E. Towne, Richard J. Paul, Jeffrey A. Whitsett, Anil G. Menon Jan 2001

Aquaporin 5-Deficient Mouse Lungs Are Hyperresponsive To Cholinergic Stimulation, Carissa M. Krane, Christopher N. Fortner, Arthur R. Hand, Dennis W. Mcgraw, John N. Lorenz, Susan E. Wert, Jennifer E. Towne, Richard J. Paul, Jeffrey A. Whitsett, Anil G. Menon

Biology Faculty Publications

Although aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is the major water channel expressed in alveolar type I cells in the lung, its actual role in the lung is a matter of considerable speculation. By using immunohistochemical staining, we show that AQP5 expression in mouse lung is not restricted to type I cells, but is also detected in alveolar type II cells, and in tracheal and bronchial epithelium. Aqp5 knockout (Aqp5−/−) mice were used to analyze AQP5 function in pulmonary physiology. Compared with Aqp5+/+ mice, Aqp5−/− mice show a significantly increased concentration-dependent bronchoconstriction to intravenously administered Ach, as shown by an increase in total ...


Assignment Of Fragile Site 8e (Fra8e) To Human Chromosome Band 8q24.11 Adjacent To The Hereditary Multiple Exostoses 1 Gene And Two Overlapping Langer-Giedion Syndrome Deletion Endpoints, April L. Hill, Y. Harada, E. Takahashi, J. Hou, M. J. Wagner, D. E. Wells Jan 1997

Assignment Of Fragile Site 8e (Fra8e) To Human Chromosome Band 8q24.11 Adjacent To The Hereditary Multiple Exostoses 1 Gene And Two Overlapping Langer-Giedion Syndrome Deletion Endpoints, April L. Hill, Y. Harada, E. Takahashi, J. Hou, M. J. Wagner, D. E. Wells

Biology Faculty Publications

The distamycin A inducible fragile site, FRA8E, Fra(8) (q24.11) has been previously mapped to 8q24.11, proximal to the MYC gene, by fluorescent in situ hybridization (Takahasi et al., 1991). This fragile site has been shown to be present in about 1 out of every 140 healthy Japanese individuals (Takahasi et al., 1988). To more precisely map FRA8E, we have used cosmids isolated from the Langer-Giedion chromosomal region (LGCR) for FISH analysis. Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS) is a contiguous gene syndrome characterized by chromosome deletions in Sq24.11 (Ludecke et al., 1991). One of the genes known to be ...


Connexin32 Is A Myelin-Related Protein In The Pns And Cns, Steven S. Scherer, Suzanne M. Deschênes, Yi-Tian Xu, Judith B. Grinspan, Kenneth H. Fischbeck, David L. Paul Dec 1995

Connexin32 Is A Myelin-Related Protein In The Pns And Cns, Steven S. Scherer, Suzanne M. Deschênes, Yi-Tian Xu, Judith B. Grinspan, Kenneth H. Fischbeck, David L. Paul

Biology Faculty Publications

We have examined the expression of a gap junction protein, connexin32 (Cx32), in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. In peripheral nerve, Cx32 is found in the paranodal myelin loops and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures of myelinating Schwann cells, and the levels of Cx32 protein and mRNA change in parallel with those of other myelin-related genes during development, Wallerian degeneration, and axonal regeneration. In the central nervous system, Cx32 is found in oligodendrocytes and their processes, but not in compact myelin, and the levels of Cx32 protein and mRNA increase during development in parallel with those of the other myelin genes. Thus, Cx32 is ...