Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Western Kentucky University

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 21 of 21

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Restoration Of Phage Growth On A Non-Permissive Host By Bypassing Transcription Termination Signals, Millicent Ronkainen Apr 2018

Restoration Of Phage Growth On A Non-Permissive Host By Bypassing Transcription Termination Signals, Millicent Ronkainen

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

RNA polymerase is the central enzyme in all gene expression. The rpoCY75N mutation in the zinc-binding domain of the β’ subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase blocks a unique RNA-based mechanism of transcription antitermination utilized by bacteriophage HK022 and its relatives. Here, we describe the characterization of mutant phage, orc0368, which overcomes the rpoCY75N mutation. The orc0368 genome varies from the wild type phage genome by 4 single base pair mutations. Three of these mutations were not characterized because they occur in intergenic regions but the fourth was chosen for study because of its location between a series ...


Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton Aug 2016

Contribution Of A Putative Up Element Dna Sequence To The Activity Of A Newly Identified Phage Promoter, Courtney Hamilton

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In transcription, a universal step in gene expression, information from a DNA sequence is copied into RNA. A key component in gene expression is the promoter sequence, a region of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds during the initiation of transcription of downstream genes. Most bacterial promoters contain a -10 and a -35 sequence that are bound by the RNA polymerase. Some promoters also contain an Upstream Promoter (UP) element. UP elements have been shown to boost promoter activity. We recently identified a new promoter in a mutant bacteriophage that grows on a bacterial host that prevents antitermination of phage ...


Maternal Sleep Loss During Fetal Development Alters Offspring Endocrine Responses To Stress Throughout Life, Audrey Brown Aug 2016

Maternal Sleep Loss During Fetal Development Alters Offspring Endocrine Responses To Stress Throughout Life, Audrey Brown

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis releases glucocorticoids, including corticosterone (CORT), in response to stress. CORT then negatively feeds back to inhibit its own production by binding to glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The HPA axis is subject to “programming” by abnormal stimuli during early development, which may permanently alter how the HPA axis responds to stress. These altered responses have been linked to an increased risk for human psychiatric and metabolic disorders in later life, but the mechanism by which this happens is not fully understood. This study tests the hypothesis that changes to GR expression patterns ...


Endothelin-1 Induced Phosphorylation Of Erk1/2 In Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells, Akhila Bethi Aug 2012

Endothelin-1 Induced Phosphorylation Of Erk1/2 In Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells, Akhila Bethi

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to determine whether Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced cellular responses in bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs) involves MAPK pathway by phosphorylating ERK1/2 protein kinase and to find out the phosphorylation patterns of ERK1/2 in confluent and sub-confluent cells. BCECs were isolated from bovine corneas and cultured in medium supplemented with 10% serum. Confluent (contact inhibited) and sub-confluent (actively growing cells) serum starved cells grown in T-75 flasks were treated with 10nM Endothelin-1. The control cells were left untreated. Total cellular protein was isolated using RIPA buffer and quantified according to the Peterson modification of ...


Plant-Like Cryptochrome Does Not Promote Blue Light-Induced Resetting Of The Circadian Clock In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Jonathan Howton Aug 2012

Plant-Like Cryptochrome Does Not Promote Blue Light-Induced Resetting Of The Circadian Clock In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Jonathan Howton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The circadian clock is an endogenous timer that allows an organism to anticipate and properly prepare for the daily changes in the environment. This preparation occurs in the form of daily rhythms in metabolism, physiology, and behavior. These approximately 24-hour rhythms are reset upon environmental time cues such as the daily light/dark and temperature cycles. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a useful model organism for circadian clock research. It shows several well-characterized circadian rhythms of behavior, and the monitoring of its rhythm of phototaxis, or swimming towards light, has been automated. The receptors involved in entraining the ...


Next Generation Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Patterns In The Zebrafish Inner Ear Following Growth Hormone Injection, Gopinath Rajadinakaran Aug 2012

Next Generation Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Patterns In The Zebrafish Inner Ear Following Growth Hormone Injection, Gopinath Rajadinakaran

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Loss of hair cells due to acoustic trauma results in the loss of hearing. In humans, unlike other vertebrates, the mechanism of hair cell regeneration is not possible. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this regeneration in nonmammalian vertebrates remain elusive. To understand the gene regulation during hair cell regeneration, our previous microarray study on zebrafish inner ears found that growth hormone (GH) was significantly upregulated after noise exposure. In this current study, we utilized Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to examine the genes and pathways that are significantly regulated in the zebrafish inner ear following sound exposure and GH injection. Four ...


Environmental Friendly Synthesis, Characterization Of Surface Modifiable Starch Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles With Bactericidal And Catalytic Activity, Dillon Pender May 2012

Environmental Friendly Synthesis, Characterization Of Surface Modifiable Starch Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles With Bactericidal And Catalytic Activity, Dillon Pender

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In the present study, we report the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), using potato starch as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent in an aqueous buffer medium. The resulting starch-GNPs (St-GNPs) were near spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 ± 5 nm. In this approach, St-GNPs were characterized and investigated for their antibacterial properties against both gram negative (Escherichia coli) and gram positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis) bacteria. These St-GNPs were found to possess significant dose dependent antibacterial activity against bacteria. Also, St-GNPs showed a significant catalytic activity and can easily be functionalized using a simple, greener ...


The Effects Of Growth Hormone In The Inner Ear Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) During Hair Cell Regeneration, Chia-Hui Lin Aug 2010

The Effects Of Growth Hormone In The Inner Ear Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) During Hair Cell Regeneration, Chia-Hui Lin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Although deafness is a universal problem, effective treatments have remained elusive. In order to develop potential treatments, an overall understanding of the cellular process of auditory hair cell regeneration, which occurs in fish but not mammals, must be established. A previous microarray analysis and qRT-PCR validation of noise-exposed zebrafish showed that growth hormone (GH) was significantly upregulated during the process of auditory hair cell regeneration. Thus, GH may play an important role during hair cell regeneration. However, cellular effects of exogenous GH in the zebrafish auditory hair cell regeneration have not been examined after noise exposure. To understand the effect ...


Discrete Fractional Calculus And Its Applications To Tumor Growth, Sevgi Sengul May 2010

Discrete Fractional Calculus And Its Applications To Tumor Growth, Sevgi Sengul

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Almost every theory of mathematics has its discrete counterpart that makes it conceptually easier to understand and practically easier to use in the modeling process of real world problems. For instance, one can take the "difference" of any function, from 1st order up to the n-th order with discrete calculus. However, it is also possible to extend this theory by means of discrete fractional calculus and make n- any real number such that the ½-th order difference is well defined. This thesis is comprised of five chapters that demonstrate some basic definitions and properties of discrete fractional calculus while ...


Cloning Of "Animal Cryptochrome" Cdna From The Model Organism Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii For Functional Analysis Of Its Protein Product, Shobha Lavanya Silparasetty Dec 2009

Cloning Of "Animal Cryptochrome" Cdna From The Model Organism Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii For Functional Analysis Of Its Protein Product, Shobha Lavanya Silparasetty

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, is a model organism to study the circadian clock. Cryptochromes are the blue light photoreceptors that entrain the clock in some organisms. The CPH1 protein of C. reinhardtii resembles the cryptochromes of the plant model Arabidopsis, but whether CPH1 entrains the circadian clock in C. reinhardtii is not yet known. Recent reports have suggested the existence of one more cryptochrome in C. reinhardtii, which resembles the cryptochromes of animals. However, the amino acid sequence of this protein shows even higher sequence similarity with the 6-4 DNA photolyase of Arabidopsis. DNA photolyases are involved in the ...


The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi, In Tick Species Collected From Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) And Opossums (Didelphis Virginiana) Trapped In The Warren And Barren Counties Of South Central Kentucky, Kristina Tackett Dec 2009

The Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia Burgdorferi, In Tick Species Collected From Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) And Opossums (Didelphis Virginiana) Trapped In The Warren And Barren Counties Of South Central Kentucky, Kristina Tackett

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The incidence of tick-borne zoonoses such as Ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Lyme disease has steadily increased in the southeastern United States in recent years. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the southeastern states accounted for 1,200 of the 27,000 total cases of Lyme disease reported in the U.S. in 2007. Although Ixodes scapularis is the most commonly recognized vector for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, Dermacentor variabilis (a common vector for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever) also has been shown to be a viable host for this pathogen. The purpose of ...


Role Of Cd4+Cd25+ Regulatory T Lymphocytes In Experimental Toxoplasmosis, Sanjay Varikuti Aug 2009

Role Of Cd4+Cd25+ Regulatory T Lymphocytes In Experimental Toxoplasmosis, Sanjay Varikuti

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of congenital disease, and it is one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The need for a reliable experimental model of this infection is crucial not only for achieving a better understanding of the patho-physiology of the disease, but also for developing better methods for evaluating new therapeutic regimens. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes in mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii. T regulatory (Treg) cells have been shown to play an important role in our immune system in ...


Assessment Of The Endangered Species Podarcis Carbonelli On A Microgeographic Scale: A Molecular, Morphological And Physiological Approach, Maria Clara Figueirinhas Do Amaral Aug 2009

Assessment Of The Endangered Species Podarcis Carbonelli On A Microgeographic Scale: A Molecular, Morphological And Physiological Approach, Maria Clara Figueirinhas Do Amaral

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The lizard Podarcis carbonelli is an endangered species endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. One location where this species occurs is at the Berlengas Natural Preserve, an Atlantic archipelago off the coast of Portugal. These island populations are geographically separated from nearby mainland populations. The fundamental question is, are these insular individuals distinct from the mainland populations? Four localities were chose for comparison: two island populations and two nearby coastal populations. We assessed this question using three distinct approaches: molecular, morphological and physiological approach. We sequenced the 12S RNA, the mtDNA Control Region and the 7th intron of the !-fibrinogen gene ...


Adding Upstream Sequence And A Downstream Reporter To The Bile Acid Inducible Promoter Of Clostridium Scindens Vpi 12708, Bryan Patrick Mason Aug 2009

Adding Upstream Sequence And A Downstream Reporter To The Bile Acid Inducible Promoter Of Clostridium Scindens Vpi 12708, Bryan Patrick Mason

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Bile acids in the small intestines of animals serve to breakdown fats and fatsoluble vitamins. Most of the bile acids are reabsorbed into the enterohepatic circulation, but approximately five percent of these bile acids pass into the large intestine. These bile acids are swiftly deconjugated by the bacterial population, and then subjected to further intestinal bacterial chemical modifications. The most significant of these modifications are 7α-dehydroxylations which form secondary bile acids (deoxycholate and lithocholate). Much research has illuminated the 7α-dehydroxylation pathway: of particular interest is the bile acid inducible operon, for which Clostridium scindens VPI 12708 serves as the model ...


Searching For The Binding Partners For The Novel Phkg1 Variant Γ 181, Kishore Polireddy Aug 2009

Searching For The Binding Partners For The Novel Phkg1 Variant Γ 181, Kishore Polireddy

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Endothelin-1 On The Expression Of Cdk Inhibitors P21 & P27 In Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells, Lakshmi Reddy Bollu Jul 2009

The Effect Of Endothelin-1 On The Expression Of Cdk Inhibitors P21 & P27 In Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells, Lakshmi Reddy Bollu

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mammalian corneal endothelial cells are considered to be non-proliferative due to the arrest of cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the down regulation of cyclin dependant kinase inhibitors (p21cip1 and p27kip1) levels by Endothelin-1 (ET-1), would overcome the G1 phase arrest and promote cell cycle progression and proliferation in cultured BCECs (Bovine corneal endothelial cells). BCECs were isolated from bovine corneas and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% serum. 5-Bromo 2-deoxy Uridine (BrdU) incorporation was determined in serum starved cultures in 24-well plates as a measure of cell ...


Comparison Of Gene Ontology Term Annotations Between E.Coli K12 Databases, Reddysailaja Marpuri Mar 2009

Comparison Of Gene Ontology Term Annotations Between E.Coli K12 Databases, Reddysailaja Marpuri

Student Research Conference Select Presentations

The objective of this project was to get up-to-date functional information on all genes of E.coli K12 strains based on Genome Ontology terms. Gene Ontology is described by a defined library of terms related the biological process, cellular components and molecular functions of a gene in an organism. The genome sequence of an organism gains its value when it is annotated with gene ontology terms, which bridges the gap from the sequence to the biology of an organism. Since we use annotated gene database in the prediction of the function of newly sequenced genes, it is important to have ...


Skeletal Myosin Heavy Chain Function In Cultured Lung Myofibroblasts, Nancy A. Rice, Leslie A. Leinwand Oct 2003

Skeletal Myosin Heavy Chain Function In Cultured Lung Myofibroblasts, Nancy A. Rice, Leslie A. Leinwand

Biology Faculty Publications

Myofibroblasts are unique contractile cells with both muscle and nonmuscle properties. Typically myofibroblasts are identified by the expression of smooth muscle actin (ASMA); however some myofibroblasts also express sarcomeric proteins. In this study, we show that pulmonary myofibroblasts express three of the eight known sarcomeric myosin heavy chains (MyHCs) (IIa, IId, and embryonic) and that skeletal muscle myosin enzymatic activity is required for pulmonary myofibroblast contractility. Furthermore, inhibition of skeletal myosin activity and myofibroblast contraction results in a decrease in both ASMA and skeletal MyHC promoter activity and ASMA protein expression, suggesting a potential coupling of skeletal myosin activity and ...


The Effects Of Adjacent Cell Fusion And Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure On Viral Plaque Formation With Herpes Simplex Virus Type I, Rebecca Conner Dec 1986

The Effects Of Adjacent Cell Fusion And Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure On Viral Plaque Formation With Herpes Simplex Virus Type I, Rebecca Conner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In mammalian cell-virus systems, it has been observed that damage caused by exposure of the cell to ultraviolet radiation (UV) will result in an increase in viral plaque development rate. This phenomenon is termed the Large Plaque Effect (LPE). Apparently, viral plaque development increases at a faster rate for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) when it is assayed on certain UV-irradiated mammalian cells. The consequence of this increase in plaque development rate is that viral plaques appear larger on irradiated monolayers of cells when compared to plaques that developed on unirradiated cellular monolayers.

The cause of the LPE is not yet ...


The Effect Of Parental Bone Marrow & Spleen Cells In The Induction Of The Graft-Versus-Host Reaction, Ronald Grane Aug 1978

The Effect Of Parental Bone Marrow & Spleen Cells In The Induction Of The Graft-Versus-Host Reaction, Ronald Grane

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Variously aged (C57BL X C3H)F1 hybrid mice were used as recipients in experiments to determine if spleen or bone marrow cells from normal C57BL or C3H donors, spleen or bone marrow cells from C57BL donors previously treated with cortisone, or C57BL bone marrow cells previously incubated with serum from X-irradiated C57BL mice could induce a graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR).

The mice were assayed for GVHR by mortality or splenomegaly as detected by the discriminant spleen assay developed by Simonsen. Results show that spleen cells from normal C57BL, normal C3H, or cortisone-treated C57BL mice are capable of inducing a GVHR ...


The Effect Of Cv-1 Cell Geometry On The Ultraviolet Radiation Sensitivity Of Mammalian Cells In Vitro, Daniel J. Knauer Jun 1977

The Effect Of Cv-1 Cell Geometry On The Ultraviolet Radiation Sensitivity Of Mammalian Cells In Vitro, Daniel J. Knauer

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The effect of cell geometry on the radiosensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light has been studied in the CV-1 host cell-capacity system. In this system the macromolecular damage incurred by monolayers of cells cultures as the result of exposure to UV radiation is monitored by testing the ability of irradiated cells to support the replication of Herpes simplex virus. The target molecule has been shown to be DNA and is centrally located

Mammalian cells have an absolute requirement for Mg++ and Ca++ in order to remain attached to artificial substrata. To test the effect of cell geometry on UV radiation sensitivity ...