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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

A Physical Biology, The Electron Neutrino Mass, And The Role Of Quantum Mechanics In Nature, Maurice Goodman Jan 2018

A Physical Biology, The Electron Neutrino Mass, And The Role Of Quantum Mechanics In Nature, Maurice Goodman

Articles

In science we need to remove physics and earth science from the fundamental sciences and treat Biology as a fundamental natural (physical) science. Attempts to keep Biology autonomous because it is holistic, from the physical sciences, are just disguised anthropocentrism. Physical sciences have holistic features also. The autonomy of Biology is at odds with a holistic, integrated, science and is preventing progress in science. For example, every cell needs a 'global' communication system to keep order and stability with rapid information transfer across cellular scales. We have yet to figure out how this is achieved. Over the last 30 years ...


Divergent Mechanisms Of Interaction Of Helicobacter Pylori And Campylobacter Jejuni With Mucus And Mucins, Julie Ann Naughton, Karina Mariño, Brendan Dolan, Colm Reid, Ronan Gough, Mary Gallagher, Michelle Kilcoyne, Jared Gerlachscience,, Lokesh Joshi, Pauline Rudd, Stephen Carrington, Billy Bourke, Marguerite Clyne Aug 2013

Divergent Mechanisms Of Interaction Of Helicobacter Pylori And Campylobacter Jejuni With Mucus And Mucins, Julie Ann Naughton, Karina Mariño, Brendan Dolan, Colm Reid, Ronan Gough, Mary Gallagher, Michelle Kilcoyne, Jared Gerlachscience,, Lokesh Joshi, Pauline Rudd, Stephen Carrington, Billy Bourke, Marguerite Clyne

Articles

Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni colonize the stomach and intestinal mucus, respectively. Using a combination of mucus-secreting cells, purified mucins, and a novel mucin microarray platform, we examined the interactions of these two organisms with mucus and mucins. H. pylori and C. jejuni bound to distinctly different mucins. C. jejuni displayed a striking tropism for chicken gastrointestinal mucins compared to mucins from other animals and preferentially bound mucins from specific avian intestinal sites (in order of descending preference: the large intestine, proximal small intestine, and cecum). H. pylori bound to a number of animal mucins, including porcine stomach mucin, but ...


The Bio-Nano-Interface In Predicting Nanoparticle Fate And Behaviour In Living Organisms: Towards Grouping And Categorising Nanomaterials And Ensuring Nanosafety By Design, Hugh Byrne, Arti Ahluwalia, Diana Boraschi,, Bengt Fadeel, Peter Gehr, Arno C. Gutleb, Michaela Kendall, Manthos Papadopoulos, Iseult Lynch Jan 2013

The Bio-Nano-Interface In Predicting Nanoparticle Fate And Behaviour In Living Organisms: Towards Grouping And Categorising Nanomaterials And Ensuring Nanosafety By Design, Hugh Byrne, Arti Ahluwalia, Diana Boraschi,, Bengt Fadeel, Peter Gehr, Arno C. Gutleb, Michaela Kendall, Manthos Papadopoulos, Iseult Lynch

Articles

In biological media, nanoparticles acquire a coating of biomolecules (proteins, lipids, polysaccharides) from their surroundings, which reduces their surface energy and confers a biological identity to the particles. This adsorbed layer is the interface between the nanomaterial and living systems and therefore plays a significant role in determining the fate and behaviour of the nanoparticles. This review summarises the state of the art in terms of understanding the bio-nano interface and provides direction for potential future research directions and some recommendations for future priorities and strategies to support the safe implementation of nanotechnologies. The central premise is that nanomaterials must ...


Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Dna Damage In Human Lung Alveolar Epithelial (A549) Cells From Exposure To Non-Cytotoxic Mfi-Type Zeolite Nanoparticles, Kunal Bhattacharya, Pratap Naha, Izabela Naydenova, Svetlana Mintova, Hugh Byrne Dec 2012

Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Dna Damage In Human Lung Alveolar Epithelial (A549) Cells From Exposure To Non-Cytotoxic Mfi-Type Zeolite Nanoparticles, Kunal Bhattacharya, Pratap Naha, Izabela Naydenova, Svetlana Mintova, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Increasing utilization of engineered nanoparticles in the field of electronics and biomedical applications demands an assessment of risk associated with deliberate or accidental exposure. Metal based nanoparticles are potentially most important of all the nanoparticles in terms of health risks. Microporousalumino-silicates and pure silicates named as zeolites and zeo-type materials with variety of structures, chemical compositions, particle sizes and morphologies have a significant number of industrial uses such as in catalysis, sorption and ion-exchange processes. In particular, the nanosized particles due to their unique properties are used in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for photography, photonics, electronics, labeling, imaging, and sensing. The ...


Spectral Cross Correlation As A Supervised Approach For The Analysis Of Complex Raman Datasets: The Case Of Nanoparticles In Biological Cells, Mark Keating, Franck Bonnier, Hugh Byrne Oct 2012

Spectral Cross Correlation As A Supervised Approach For The Analysis Of Complex Raman Datasets: The Case Of Nanoparticles In Biological Cells, Mark Keating, Franck Bonnier, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Spectral Cross-correlation is introduced as a methodology to identify the presence and subcellular distribution of nanoparticles in cells. Raman microscopy is employed to spectroscopically image biological cells previously exposed to polystyrene nanoparticles, as a model for the study of nano-bio interactions. The limitations of previously deployed strategies of K-means clustering analysis and principal component analysis are discussed and a novel methodology of Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis is introduced and compared with the performance of Classical Least Squares Analysis, in both unsupervised and supervised modes. The previous study demonstrated the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy to map cells and identify polystyrene ...


Inhibition Of Burkholderia Multivorans Adhesion To Lung Epithelial Cells By Bivalent Lactosides, Ciara Wight, Rosaria Leyden, Paul V. Murphy, Máire Callaghan, Trinidad Velasco-Torrijos, Siobhan Mcclean Aug 2012

Inhibition Of Burkholderia Multivorans Adhesion To Lung Epithelial Cells By Bivalent Lactosides, Ciara Wight, Rosaria Leyden, Paul V. Murphy, Máire Callaghan, Trinidad Velasco-Torrijos, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients which is inherently resistant to antimicrobial agents. The mechanisms of attachment and pathogenesis of Bcc, a group of 17 species, are poorly understood. The most commonly identified Bcc species in newly colonised patients, Burkholderia multivorans, continues to be acquired from the environment. Development of therapies which can prevent or reduce the risk of colonization on exposure to Bcc in the environment would be a better alternative to antimicrobial agents. Previously, it has been shown that Bcc strains bound to many glycolipid receptors on lung epithelia. Using a real-time ...


Interaction Of Environmental B. Cenocepacia Strains With Cystic Fibrosis And Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro., Annamaria Bevivino, Luisa Pirone, Ruth Pilkington, Noemi Cifani, Claudia Dalmastri, Máire Callaghan, Fiorentina Ascenzioni, Siobhan Mcclean May 2012

Interaction Of Environmental B. Cenocepacia Strains With Cystic Fibrosis And Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cells In Vitro., Annamaria Bevivino, Luisa Pirone, Ruth Pilkington, Noemi Cifani, Claudia Dalmastri, Máire Callaghan, Fiorentina Ascenzioni, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

Burkholderia cenocepacia is an important human pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Non-clinical reservoirs may play a role in the acquisition of infections, so it is important to evaluate the pathogenic potential of environmental B. cenocepacia isolates. In this study, we investigated the interactions of two environmental B. cenocepacia strains (Mex1 and MCII-168) with two bronchial epithelial cell lines,16HBE14o- and CFBE41o-, which have a non-CF and a CF phenotype, respectively.

The environmental strains showed a significantly lower level of invasion into both CF- and non-CF cells in comparison with the clinical B. cenocepacia LMG16656T strain. Exposure of ...


Bacterial Host Interactions In Cystic Fibrosis, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean Jan 2012

Bacterial Host Interactions In Cystic Fibrosis, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

Chronic infection is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF) and the main contributor to morbidity. Microbial infection in CF is complex, due to the number of different species that colonise the CF lung. Their colonisation is facilitated by a host response that is impaired or compromised by highly viscous mucous, zones of hypoxia and the lack of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR). Successful dominant CF pathogens combine an effective arsenal to establish infection and counter-attack the host response, together with an ability to adapt readily to an unfavourable environment. Hypermutability is common among CF pathogens facilitating adaptation and as ...


Activation Of Mmp-9 By Human Lung Epithelial Cells In Response To The Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Pathogen Burkholderia Cenocepacia Reduced Wound Healing In Vitro, Ciara Wright ], Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean Oct 2011

Activation Of Mmp-9 By Human Lung Epithelial Cells In Response To The Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Pathogen Burkholderia Cenocepacia Reduced Wound Healing In Vitro, Ciara Wright ], Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of bacterial pathogens that cause opportunistic infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). The most virulent of these is Burkholderia cenocepacia. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are upregulated in CF patients. The aim of this work was to examine the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of B. cepacia complex, which has not been explored to date. Real-time PCR analysis showed that B. cenocepacia infection upregulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes in the CF lung cell line CFBE41o- within 1 h, whereas MMP-2, -7, and -9 genes were upregulated in the non-CF lung cell line 16HBE14o-. Conditioned media from ...


Virulence Of An Emerging Respiratory Pathogen, Genus Pandoraea, In Vivo And Its Interactions With Lung Epithelial Cells, Gillian Herbert, Anne Costello, Lydia Fabunmi, Kirsten Schaffer, Kevin Kavanagh, Emma M. Caraher, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean Nov 2010

Virulence Of An Emerging Respiratory Pathogen, Genus Pandoraea, In Vivo And Its Interactions With Lung Epithelial Cells, Gillian Herbert, Anne Costello, Lydia Fabunmi, Kirsten Schaffer, Kevin Kavanagh, Emma M. Caraher, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

Pandoraea species have emerged as opportunistic pathogens among cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF patients. Pandoraea pulmonicola is the predominant Pandoraea species among Irish CF patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathogenicity and potential mechanisms of virulence of Irish P. pulmonicola isolates and strains from other Pandoraea species. Three patients from whom the P. pulmonicola isolates were isolated have since died. The in vivo virulence of these and other Pandoraea strains was examined by determining the ability to kill Galleria mellonella larvae. The P. pulmonicola strains generally were the most virulent of the species tested, with three ...


Real-Time Pcr Method For The Quantification Of Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Attached To Lung Epithelial Cells And Inhibitionn Of That Attachment, Ciara Wight, Gillian Herbert, Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean Jan 2010

Real-Time Pcr Method For The Quantification Of Burkholderia Cepacia Complex Attached To Lung Epithelial Cells And Inhibitionn Of That Attachment, Ciara Wight, Gillian Herbert, Ruth Pilkington, Máire Callaghan, Siobhan Mcclean

Articles

To develop a rapid method to quantify the attachment of the cystic fibrosis pathogen, Burkholderia multivorans, to lung epithelial cells (16HBE14o(-)) using real-time PCR with a view to monitoring potential inhibition of lung cell attachment. Mammalian and bacterial DNA were purified from bacteria attached to lung epithelial cells. The relative amount of bacteria attached was determined by amplification of the recA gene relative to the human GAPDH gene, in the presence of SYBR Green. The method was thoroughly validated and shown to correlate well with traditional plating techniques. Inhibition of bacterial attachment with simple sugars was then evaluated by real-time ...


In Vivo Mature Immunological Synapses Forming Smacs Mediate Clearance Of Virally Infected Astrocytes From The Brain, Carlos Barcia, Clare Thomas, James Curtin, Gwendalyn King, Kolja Wawrowsky, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Chunyan Liu, Kurt Kroeger, Olivier Boyer, Jerzy Kupiec-Weglinski, David Klatzmann, Maria Castro, Pedro Lowenstein Sep 2006

In Vivo Mature Immunological Synapses Forming Smacs Mediate Clearance Of Virally Infected Astrocytes From The Brain, Carlos Barcia, Clare Thomas, James Curtin, Gwendalyn King, Kolja Wawrowsky, Marianela Candolfi, Weidong Xiong, Chunyan Liu, Kurt Kroeger, Olivier Boyer, Jerzy Kupiec-Weglinski, David Klatzmann, Maria Castro, Pedro Lowenstein

Articles

The microanatomy of immune clearance of infected brain cells remains poorly understood. Immunological synapses are essential anatomical structures that channel information exchanges between T cell–antigen-presenting cells (APC) during the priming and effector phases of T cells' function, and during natural killer–target cell interactions. The hallmark of immunological synapses established by T cells is the formation of the supramolecular activation clusters (SMACs), in which adhesion molecules such as leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 segregate to the peripheral domain of the immunological synapse (p-SMAC), which surrounds the T cell receptor–rich or central SMAC (c-SMAC). The inability so far to detect ...