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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Sample Chapter. Cell And Molecular Biology 4e: What We Know And How Found Out, Gerald Bergtrom Jan 2020

Sample Chapter. Cell And Molecular Biology 4e: What We Know And How Found Out, Gerald Bergtrom

Cell and Molecular Biology 4e: What We Know and How We Found Out - All Versions

No abstract provided.


Basic Cell And Molecular Biology 4e: What We Know And How Found Out, Gerald Bergtrom Jan 2020

Basic Cell And Molecular Biology 4e: What We Know And How Found Out, Gerald Bergtrom

Cell and Molecular Biology 4e: What We Know and How We Found Out - All Versions

No abstract provided.


Annotated Cell And Molecular Biology 4e: What We Know And How We Found Out, Gerald Bergtrom Jan 2020

Annotated Cell And Molecular Biology 4e: What We Know And How We Found Out, Gerald Bergtrom

Cell and Molecular Biology 4e: What We Know and How We Found Out - All Versions

No abstract provided.


Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Morphogenesis Of The Basal Epithelial Tissue Fold During Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Formation In Zebrafish, Mike Roger Visetsouk May 2019

Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Morphogenesis Of The Basal Epithelial Tissue Fold During Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Formation In Zebrafish, Mike Roger Visetsouk

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS MEDIATING MORPHOGENESIS OF THE BASAL EPITHELIAL TISSUE FOLD DURING MIDBRAIN-HINDBRAIN BOUNDARY FORMATION IN ZEBRAFISH

by

Mike Roger Visetsouk

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2019

Under the Supervision of Jennifer H. Gutzman, PhD

The formation of a fully functional organism requires the morphogenesis of cell and tissue structures during development. It is important to understand the mechanisms that mediate morphogenesis, since cell and tissue structures are crucial to physiological function. Here, we studied basal epithelial tissue folding as a model to determine the mechanisms of morphogenesis. We investigated a highly conserved basal tissue fold known as the midbrain-hindbrain boundary ...


Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Induces Apoptosis And Cell Cycle Dysregulation In Human And Murine Cancer Cell Lines, Joseph Skurski Aug 2017

Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Induces Apoptosis And Cell Cycle Dysregulation In Human And Murine Cancer Cell Lines, Joseph Skurski

Theses and Dissertations

Carcinogenesis is a complex multistep process that requires tumor cells to grow rapidly while overcoming growth inhibitory signals and sustained challenges from the host immune response. Mutations within promoter or enhancer regions, along with epigenetic changes, can induce aberrant expression of genes that regulate differentiation, cell cycle, and apoptosis, all of which enhance potential for cellular transformation. In recent years, our understanding of the biological processes that influence the activation and repression of transcription have evolved to highlight the role of chromatin architecture, and how chromatin remodeling may be utilized for the potential therapeutic benefit of genetic disease. Histone deacetylase ...


Molecular And Functional Analysis Of The Pixb Gene In Xenorhabdus Nematophila, John Lucas Dec 2016

Molecular And Functional Analysis Of The Pixb Gene In Xenorhabdus Nematophila, John Lucas

Theses and Dissertations

Xenorhabdus nematophila and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae form a mutualistic relationship facilitating the infection, death and consumption of an insect host. The infective juvenile (IJ) form of S. carpocapsae invades the insect host through natural openings and proceeds to the hemocoel where exposure to hemolymph stimulates the release of X. nematophila from the anterior vesicle. Excreted X. nematophila releases immunosuppressive compounds and insect toxins into the insect hemolymph that facilitates death of the host. As X. nematophila reaches high cell density it secretes exoenzymes that degrade insect tissues and produces antibiotics that reduce microbial competition. S. carpocapsae utilizes the ...


Ultrastructural Changes During Pollen Wall Development And Germination In Arabidopsis Thalaiana, Katrina Olsen Dec 2016

Ultrastructural Changes During Pollen Wall Development And Germination In Arabidopsis Thalaiana, Katrina Olsen

Theses and Dissertations

The Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic mutant 6491 has been identified as displaying temperature sensitive male reduced- fertility. It has been determined that callose wall formation is defective, both in temporal and structural areas. There is irregular rippling in the plasma membrane and aberrant formation of the exine portion of the pollen wall. A developmental study using brightfield, epifluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy of the early stages of wall formation in 6491 has been completed, along with a similar study of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) heynh, ecotype Wassilewskija (WS). Due to the temperature-sensitive nature of the mutant line, a further study of both ...


Development Of Cellular High Throughput Assays To Determine The Electrophysiological Profile Of Gaba(A) Receptor Modulators For Neurology And Immunology, Nina Yina Yuan Aug 2016

Development Of Cellular High Throughput Assays To Determine The Electrophysiological Profile Of Gaba(A) Receptor Modulators For Neurology And Immunology, Nina Yina Yuan

Theses and Dissertations

Gamma (γ) -aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter found in

the mammalian central nervous system. Its effect stems from its ability to cause the opening of ion channels which causes an influx of negatively charged chloride ions or an efflux of positively charged potassium ions. This hyperpolarization of the neuron lowers the threshold for neuronal firing. This has an overall inhibitory effect on neurotransmission, decreasing the excitability of the neuron and diminishing the likelihood of a successful action potential occurring. There are two classes of GABA receptor: ligand-gated GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and metabotropic GABAB receptor (GABABR). The GABAAR ...


Age-Associated B Cell And T Helper Cell Dysfunction In Rhesus Macaques, Evan Knox Stalvig May 2016

Age-Associated B Cell And T Helper Cell Dysfunction In Rhesus Macaques, Evan Knox Stalvig

Theses and Dissertations

The immune system undergoes drastic changes as we age, known as immunosenescence. An example of this is the dysfunction and subpopulation distribution changes of immune cells. Due to immunosenescence, the elderly have a higher risk of complications and rapid progression of new challenges to the immune system, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In an effort to determine the mechanism of dysfunction of humoral immunity due to age, I compared B cell and T cell responses to non-specific, mitogenic stimuli between aged and young adult rhesus macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Analysis by flow cytometry revealed several differences in B ...


Role Of Non-Muscle Myosin Ii And Calcium In Zebrafish Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Morphogenesis, Srishti Upasana Sahu May 2015

Role Of Non-Muscle Myosin Ii And Calcium In Zebrafish Midbrain-Hindbrain Boundary Morphogenesis, Srishti Upasana Sahu

Theses and Dissertations

Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that play a role in cellular morphogenesis is critical to our understanding of brain development and function. The midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) is one of the first folds in the vertebrate embryonic brain and is highly conserved across species. We used the zebrafish MHB as a model for determining the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cell shape changes. Cellular morphogenesis is tightly regulated by signaling pathways that rearrange the cytoskeleton and produce mechanical forces that enable changes in cell and tissue morphology. The generation of force within a cell often depends on motor proteins, particularly non-muscle myosins ...


Use Of Photobiomodulation In Osteoclast Formation: Possible Intervention For The Treatment Of Osteoporosis, Lisa Lauren Anderson-Antle Aug 2014

Use Of Photobiomodulation In Osteoclast Formation: Possible Intervention For The Treatment Of Osteoporosis, Lisa Lauren Anderson-Antle

Theses and Dissertations

After critically examining the literature to gain a robust understanding for the pathogenesis of bone loss, specifically osteoporosis, the development of a possible new intervention to prevent or treat osteoporosis was explored. The purpose of this dissertation was to pilot test a new protocol designed to answer the broad research question: Does Near-Infrared Light Emitting Diode (NIR-LED) treatment affect Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastogenesis in a cell culture model?

Osteoporosis is defined as a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to ...


Development Of Peripheral Innervation In The Frog Xenopus Laevis, Mitali A. Gandhi Aug 2014

Development Of Peripheral Innervation In The Frog Xenopus Laevis, Mitali A. Gandhi

Theses and Dissertations

The skin in Xenopus laevis is innervated by two different sets of mechanosensory neurons at different times during development. Rohon Beard (RB) neurons start differentiating during gastrulation, innervate the embryonic skin and mediate sensory function during hatching. Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons start differentiating after neural crest migration, innervate adult epidermal targets and mediate mechanosensory function during larval and adult stages and eventually replace RB neurons. The change in sensory neurons occurs during the transformation of skin, sensory structures, and behavior from their embryonic to their larval forms. We hypothesized that developmental changes in either the sensory end organs or ...


Th17 Cell-Associated Response To Borrelia Burgdorferi Outer Surface Protein A, Megan Elizabeth Johnson Aug 2014

Th17 Cell-Associated Response To Borrelia Burgdorferi Outer Surface Protein A, Megan Elizabeth Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

Arthritis is a common symptom of Lyme disease, a debilitating condition resulting from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. A protein found on the surface of B. burgdorferi, outer surface protein A (OspA), is known to elicit an inflammatory immune response involving T helper cells. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are associated with the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-23 (IL-23) and have been implicated in the development of Lyme arthritis. The objective of this thesis is to provide further characterization of the immune response to B. burgdorferi OspA. The central hypothesis of this thesis is: Vaccination with OspA will predispose mice ...


Zebrafish As A Model For Determining The Mechanisms Causing Deafness In Myh9-Related Disease, Luke David Spychalla Aug 2014

Zebrafish As A Model For Determining The Mechanisms Causing Deafness In Myh9-Related Disease, Luke David Spychalla

Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 1 in 500 infants are diagnosed with hearing loss, and about half of these cases can be traced to genetic defects. Several hundred genes have been implicated in deafness, including MYH9, which codes for the conventional motor protein non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA). Mutations in MYH9 lead to syndromic MYH9-related diseases, which include deafness as a variable symptom, as well as non-syndromic autosomal deafness DFNA17. Despite its identification as a deafness gene, the functions of MYH9 in ear development and hearing remain unknown. To study this role, we will use zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish offer significant advantages including established ...


Metformin-Induced Pedf Expression Regulates Cell Proliferation And Lipid Metabolism In Prostate Cancer Cells, Miguel Angel Tolentino Aug 2013

Metformin-Induced Pedf Expression Regulates Cell Proliferation And Lipid Metabolism In Prostate Cancer Cells, Miguel Angel Tolentino

Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in American males. A high fat diet and obesity accelerate PCa progression and increase the 1risk of death from disease. Epidemiological studies have indicated that PCa patients with type 2 diabetes have higher mortality rates than PCa patients without diabetes. Type 2 diabetics who are on metformin, a drug to control blood sugar levels, show a delay in PCa progression in comparison with PCa patients with type 2 diabetes who are not on metformin. It has been proposed that metformin inhibits proliferation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or ...


Identification Of Immunomodulatory Cells Induced By 670 Nm Light Therapy In An Animal Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Erin Christine Koester May 2013

Identification Of Immunomodulatory Cells Induced By 670 Nm Light Therapy In An Animal Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Erin Christine Koester

Theses and Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, demyelinating disease characterized by neurodegeneration and inflammation of the central nervous system. It affects approximately 250,000 people in the United States alone, with women being affected two times more than men. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the primary animal model of MS, sharing clinical signs and histopathology with MS. The current paradigm supports MS/EAE induction by myelin reactive CD4+ T cells that cross the blood brain barrier to induce an inflammatory response that leads to the destruction of the myelin sheath and eventual loss of axons. Recent data suggest that axonal loss and ...


Mig-10 Functions With Abi-1 To Mediate The Unc-6 And Slt-1 Axon Guidance Signaling Pathways, Yan Xu, Christopher C. Quinn Nov 2012

Mig-10 Functions With Abi-1 To Mediate The Unc-6 And Slt-1 Axon Guidance Signaling Pathways, Yan Xu, Christopher C. Quinn

Biological Sciences Faculty Articles

Extracellular guidance cues steer axons towards their targets by eliciting morphological changes in the growth cone. A key part of this process is the asymmetric recruitment of the cytoplasmic scaffolding protein MIG-10 (lamellipodin). MIG-10 is thought to asymmetrically promote outgrowth by inducing actin polymerization. However, the mechanism that links MIG- 10 to actin polymerization is not known. We have identified the actin regulatory protein ABI-1 as a partner for MIG-10 that can mediate its outgrowth-promoting activity. The SH3 domain of ABI-1 binds to MIG-10, and loss of function of either of these proteins causes similar axon guidance defects. Like MIG-10 ...