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Articles 1 - 30 of 82

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

The Role Of Tra1 In Cellular Stress Responses In Yeast: Implications For Human Diseases, Yuwei Jiang Aug 2019

The Role Of Tra1 In Cellular Stress Responses In Yeast: Implications For Human Diseases, Yuwei Jiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Regulation of gene expression under stress conditions involves chromatin remodeling through post-translational modification of histones. One of these modifications, acetylation of lysine residues, regulates transcription initiation and is linked to a variety of essential cellular processes including cell cycle control, DNA repair, and importantly, activation of cellular stress response pathways. Dysregulation of histone acetylation has been observed in many stress-related diseases such as inflammatory diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and fungal infections. Tra1 is the only essential component of both the highly conserved SAGA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes that are responsible for acetylation of histones and other proteins. Tra1 ...


Regulation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensitivity By Torc1 Signalling In Yeast, Khadija Ahmed, Patrick Lajoie Jun 2019

Regulation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensitivity By Torc1 Signalling In Yeast, Khadija Ahmed, Patrick Lajoie

Western Research Forum

Incorrect folding of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in an aberrant accumulation of misfolded proteins (ER stress) and activates a coping mechanism known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). While the mechanisms of UPR activation have been well established, how it integrates with other stress responses remains unclear.

Given that TORC1 is an important regulator of cell growth during protein misfolding stress, we sought to investigate how TORC1 signalling acts in parallel with the UPR to regulate ER stress sensitivity. Our studies employ the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a biochemically traceable model organism that allows for extensive ...


Uncovering The Role Of Ovol1 In Placental Stem Cell Differentiation Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Maram Albakri, Patrick Lajoie, Stephen Renaud, Gargi Jaju, Hazel Dhaliwal Jun 2019

Uncovering The Role Of Ovol1 In Placental Stem Cell Differentiation Using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Maram Albakri, Patrick Lajoie, Stephen Renaud, Gargi Jaju, Hazel Dhaliwal

Western Research Forum

OVOL1 is a conserved transcription factor involved in regulating cytrophoblast differentiation in the placenta. Our objective for this study is to use Saccharomyces cerevisiae to uncover the role of OVOL1 in placental stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Previous research suggests that OVOL1 regulates cytotrophoblast progenitor state by regulating genome acetylation. Therefore, our study aims to determine how OVOL1 effect yeast growth and the yeast acetylome, and to use the yeast model to determine downstream targets of OVOL1. In order to understand the role of OVOL1, we will develop a yeast model and employ growth assays to assess growth defects and ...


Knocking Out A Negative Regulator Of Hedgehog Signaling Blocks Differentiation Of Cells Into Neurons, Danielle Margaret Spice, Gregory M. Kelly Ph.D. Jun 2019

Knocking Out A Negative Regulator Of Hedgehog Signaling Blocks Differentiation Of Cells Into Neurons, Danielle Margaret Spice, Gregory M. Kelly Ph.D.

Western Research Forum

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, one of many different protein signaling pathways found in mammals, is vital in many stage of neural development. A major negative regulator of Hh signaling is a protein known as Suppressor of Fused (SUFU), which acts to sequester the full length Gli transcription factors, proteins that can turn genes on and off, in the cytoplasm or facilitates its conversion to a repressive form. The P19 embryonal carcinoma cell line is a model of hind-brain neuronal differentiation and the involvement of Hh signaling, in particular the role of SUFU in this process has yet to be explored. We ...


Hyperactive Torc1 Sensitizes Yeast Cells To Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress By Compromising Cell Wall Integrity, Khadija Ahmed Apr 2019

Hyperactive Torc1 Sensitizes Yeast Cells To Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress By Compromising Cell Wall Integrity, Khadija Ahmed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The disruption of protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in an accumulation of toxic misfolded proteins and activates a network of signaling events collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). While UPR activation upon ER stress is well characterized, how other signaling pathways integrate into the ER proteostasis network is unclear. Here, I sought to investigate how the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) signaling cascade acts in parallel with the UPR to regulate ER stress sensitivity. Using S. cerevisiae, I found that TORC1 signaling is attenuated during ER stress and constitutive activation of TORC1 increases ...


Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity Is Caused By Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Michael G. Tauro Feb 2019

Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity Is Caused By Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Michael G. Tauro

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting roughly 1% of the population over the age of sixty years. Alpha-synuclein (aSyn) is a protein implicated in both familial and idiopathic forms of PD, yet despite the wealth of data implicating aSyn as a causative agent in PD, the mechanisms underlying its toxicity remain mostly unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major hallmark of PD, yet there is only limited evidence linking aSyn toxicity to mitochondrial dysfunction. My study establishes a novel aSyn model in respiring yeast cells, which allows me to explore how aSyn affects mitochondrial homeostasis ...


Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan Aug 2018

Characterizing The Cognitive And Emotional Effects Of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol In Distinct Hippocampal Sub-Regions, Dinat Khan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The objective of this study is to determine the potential differential effects of THC in the DH or VH sub-regions, as well as the upstream effects on PFC neuronal activity and oscillations. Rodents used for electrophysiology were infused with THC or vehicle in the DH or VH regions, combined with PFC recordings. Additionally, a battery of behavioural paradigms was performed. Deficits in short-term memory when THC was infused into both regions was observed, however working memory was impaired with VH infusions only. This could be due to THC-induced dysregulation in the PFC, as beta oscillations were significantly decreased selectively in ...


Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc Aug 2018

Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mer tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates efferocytosis-the recognition and uptake of apoptotic cells. MERTK serves as the predominant efferocytic receptor in several tissues, including in the heart, with single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with up to a 75% increased risk of atherosclerosis in humans. MERTK facilitates the internalization of apoptotic cells via a MERTK/integrin pathway that involves, in part, PI-3-kinase signaling and signaling via Src-family kinases. While these elements of the MERTK signaling pathway have been identified, much of MERTK’s signaling mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Pharmacological inhibitors were used to block signaling through ...


Characterization Of Acaricide Resistance, Plant-Mediated Rnai Against Two-Spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus Urticae Koch), And Assessing Off- And Non-Target Effects, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin Oct 2017

Characterization Of Acaricide Resistance, Plant-Mediated Rnai Against Two-Spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus Urticae Koch), And Assessing Off- And Non-Target Effects, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae (Koch), is one of the most damaging agricultural pests in the world. It feeds on over 150 crops, causing considerable yield losses in greenhouses and agricultural fields. Currently, using synthetic acaricides is the main method to control TSSM. However, it can develop resistance to acaricides with repeated exposure, and typically resistance can occur within two to four years. To understand the underlying mechanisms of spider mite adaptation to acaricides is an essential part of resistance management strategy. The resistance ratio of the pyridaben-selected strain compared with the pre-selection strain was estimated at greater ...


The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen Sep 2017

The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, a global generalist lepidopteran pest, has developed resistance to many synthetic and biological insecticides, requiring effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. One possibility is the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). This baculovirus is highly infectious for T. ni, with potential as a biocontrol agent, however, its effectiveness is strongly influenced by dietary context. In this study, microscopy and transcriptomics were used to examine how the efficacy of this virus was affected when T. ni larvae were raised on different diets. Larvae raised on potato host plants had lower chitinase and chitin deacetylase transcript levels and thickened ...


Intracellular Signalling Crosstalk In The Differentiation Of F9 Cells Into Extraembryonic Endoderm, Tina Nicole Cuthbert Aug 2017

Intracellular Signalling Crosstalk In The Differentiation Of F9 Cells Into Extraembryonic Endoderm, Tina Nicole Cuthbert

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mouse F9 cells differentiate into primitive extraembryonic endoderm (PrE) with retinoic acid (RA) treatment, resulting in up-regulation of Gata6, which when translated directly activates Wnt6. Canonical Wnt signalling is required for PrE differentiation, and this, like most developmental processes, requires input from one or more additional pathways, including hedgehog (Hh). The Hh pathway is regulated by GATA6, and crosstalks positively/negatively with Wnt signalling. Ihh up-regulation in F9 cells accompanies PrE induction, but a role for GATA6 or Hh pathway activation in obligatory Wnt/ß-catenin signalling is not known. To address this, I show that RA induces Ihh and altered ...


Inhibition Of Pannexin 1 Reduces Tumorigenic Properties Of Human Melanoma, Taylor J. Freeman Jul 2017

Inhibition Of Pannexin 1 Reduces Tumorigenic Properties Of Human Melanoma, Taylor J. Freeman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pannexin 1 (PANX1) is a channel-forming glycoprotein that allows the passage of important signaling molecules, including ATP. We examined PANX1 levels in a panel of human melanomas and evaluated its potential as an effective target for melanoma therapy. We are the first to report endogenous PANX1 levels in multiple human melanoma cell lines, patient-derived melanoma biopsies, and primary melanoma cells. Treatment with two PANX1 channel blockers, Carbenoxolone (CBX) and Probenecid (PBN), on A375 and A375-MA2 melanoma cells significantly reduced cell growth and migration, and increased the production of melanin, a marker for a melanocytic-like phenotype. Daily treatment with CBX or ...


Functional Characteristics Of Four Novel Lone Atrial Fibrillation-Linked Connexin40 Mutants, Mahmoud Noureldin Jul 2017

Functional Characteristics Of Four Novel Lone Atrial Fibrillation-Linked Connexin40 Mutants, Mahmoud Noureldin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of cardiac arrhythmia. Recently, four novel heterozygous Cx40 mutations, K107R, L223M, Q236H, and I257L were identified in 4 of 310 unrelated AF patients. To study possible alterations associated with these mutants, we studied their localization and function using gap junction (GJ)-deficient model cells. Cell pairs expressing Q236H alone or together with wildtype Cx43 showed a significantly lower coupling conductance. Impaired GJ function and dominant negative action on Cx43 of this mutant are consistent with previous findings on the majority of AF-linked Cx40 mutants. The remaining three novel AF-linked mutants did not ...


Nuak1 Has Tumor Suppressive Activity In Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, Parima Saxena Jun 2017

Nuak1 Has Tumor Suppressive Activity In Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, Parima Saxena

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

NUAK1, a downstream substrate of the stress metabolism regulator Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), has been implicated as an oncogene and tumor suppressor, with distinct roles in cell cycle, senescence and cell adhesion. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) spheroids remain dormant during intraperitoneal metastasis with reduced proliferation and metabolism to survive metabolically harsh conditions, possibly implicating a role of NUAK1 in EOC spheroid biology. I hypothesize that NUAK1 is regulated by LKB1 to promote dormancy in EOC. I demonstrate that NUAK1 expression and phosphorylation is regulated by LKB1 in EOC cell lines. NUAK1 is largely under-expressed in many established and new ascites-derived ...


Cellular/Molecular Analysis Of Interspecies Sterile Male Hybrids In Drosophila, Rachelle L. Kanippayoor Jun 2017

Cellular/Molecular Analysis Of Interspecies Sterile Male Hybrids In Drosophila, Rachelle L. Kanippayoor

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over time, genetic differences can accumulate between populations that are geographically separated. This genetic divergence can lead to the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms that reduce gene flow between the populations and, upon secondary contact, result in distinct species. The process of speciation is, thus, what accounts for the multitude of species that contribute to the rich biodiversity on Earth. Interspecies hybrid sterility is a postzygotic isolating mechanism that affects the development of hybrids, rendering them sterile. A notable trend, known as Haldane's Rule, describes that heterogametic individual (e.g. males in Drosophila) are more susceptible to sterility than ...


Alternative Splicing And Extra-Telomeric Role Of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Isoforms In Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Joohwan Kim May 2017

Alternative Splicing And Extra-Telomeric Role Of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Isoforms In Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Joohwan Kim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex consisting of a catalytic subunit (hTERT) and a RNA template component (TERC), prevents telomere attrition in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) providing these cells with prolonged replicative capacity. Interestingly, hTERT has several alternatively spliced isoforms, most of which are catalytically inactive. One alternative splicing event involving a complete loss of exons 7 and 8 results in a catalytically inactive isoform called β-hTERT. The β-hTERT is highly expressed in certain cancer types and hESCs. Full-length hTERT (FL-hTERT) is known to translocate from nuclei to mitochondria when cells are exposed to either chronic (oxygen tension) or acute ...


Cerebral Lactate Metabolism And Memory: Implications For Alzheimer's Disease, Richard Andrew Harris Apr 2017

Cerebral Lactate Metabolism And Memory: Implications For Alzheimer's Disease, Richard Andrew Harris

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid plaques that are comprised of aggregated amyloid-beta peptides. These toxic proteins promote mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death. A shift in metabolism away from oxidative phosphorylation and toward aerobic glycolysis, with the concomitant production of lactate, affords neurons a survival advantage against amyloid-beta toxicity. Recent evidence now suggests that aerobic glycolysis in the brain plays a critical role in supporting synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. However, the role of aerobic glycolysis and lactate metabolism in AD-mediated cognitive decline is unknown. My objective was to test the hypotheses that aerobic ...


Characterizing Ferroportin Trafficking In Macrophages During Phagocytosis, Tayler J. Farrell Apr 2017

Characterizing Ferroportin Trafficking In Macrophages During Phagocytosis, Tayler J. Farrell

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Macrophages are important mediators of innate immunity and nutritional immunity via modulation of essential nutrients like iron during bacterial infection. Ferroportin (Fpn), an iron-exporting protein, is found on the plasma membrane of macrophages and, if not modulated during phagocytosis, would transport iron into phagosomes and supply phagocytosed bacteria with iron. Interestingly, the fate of Fpn during phagocytosis and bacterial infection remains unknown. We generated a Fpn-GFP fusion protein and, using fluorescence microscopy, demonstrated that, during phagocytosis in RAW264.7 macrophages, Fpn is removed from phagosomes containing IgG-coated beads or Staphylococcus aureus. Further, Fpn is present on Rab5-containing phagosomes but absent ...


Investigation Of Chitosan-Based Hydrogels As A Cell Delivery Platform For Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cell Transplantation To Promote Angiogenesis In Ischemic Tissues, Jobanpreet Singh Dhillon Mar 2017

Investigation Of Chitosan-Based Hydrogels As A Cell Delivery Platform For Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cell Transplantation To Promote Angiogenesis In Ischemic Tissues, Jobanpreet Singh Dhillon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stem cell transplantation is under investigation to stimulate angiogenesis in patients with peripheral artery disease. To develop a cell-delivery platform that enhances cell retention and function post-transplantation, the response of human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) encapsulated within N-methacrylate glycol chitosan (MGC) hydrogels with or without integrin-binding RGD or IKVAV motifs was explored. ASC viability was enhanced in the MGC and MGC-RGD hydrogels relative to the MGC-IKVAV group under hypoxic (2% O­2) culture conditions, with cell spreading and higher metabolic activity noted in MGC-RGD at 14 days. Analysis of angiogenic gene expression revealed similar patterns between all hydrogel ...


P32. Altered Sensory Processing In Response To Novel Dreadd-Induced Inactivation Of Gaba In Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus, Niveen Fulcher Mar 2017

P32. Altered Sensory Processing In Response To Novel Dreadd-Induced Inactivation Of Gaba In Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus, Niveen Fulcher

Western Research Forum

Niveen Fulcher1, Cleusa De Oliveira2, & Susanne Schmid1,2

1Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario

2Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario

Altered sensory processing in response to novel DREADD-induced inactivation of GABA in pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

Background: Sensory processing deficits are associated with certain psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sensory filtering and sensorimotor gating are evolutionarily conserved preattentive responses that filter and block redundant sensory stimuli that would otherwise overwhelm our brains. To date, underlying mechanisms of these deficits are undefined. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ...


P23. Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc Mar 2017

P23. Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc

Western Research Forum

Background

Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) is a receptor which mediates efferocytosis – removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes such as macrophages. MERTK plays a critical role in homeostasis, with mutations in MERTK associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis, the buildup of cholesterol-laden plaque in the sub-arterial space. Indeed, one MERTK allele is associated with 66% (heterozygous) to 75% (homozygous) protection from atherosclerosis, while other alleles and SNP’s pre-dispose to atherosclerosis and autoimmunity. Complications resulting from atherosclerosis, including heart attack and stroke, are currently the second leading cause of mortality in Canada. Despite the importance of MERTK in atherosclerosis ...


Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer Mar 2017

Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...


Mt1-Mmp Mediates The Migratory And Tumourigenic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells Via Non-Proteolytic Mechanisms, Mario Cepeda Jan 2017

Mt1-Mmp Mediates The Migratory And Tumourigenic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells Via Non-Proteolytic Mechanisms, Mario Cepeda

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease that affects cell function via proteolytic and non-proteolytic mechanisms such as promoting degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or augmentation of cell migration and viability, respectively. MT1-MMP has been implicated in metastatic progression ostensibly due to its ability to degrade ECM components and to allow migration of cells through the basement membrane. Despite in vitro studies demonstrating this principle, this knowledge has not translated into the use of MMP inhibitors (MMPi) that inhibit substrate catalysis as effective cancer therapeutics, or been corroborated by evidence of in vivo ECM degradation mediated by ...


The Association Between Oxidative Stress, Cellular Differentiation And Galectins In Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60), James R. Vinnai Dec 2016

The Association Between Oxidative Stress, Cellular Differentiation And Galectins In Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (Hl-60), James R. Vinnai

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Galectins are a group of β-galactoside-binding proteins involved in different cellular processes including stress responses and differentiation. The role and expression of galectins under oxidative stress and during neutrophilic differentiation was examined in HL-60 cells. Galectin gene (LGALS), and galectin protein expression were determined using RT-qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Neutrophilic differentiation was measured via a spectrofluorometric assay. DNA methylation and JNK signaling were investigated as galectin regulatory mechanisms. Menadione-induced oxidative stress, DMSO-induced differentiation, DNA hypomethylation and JNK signaling all promoted similar galectin expression profiles. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine attenuated the menadione-induced galectin expression but only partially attenuated DMSO-induced galectin expression. Galectin inhibitory ...


Evidence Of A Role For G Protein Signaling Modulator 3 In Cell Division, Drew C. Wallace Dec 2016

Evidence Of A Role For G Protein Signaling Modulator 3 In Cell Division, Drew C. Wallace

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Components of G protein-mediated signaling are associated with positioning and orienting the mitotic spindle in the process of cell division. However, a functional role for G protein signaling modulator 3 (GPSM3) in cell division has yet to be defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate a potential role for GPSM3 in cell division. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, that are known to express GPSM3, were used as a model system. Here I report that GPSM3 mRNA and protein levels varied during different stages of the cell cycle in SHR VSMCs ...


Insights Into The Role Of Connexin26 And Connexin30 In Skin Health, Syndromic Disease, And Cutaneous Wound Healing, Eric R. Press Dec 2016

Insights Into The Role Of Connexin26 And Connexin30 In Skin Health, Syndromic Disease, And Cutaneous Wound Healing, Eric R. Press

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Connexin26 (Cx26) and Cx30 facilitate gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in the epidermis and are linked to several syndromic skin diseases. We investigated 5 disease- linked Cx26 mutants and demonstrated that the severity and extent of disease can be predicted from the gain- or loss-of function properties of each mutant, as well as the ability to induce cell death. We also used transgenic mice expressing S17F Cx26 (linked to keratitis-ichthyosis- deafness syndrome) or A88V Cx30 (linked to Clouston Syndrome) to investigate the pathophysiology these skin diseases. We demonstrated that S17F Cx26, but not A88V Cx30, promotes palmoplantar keratoderma by disrupting ...


Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux Sep 2016

Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

CK2 is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed and pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase that is implicated in many cellular functions including tumorigenesis. CK2 has two catalytic subunits, CK2a and CK2a’, that carry out its function in the cell. Previous studies have indicated that inhibitor-refractory mutants have been effective in recovering residual CK2 activity, in the presence of inhibitors, when compared to wild type CK2. Based on these observations, inhibitor-refractory mutants were created for both CK2a and CK2a’ and tested with various concentrations with two CK2-specific inhibitors, CX-4945 and inhibitor VIII. The CK2a triple mutant (V66A/I174A/H160D) was tested in ...


Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad Aug 2016

Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PDZ (PSD95/Disc Large/Zona Occludens) domain-containing proteins are scaffolding proteins that play important roles in regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors. Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 (CRFR1) and Serotonin 2A Receptor (5-HT2AR) are two GPCRs that are commonly associated with mental disorders. Both receptors also contain a class I PDZ-binding motif at the carboxyl terminal tail. In the first chapter, we investigate the effects of CAL (CFTR-associated ligand) on regulating the trafficking and signaling of CRFR1. We demonstrate a role for CAL in inhibiting CRFR1 endocytosis, cell surface expression, and CRF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling via the ...


The Differential Effects Of Connexin26 And Connexin43 In Modulating Epidermal Health In Response To Uv Injury, Katanya C. Alaga Aug 2016

The Differential Effects Of Connexin26 And Connexin43 In Modulating Epidermal Health In Response To Uv Injury, Katanya C. Alaga

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Using two disease-linked connexin mutant mice that possess significantly reduced connexin function (Cx43I130T/+ and Cx26K14-S17F/+) this investigation is the first to address the roles of Cx26 and Cx43 in modulating epidermal health in response to UV radiation. Viable Cx26K14-S17F/+ mice were successfully created in-house to express the mutant Cx26 S17F protein in keratinocytes and possess scaly skin, rapidly develop epidermal desquamation, and die soon after UV exposure. Conversely, Cx43I130T/+ mice did not possess any skin abnormalities before or after UV exposure. We also identified that primary murine melanocytes are not homocellularly coupled and do not express ...


Panx1 And Panx3 Regulate Adipocyte Development And Fat Accumulation In Vivo, Vanessa R. Lee Aug 2016

Panx1 And Panx3 Regulate Adipocyte Development And Fat Accumulation In Vivo, Vanessa R. Lee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The obesity epidemic is a growing concern due to its various comorbidities and associated risk factors. Pannexins 1 and 3 (Panx1 and Panx3), are members of a family of channel-forming glycoproteins that have been reported to be important in paracrine signaling and development. Panx1 and Panx3 are homologous and are regulated in many different cell types, mediating cell proliferation and differentiation. We have shown that Panx1 and Panx3 are expressed in adipocytes and adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) throughout the process of differentiation. Mice globally lacking Panx1 (Panx1 KO) have significantly greater total fat mass compared to wildtype (WT) mice under ...