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Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Development Of Novel Tumor-Targeted Compounds For Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Micah John Luderer May 2019

Development Of Novel Tumor-Targeted Compounds For Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Micah John Luderer

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most common primary brain tumor among adults. Despite surgical resection and aggressive chemoradiotherapy regimens, the current 2- and 5-year survival rates are only 27% and 9.8%, respectively. The low survival stems from the poor response to conventional therapy and underscores the critical need to develop new therapeutic approaches for GBM treatment. The high recurrence rate observed in GBM is in part attributed to the hypoxic (poorly oxygenated) tumor microenvironment. Hypoxic tumor conditions have been shown to increase metastasis, promote angiogenesis, and confer resistance to chemotherapy and radiation.

Hypoxic tissues are inherently radiation resistant due ...


The Role Of Smc3 In Mouse Embryonic And Adult Hematopoiesis, Tianjiao Wang May 2019

The Role Of Smc3 In Mouse Embryonic And Adult Hematopoiesis, Tianjiao Wang

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by recurrent genetic mutations. Mutations in the cohesin complex are one of the 8 functional categories of mutations in AML. SMC3 encodes a subunit of the cohesin complex, which has important roles in chromosome segregation, genome instability, and gene expression. In the first chapter of the dissertation, we discuss the genetics of AML, normal functions of the cohesin complex, and the interplay between cohesin mutations and myeloid malignancies.

SMC3 is recurrently mutated in AML and other myeloid malignancies. In the second chapter of the dissertation, we compare the consequences of Smc3 ...


The Role Of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells And Classical Dendritic Cells In The Maintenance And Regulation Of The Bone Marrow Niche, Jingzhu Zhang Aug 2018

The Role Of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells And Classical Dendritic Cells In The Maintenance And Regulation Of The Bone Marrow Niche, Jingzhu Zhang

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The bone marrow niche is an important microenvironment for the regulation of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. The first discovered niche component is mesenchymal stromal cells, which are the major source for the production and secretion of multiple niche factors. Mesenchymal stromal cells are heterogeneous and various transgenes have been used to target non-identical but overlapping subpopulations. To further characterize the heterogeneity of mesenchymal stromal cells, we tested the targeting specificity of three tissue-specific Cre-recombinase transgenes. We show that in addition to osteoblasts, Ocn-Cre targets a majority of Cxcl12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells and arteriolar pericytes. Surprisingly, Dmp1-Cre also targets a subset ...


Circadian Regulation Of Temozolomide Sensitivity In Glioblastoma, Emily A. Slat May 2018

Circadian Regulation Of Temozolomide Sensitivity In Glioblastoma, Emily A. Slat

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The safety and efficacy of multiple cancer chemotherapeutics can vary as a function of when during the day they are delivered. This study aimed to improve the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common brain cancer, by testing the efficacy of the DNA alkylator Temozolomide (TMZ) on GBM in vitro and in vivo as a function of time of day. We found cell-intrinsic, daily rhythms in susceptibility of GBM tumor cells (mouse astrocytes deficient in NF1 and p53 signaling) to TMZ in vitro. The greatest TMZ-induced DNA damage response, activation of apoptosis and growth inhibition, occurred near the peak ...


The Ugly Sequestosome1:The Role Of P62/Sqstm1 In Autophagy And Multisystem Proteinopathy, Eugene Lee May 2018

The Ugly Sequestosome1:The Role Of P62/Sqstm1 In Autophagy And Multisystem Proteinopathy, Eugene Lee

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multisystem proteinopathy (MSP) defines a spectrum of degenerative diseases unified by TDP-43 pathology that affect muscle, brain and bone. Mutations in several proteins (VCP, p62/SQSTM1, HNRNPA2B1, HNRNPA1) can all cause MSP via impairments in autophagic protein degradation (VCP and SQSTM1) or RNA granule dynamics (HNRNPA2B1 and HNRNPA1). Phenotypically, MSP mutations lead to variable penetrance of several phenotypes: Paget’s disease of the bone (PDB), rimmed vacuolar inclusion body myopathy (RV-IBM), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, how a same mutation of a protein can develop different diseases remains unclear. Understanding of p62/SQSTM1 (SQSTM1) function is ...


Tumors Interrupt Irf8-Mediated Dendritic Cell Development To Overcome Immune Surveillance, Melissa Ann Meyer May 2018

Tumors Interrupt Irf8-Mediated Dendritic Cell Development To Overcome Immune Surveillance, Melissa Ann Meyer

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tumors employ multiple mechanisms to evade immune surveillance. One mechanism is tumor-induced myelopoiesis, which expands immune suppressive granulocytes and monocytes to create a protective tumor niche shielding even antigenic tumors. As myeloid cells and immune-stimulatory conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are derived from the same progenitors, it is logical that tumor-induced myelopoiesis might also impact cDC development. The cDC subset cDC1 is marked by CD141 in humans and CD103 or CD8α in mice. cDC1s act by cross presenting antigen and activating CD8+ T cells. Given these functions, CD103+ cDC1s can support anti-tumor CD8+ T cell responses. However, CD103+ cDC1 numbers are ...


Regulation Of Epithelial Proliferation And Migration By Apical-Basal Polarity Proteins, Gregory Vincent Schimizzi May 2018

Regulation Of Epithelial Proliferation And Migration By Apical-Basal Polarity Proteins, Gregory Vincent Schimizzi

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Epithelial cells line all the outside surfaces of the body where they perform essential roles in maintaining homeostasis. In addition, epithelial tissues are implicated in many disease processes and are the most common tissue type to give rise to human cancer. Therefore, a thorough understanding of epithelial development and homeostasis has broad implications for understanding human development, health, and disease. The establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity is a defining characteristic and essential feature of functioning epithelia. Proper apical-basal polarity (ABP) is required for epithelial tissues to carry out their functions, which include absorption, secretion, barrier formation, and collective migration ...


Mechanism Of Gene Regulation By Coding Polya Tracks, Laura Lea Arthur Dec 2017

Mechanism Of Gene Regulation By Coding Polya Tracks, Laura Lea Arthur

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Regulation of gene expression is essential for cellular development and survival. The great variety and complexity of regulatory mechanisms underscores this fact. Messenger RNA stability and translational efficiency are often key determinants of gene expression. mRNA surveillance pathways, discovered for their role in degradation of aberrant mRNA, are now known to be instrumental in the regulation of physiologically correct mRNA stability. Thus, the study of cis elements in a transcript that can induce mRNA surveillance pathways has become an area of particular interest.

Here I report on the mechanism of gene regulation by coding polyA tracks, defined as a sequence ...


Regulation Of Gene Expression By Rna Binding Proteins And Micrornas, Kyle Cottrell Dec 2017

Regulation Of Gene Expression By Rna Binding Proteins And Micrornas, Kyle Cottrell

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Regulation of gene expression is essential to life. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is a complex process with many inputs that lead to changes in localization, translation and stability of mRNAs. The translation and stability of many mRNAs is regulated by cis-elements, such as mRNA-structure or codon optimality; and by trans-acting factors such as RBPs and miRNAs. Here I report on the complex interactions between RBPs, miRNAs and characteristics of their target mRNAs in respect to effects on translation and RNA stability.

Using a reporter based approach we studied modulation of microRNA-mediated repression by various mRNA characteristics. We observed the ...


Binding Affinity And Specificity Of Sh2 Domain Interactions In Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Networks, Tom Ronan Dec 2017

Binding Affinity And Specificity Of Sh2 Domain Interactions In Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Networks, Tom Ronan

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling mechanisms play a central role in intracellular signaling and control development of multicellular organisms, cell growth, cell migration, and programmed cell death. Dysregulation of these signaling mechanisms results in defects of development and diseases such as cancer. Control of this network relies on the specificity and selectivity of Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain interactions with phosphorylated target peptides. In this work, we review and identify the limitations of current quantitative understanding of SH2 domain interactions, and identify severe limitations in accuracy and availability of SH2 domain interaction data. We propose a framework to address some ...


Characterization And Function Of Islet Antigen Presenting Cells During Nod Diabetes, Stephen Thomas Ferris Aug 2017

Characterization And Function Of Islet Antigen Presenting Cells During Nod Diabetes, Stephen Thomas Ferris

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Here we characterized the initial antigen presenting cells (APCs) within the islet of Langerhans to ascertain their identity and functional role as it pertains to autoimmune diabetes. The activation of the adaptive immune system is induced by the innate immune system, and more specifically APCs. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the APCs that are initiating T1D in order to elucidate the break in tolerance and intervene in order to inhibit progression. We have found that there is a resident macrophage that is present in all strains of mice. This islet macrophage has a distinct transcriptional profile that is unique ...


Nuclear Export Factor 3 Regulates The Localization Of Small Nucleolar Rnas, Melissa Wanling Li Aug 2017

Nuclear Export Factor 3 Regulates The Localization Of Small Nucleolar Rnas, Melissa Wanling Li

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, are associated with excess levels of lipids, which can lead to organelle dysfunction, cell death and eventually organ dysfunction. This process, termed lipotoxicity, is still not completely understood. In a genetic screen used to identify genes critical for lipotoxicity, the Schaffer lab has identified small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) within the ribosomal protein L13a (Rpl13a) locus that mediate the cellular response to lipotoxic and general metabolic stress. These snoRNAs are non-canonical in that they accumulate in the cytosol after metabolic stresses like lipotoxicity and oxidative stress, suggesting that cells have specific mechanisms for regulating ...


Mechanisms Of G Protein Regulation By Rgs Proteins And Small Molecule Inhibitors, Stanley Michinobu Kanai May 2017

Mechanisms Of G Protein Regulation By Rgs Proteins And Small Molecule Inhibitors, Stanley Michinobu Kanai

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

G protein coupled receptors transduce diverse extracellular signals like hormones, neurotransmitters, and photons to specific cellular responses through heterotrimeric G proteins. G proteins activate numerous effectors and signal transduction pathways, and therefore the regulation of G proteins is crucial for faithful propagation of specific cellular and physiological responses. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate G proteins should provide new insight into signaling pathways that govern healthy and disease states, and also provide opportunities for discovery of novel therapeutic targets.Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are crucial regulators of G proteins, for they control amplitude and duration ...


Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls T Cell Fate Through Metabolic Programming, Michael Buck May 2017

Mitochondrial Dynamics Controls T Cell Fate Through Metabolic Programming, Michael Buck

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Activated effector T (TE) cells augment anabolic pathways of metabolism, such as aerobic glycolysis, while memory T (TM) cells engage catabolic pathways, like fatty acid oxidation (FAO). However, signals that drive these differences remain unclear. Mitochondria are metabolic organelles that actively transform their ultrastructure. Therefore, we questioned whether mitochondrial dynamics controls T cell metabolism. We show that TE cells have punctate mitochondria, while TM cells maintain fused networks. The fusion protein Opa1 is required for TM, but not TE cells after infection, and enforcing fusion in TE cells imposes TM cell characteristics and enhances antitumor function. Our data suggest that ...


Regulation Of The Pro-Tumorigenic Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype, Kevin Flanagan May 2017

Regulation Of The Pro-Tumorigenic Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype, Kevin Flanagan

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tumorigenesis results from the convergence of cell autonomous mutations and corresponding stromal changes that promote tumor cell growth. Mutations and stromal changes both accumulate with age and together account for the dramatic increase in cancer incidence with age. One change that occurs with age is the accumulation of stromal senescent cells. Senescent stromal cells secrete pro-tumorigenic factors collectively termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP impacts every stage of tumorigenesis and is a promising therapeutic target. As such, it is important to understand how the SASP is regulated. Many but not all SASP factors are regulated transcriptionally by NF-kB ...


Mitochondrial Damage Accumulation In Oocytes – A Potential Link Between Maternal Obesity And Increased Cardiometabolic Disease Risk In Offspring., Anna Louise Boudoures May 2017

Mitochondrial Damage Accumulation In Oocytes – A Potential Link Between Maternal Obesity And Increased Cardiometabolic Disease Risk In Offspring., Anna Louise Boudoures

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The developmental origins of health and disease (DoHAD) hypothesis suggests that negative maternal lifestyle choices, such as obesity, affect the health of her offspring. Clinical and laboratory studies support this hypothesis – offspring born to obese mothers are at increased risk for health conditions including cardiometabolic syndrome and congenital abnormalities. Maternal obesity damages the oocytes, contributing to the increased disease risk by transmitting damaged organelles and epigenetic modifications to the offspring. Mitochondria, the most abundant organelle in the oocyte, are damaged in oocytes from obese females. However, we do not understand if mitochondrial damage in oocytes is reversible nor why offspring ...


Factors That Contribute To De Novo Protein Misfolding And Prion Formation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kathryn Morgan Keefer May 2017

Factors That Contribute To De Novo Protein Misfolding And Prion Formation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Kathryn Morgan Keefer

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein misfolding is a common phenomenon that can have severe consequences on cellular and organismal health. Despite this, the causes of protein misfolding remain poorly understood. Prions are a class of proteins that, when misfolded, can convert other molecules into a heritable, non-native conformation. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae naturally harbors several diverse prion-forming proteins; thus, it is an ideal model with which to investigate the factors that influence misfolding and aggregation.This thesis utilizes the yeast prions [PSI+] and [RNQ+] to investigate two distinct steps of the protein misfolding pathway: interactions with chaperones and their cofactors, and heterologous templating by ...


Investigating Localization And Activity-Dependent Translation Of Astrocyte Mrna, Rohan Khazanchi May 2017

Investigating Localization And Activity-Dependent Translation Of Astrocyte Mrna, Rohan Khazanchi

Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

Over the past two and a half years, I have studied fundamental aspects of astrocyte biology by investigating the existence and mechanism of astrocyte local translation peripherally around tripartite synapses consisting of pre- and post-synaptic neuron terminals and an associated astrocyte. Astrocytes are critical components of central nervous system synapses (which are predominately tripartite in nature); thus, it is important to consider how astrocyte dysregulation and dysfunction could contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases of synaptic connectivity such as autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, seizure disorders, and more. Overall, my projects involved the development of novel methods to identify ...


The Localization And Function Of Novel Tetrahymena Thermophila Cytoskeletal Genes Bbc29 And Bbc39, Emily K. Moore, Nicole C. Zanolli Jan 2017

The Localization And Function Of Novel Tetrahymena Thermophila Cytoskeletal Genes Bbc29 And Bbc39, Emily K. Moore, Nicole C. Zanolli

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Ciliary function is known to play an important role in many human conditions, including chronic sinus and pulmonary diseases and problems with infertility. Cilia are cytoskeletal structures that protrude from the cell body to facilitate movement. Ciliary structure is conserved throughout eukaryotes, from unicellular to multicellular organisms, including humans. A clear understanding the proteins that compose cilia and how they interact with one another will increase our knowledge about important cytoskeletal elements. Because cilia are difficult to study in multicellular organisms, the unicellular eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila serves as a useful model for the study of cytoskeletal genes, due to their ...


Mechanism Of Calcium-Dependent Chloride Channel Activation By The Secreted Regulator Clca1, Zeynep Yurtsever May 2016

Mechanism Of Calcium-Dependent Chloride Channel Activation By The Secreted Regulator Clca1, Zeynep Yurtsever

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The calcium-activated chloride channel regulator (CLCA) proteins are key signaling molecules, which are implicated in various diseases through their tissue-specific expression. Human CLCA1 protein, overexpressed in airway epithelia under pathophysiological conditions, is centrally involved in the manifestation of IL-13-driven mucus cell metaplasia (MCM), a hallmark feature of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), for which there are currently no available therapeutics. Elucidating the poorly understood molecular basis of CLCA1 function is thus required to design specific inhibitors of CLCA1 activity to treat MCM in asthma and COPD.

Originally misannotated as ion channels, CLCA proteins are secreted soluble proteins that ...


Stochastic Models For Plant Microtubule Self-Organization And Structure, Ezgi Can Eren, Ram Dixit, Natarajan Gautam Nov 2015

Stochastic Models For Plant Microtubule Self-Organization And Structure, Ezgi Can Eren, Ram Dixit, Natarajan Gautam

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

One of the key enablers of shape and growth in plant cells is the cortical microtubule (CMT) system, which is a polymer array that forms an appropriately-structured scaffolding in each cell. Plant biologists have shown that stochastic dynamics and simple rules of interactions between CMTs can lead to a coaligned CMT array structure. However, the mechanisms and conditions that cause CMT arrays to become organized are not well understood. It is prohibitively time-consuming to use actual plants to study the effect of various genetic mutations and environmental conditions on CMT self-organization. In fact, even computer simulations with multiple replications are ...


Migration In The Social Stage Of Dictyostelium Discoideum Amoebae Impacts Competition, Chandra N. Jack, Neil J. Buttery, Boahemaa Adu-Oppong, Michael Powers, Christopher R.L. Thompson, David Queller, Joan E. Strassmann Oct 2015

Migration In The Social Stage Of Dictyostelium Discoideum Amoebae Impacts Competition, Chandra N. Jack, Neil J. Buttery, Boahemaa Adu-Oppong, Michael Powers, Christopher R.L. Thompson, David Queller, Joan E. Strassmann

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Interaction conditions can change the balance of cooperation and conflict in multicellular groups. After aggregating together, cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum may migrate as a group (known as a slug) to a new location. We consider this migration stage as an arena for social competition and conflict because the cells in the slug may not be from a genetically homogeneous population. In this study, we examined the interplay of two seemingly diametric actions, the solitary action of kin recognition and the collective action of slug migration in D. discoideum, to more fully understand the effects of social competition ...


Expressing And Characterizing Mechanosensitive Channels In Xenopus Oocytes, Grigory Maksaev, Elizabeth S. Haswell May 2015

Expressing And Characterizing Mechanosensitive Channels In Xenopus Oocytes, Grigory Maksaev, Elizabeth S. Haswell

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The oocytes of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) comprise one of the most widely used membrane protein expression systems. While frequently used for studies of transporters and ion channels, the application of this system to the study of mechanosensitive ion channels has been overlooked, perhaps due to a relative abundance of native expression systems. Recent advances, however, have illustrated the advantages of the oocyte system for studying plant and bacterial mechanosensitive channels. Here we describe in detail the methods used for heterologous expression and characterization of bacterial and plant mechanosensitive channels in Xenopus oocytes.


Serotonergic Signaling Pathways That Suppress Amyloid Beta In Mouse Models Of Ad, Jonathan Robert Fisher Aug 2014

Serotonergic Signaling Pathways That Suppress Amyloid Beta In Mouse Models Of Ad, Jonathan Robert Fisher

All Theses and Dissertations (ETDs)

A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is one of the most devastating things one can hear. This terrible disease robs people of their ability to remember cherished events as their brains become riddled with beta amyloid plaques. Alzheimer's is especially terrifying because there currently are no effective treatments for slowing or stopping the disease. However, recent research has shown that plaque formation is correlated to concentrations of amyloid beta. This discovery suggests that limiting amyloid beta production could potentially halt the disease. One promising avenue for slowing amyloid beta production is serotonergic signaling.

This dissertation presents evidence for a ...


Microtubule Severing At Crossover Sites By Katanin Generates Ordered Cortical Microtubule Arrays In Arabidopsis, Quan Zhang, Erica Fishel, Tyler Bertroche, Ram Dixit Nov 2013

Microtubule Severing At Crossover Sites By Katanin Generates Ordered Cortical Microtubule Arrays In Arabidopsis, Quan Zhang, Erica Fishel, Tyler Bertroche, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Highlights

  • Severing primarily depolymerizes the overlying CMT at crossover sites
  • Severing probability increases nonlinearly with crossover time
  • Katanin localizes to crossover sites and is required for severing
  • Loss of katanin activity prevents the formation of coaligned CMT arrays

Summary
The noncentrosomal cortical microtubules (CMTs) of land plants form highly ordered parallel arrays that mediate cell morphogenesis by orienting cellulose deposition [1, 2 and 3]. Since new CMTs initiate from dispersed cortical sites at random orientations [4], parallel array organization is hypothesized to require selective pruning of CMTs that are not in the dominant orientation. Severing of CMTs at crossover sites ...


A Force Of Nature: Molecular Mechanisms Of Mechanoperception In Plants, Gabriele B. Monshausen, Elizabeth S. Haswell Aug 2013

A Force Of Nature: Molecular Mechanisms Of Mechanoperception In Plants, Gabriele B. Monshausen, Elizabeth S. Haswell

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

The ability to sense and respond to a wide variety of mechanical stimuli-gravity, touch, osmotic pressure, or the resistance of the cell wall-is a critical feature of every plant cell, whether or not it is specialized for mechanotransduction. Mechanoperceptive events are an essential part of plant life, required for normal growth and development at the cell, tissue, and whole-plant level and for the proper response to an array of biotic and abiotic stresses. One current challenge for plant mechanobiologists is to link these physiological responses to specific mechanoreceptors and signal transduction pathways. Here, we describe recent progress in the identification ...


Plant Cytoskeleton: Della Connects Gibberellins To Microtubules, Ram Dixit Jun 2013

Plant Cytoskeleton: Della Connects Gibberellins To Microtubules, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

A new study reveals that DELLA proteins directly interact with the prefoldin complex, thus regulating tubulin subunit availability in a gibberellin-dependent manner. This finding provides a mechanistic link between the growth-promoting plant hormone gibberellin and cortical microtubule organization.


Computer Simulation And Mathematical Models Of The Noncentrosomal Plant Cortical Microtubule Cytoskeleton, Ezgi Can Eren, Natarajan Gautam, Ram Dixit Mar 2012

Computer Simulation And Mathematical Models Of The Noncentrosomal Plant Cortical Microtubule Cytoskeleton, Ezgi Can Eren, Natarajan Gautam, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

There is rising interest in modeling the noncentrosomal cortical microtubule cytoskeleton of plant cells, particularly its organization into ordered arrays and the mechanisms that facilitate this organization. In this review, we discuss quantitative models of this highly complex and dynamic structure both at a cellular and molecular level. We report differences in methodologies and assumptions of different models as well as their controversial results. Our review provides insights for future studies to resolve these controversies, in addition to underlining the common results between various models. We also highlight the need to compare the results from simulation and mathematical models with ...


Putting A Bifunctional Motor To Work: Insights Into The Role Of Plant Kch Kinesins, Ram Dixit Feb 2012

Putting A Bifunctional Motor To Work: Insights Into The Role Of Plant Kch Kinesins, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Comment on: A novel actin-microtubule cross-linking kinesin, NtKCH, functions in cell expansion and division. [New Phytol. 2012 Feb;193(3):576-89. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03944.x. ]


Single-Molecule Analysis Of The Microtubule Cross-Linking Protein Map65-1 Reveals A Molecular Mechanism For Contact-Angle-Dependent Microtubule Bundling, Amanda Tulin, Sheri Mcclerklin, Yue Huang, Ram Dixit Feb 2012

Single-Molecule Analysis Of The Microtubule Cross-Linking Protein Map65-1 Reveals A Molecular Mechanism For Contact-Angle-Dependent Microtubule Bundling, Amanda Tulin, Sheri Mcclerklin, Yue Huang, Ram Dixit

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Bundling of microtubules (MTs) is critical for the formation of complex MT arrays. In land plants, the interphase cortical MTs form bundles specifically following shallow-angle encounters between them. To investigate how cells select particular MT contact angles for bundling, we used an in vitro reconstitution approach consisting of dynamic MTs and the MT-cross-linking protein MAP65-1. We found that MAP65-1 binds to MTs as monomers and inherently targets antiparallel MTs for bundling. Dwell-time analysis showed that the affinity of MAP65-1 for antiparallel overlapping MTs is about three times higher than its affinity for single MTs and parallel overlapping MTs. We also ...