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Articles 1 - 30 of 46

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

A Cell Cycle Cue Triggers Cell Growth Resumption After Division, Afton R. Russell Apr 2019

A Cell Cycle Cue Triggers Cell Growth Resumption After Division, Afton R. Russell

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The decoupling of the fundamental processes of cell division and growth is important for maintaining cell integrity. Through a chemical approach, we delayed the clock that controls when cells separate, uncoupling cell division and cell growth. This led to polarized cell growth before the cells completed separation. Using fluorescent markers to denote the cell’s stage in the cell cycle, we observed that only cells that were in mitosis exhibited this uncoupling. Previously it was thought that growth resumption occurred after completion of cell division, but this observation suggests that growth is triggered earlier, from a mitotic cue. This mitotic ...


Investigating The Role Of The Rough Deal Protein In Spindle Assembly Complex Signaling, Ryan P. Mihealsick Aug 2018

Investigating The Role Of The Rough Deal Protein In Spindle Assembly Complex Signaling, Ryan P. Mihealsick

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Iteratively Improving Hi-C Experiments One Step At A Time, Rosela Golloshi, Jacob T. Sanders, Rachel Patton Mccord Apr 2018

Iteratively Improving Hi-C Experiments One Step At A Time, Rosela Golloshi, Jacob T. Sanders, Rachel Patton Mccord

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

The 3D organization of eukaryotic chromosomes affects key processes such as gene expression, DNA replication, cell division, and response to DNA damage. The genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) approach can characterize the landscape of 3D genome organization by measuring interaction frequencies between all genomic regions. Hi-C protocol improvements and rapid advances in DNA sequencing power have made Hi-C useful to study diverse biological systems, not only to elucidate the role of 3D genome structure in proper cellular function, but also to characterize genomic rearrangements, assemble new genomes, and consider chromatin interactions as potential biomarkers for diseases. Yet, the Hi-C protocol ...


Constitutive Expression Of Thioglucoside Glucohydrolase 1 (Tgg1) Decreases Intercellular Trafficking In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Alessandro Francesco Sarno Apr 2018

Constitutive Expression Of Thioglucoside Glucohydrolase 1 (Tgg1) Decreases Intercellular Trafficking In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Alessandro Francesco Sarno

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Plasmodesmata (PD) are pores that traverse plant cell walls, providing a route for intercellular trafficking of essential metabolites, nutrients, and signaling molecules between adjacent plant cells, thereby aiding communication. The increased size exclusion limit 2 (ise2) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has an increased abundance of branched PD, as well as a greater flux of intercellular trafficking. A search for proteins that interact with ISE2 identified THIOGLUCOSIDE GLUCOHYDROLASE 2 (a myrosinase). A. thaliana also encodes a second, closely-related myrosinase, TGG1. Myrosinases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, a type of secondary metabolite that are amino acid derivatives. The breakdown ...


Using The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus As A Model System To Assess Tolerance And Withdrawal To Alcohol, Jonathan Houghton Lindsay Aug 2017

Using The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus As A Model System To Assess Tolerance And Withdrawal To Alcohol, Jonathan Houghton Lindsay

Doctoral Dissertations

Alcohol abuse induces many disorders including depression, metabolic syndrome, and sleep disturbances. The strong link between alcohol abuse and sleep problems, along with the close connection between sleep and circadian rhythms, led us to investigate ethanol’s effects on the circadian clock. Previous work has shown that acute ethanol blocks photic phase shifts in vivo and glutamatergic phase shifts in vitro. However, neural systems become tolerant to ethanol across different timeframes. Despite both ethanol tolerance and ethanol withdrawal syndrome being listed as criteria for developing alcohol use disorders, little is known about how ethanol tolerance and withdrawal induced hyperexcitability develop ...


Identification Of A General Targeting Motif Guiding Interaction Between Nuclear-Encoded Plastid Precursors And The Translocon Of The Plastid Outer Membrane, Erika N. Sanders May 2017

Identification Of A General Targeting Motif Guiding Interaction Between Nuclear-Encoded Plastid Precursors And The Translocon Of The Plastid Outer Membrane, Erika N. Sanders

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of The Chea2 Chemotaxis Operon In Azospirillum Brasilense, Erin Lutz May 2017

Characterization Of The Chea2 Chemotaxis Operon In Azospirillum Brasilense, Erin Lutz

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Myosin Xi-I Works In Tandem With A Microtubule-Associated Mechanism To Position The Nucleus In Arabidopsis Root Hairs, Ian Andrew Windham May 2017

Myosin Xi-I Works In Tandem With A Microtubule-Associated Mechanism To Position The Nucleus In Arabidopsis Root Hairs, Ian Andrew Windham

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Biophysical Studies Of Cell Division Protein Localization Mechanisms In Escherichia Coli, Matthew Wayne Bailey May 2016

Biophysical Studies Of Cell Division Protein Localization Mechanisms In Escherichia Coli, Matthew Wayne Bailey

Doctoral Dissertations

How nanometer-scale proteins position accurately within micron-scale bacteria has intrigued both biologists and physicists alike. A critical process requiring precise protein localization is cell division. In most bacteria, cell division starts with the self-assembly of the FtsZ proteins into filaments that form a ring-like structure encircling the cell at its middle, the Z-ring. The Z-ring is a scaffold for additional proteins that synthesize the lateral cell wall which separates the two daughter cells. If division planes are misplaced relative to bacterial chromosomes, also called nucleoids, daughter cells with incomplete genetic material can be produced. In Escherichia coli, research carried out ...


Expansion, Characterization, Differentiation, And Visualization Of Mc 3t3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells: An In Vitro Model To Study Bone Healing And Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration, Jakob T. Samsel, Madhu Dhar, Austin Bow, Tom Masi May 2016

Expansion, Characterization, Differentiation, And Visualization Of Mc 3t3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells: An In Vitro Model To Study Bone Healing And Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration, Jakob T. Samsel, Madhu Dhar, Austin Bow, Tom Masi

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Brown And Beige Adipocytes: Effects Of Inflammation And Nutritional Intervention, Jiyoung Bae Dec 2015

Brown And Beige Adipocytes: Effects Of Inflammation And Nutritional Intervention, Jiyoung Bae

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent findings of brown adipocytes and brown-like or beige adipocytes, capable of dissipating energy as heat, in adult humans have promised new hope for obesity treatment and prevention. Understanding of the regulation of brown and beige adipocytes will provide novel strategies to reach the goal. Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are responsible for inflammation in adipose tissue, which leads to adipose dysfunction and obesity associated chronic diseases. It has been shown that PRR activation induces inflammation, leading to insulin resistance in white adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the roles of PRR activation in brown adipocytes and brown adipose tissue ...


Calmodulin-Like Protein 38: A Component Of Ribonucleoprotein Particles During Hypoxic Stress Responses In Arabidopsis, Ansul Lokdarshi Aug 2015

Calmodulin-Like Protein 38: A Component Of Ribonucleoprotein Particles During Hypoxic Stress Responses In Arabidopsis, Ansul Lokdarshi

Doctoral Dissertations

Waterlogging stress leads to a crisis in energy metabolism and the accumulation of toxic metabolites due to the hypoxic and/or anoxic environment associated with this condition. To respond and adapt to this situation, higher plants employ an integrated genetic program that leads to the induction of anaerobic response polypeptide genes that encode metabolic and signaling proteins involved in altering metabolic flow and other adaptive responses. The study presented here shows that the Arabidopsis thaliana calmodulin-like protein CML38 is calcium sensor protein that serves as a member of the core anaerobic response gene family and is involved in modulating the ...


Dominance Of Old End Growth Is Inherited In Fission Yeast, Julie Tia Rich May 2015

Dominance Of Old End Growth Is Inherited In Fission Yeast, Julie Tia Rich

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Characterization Of Amyloid Fibrils And Novel Synthetic Heparin-Binding Peptides Binding To Cell Surfaces, Nicole Marie Hackenbrack May 2015

The Characterization Of Amyloid Fibrils And Novel Synthetic Heparin-Binding Peptides Binding To Cell Surfaces, Nicole Marie Hackenbrack

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Reverse Genetics Approach To Examine Myosin Xi Functions In Pollen Tube Growth, Stephanie Lin Madison Dec 2014

Reverse Genetics Approach To Examine Myosin Xi Functions In Pollen Tube Growth, Stephanie Lin Madison

Doctoral Dissertations

Pollen tube growth is an essential aspect of plant reproduction because it is the mechanism through which non-motile sperm cells are delivered to ovules thus allowing fertilization to occur. A pollen tube is a single cell that only grows at the tip, and this tip growth depends on actin filaments. Plants encode class VIII and class XI myosins as actin-based motor proteins, of which class XI myosins are required for cell expansion in vegetative tissues.

In Arabidopsis thaliana, 6 of 13 myosin XI genes are expressed in pollen: XIA, XIB, XIC, XID, XIE, and XIJ. Initially, two artificial microRNA constructs ...


The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min Dec 2014

The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores the nature of a divergent member of the Transforming Growth Factor-β [beta] superfamily, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs activated gene (NAG-1), as it relates to its regulation and biological activity in cancer context. Our lab has extensively studied on the molecular mechanism by which phytochemicals and NSAIDs induce apoptosis correlation with NAG-1 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Significant data from in vitro studies suggest that NAG-1 has an anti-tumorigenic activity which elicits apoptosis in a cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent manner in CRC cells. Indeed, NAG-1 transgenic mice developed less aberrant polyp foci (APC) compared to those of ...


Understanding The Meiotic Roles Of Sisters Unbound In Drosophila Melanogaster, Badri Krishnan Dec 2014

Understanding The Meiotic Roles Of Sisters Unbound In Drosophila Melanogaster, Badri Krishnan

Doctoral Dissertations

During meiosis, cohesin is required for sister chromatid cohesion and for formation of chromosome cores. Multiple processes including chromosome segregation, recombination and synaptonemal complex (SC) are dependent on cohesin. Cohesin complex consists of two SMC subunits- SMC1, SMC3 and two non-SMC subunits RAD21/REC8 in meiosis and SA. But in Drosophila, non-SMC subunits have not been shown to be required for cohesion. We have identified a gene sisters unbound, which along with previously identified ord and solo, form a group of three genes (sos) which do not have any sequence similarity to cohesins but performs functions demonstrated by cohesins.

Proper ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford Jun 2014

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


Functional Study Of The Suppressor Of Hairy-­Wing Insulator Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Shih-Jui Hsu May 2014

Functional Study Of The Suppressor Of Hairy-­Wing Insulator Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Shih-Jui Hsu

Doctoral Dissertations

Eukaryotic chromatin insulators play an essential role in regulating gene expression and modifying nuclear architecture by organizing the higher-order chromatin structure in response to cellular and developmental cues. The details on how insulators function in this capacity are not completely understood.

Five different types of insulators have been identified in Drosophila. Each functional insulator consists of an insulator DNA response element bound by an insulator protein, which recognizes specific DNA sequences. Each type of insulator functions individually as well as collaboratively. Except for the Su(Hw) insulator protein, the other insulator proteins are necessary for viability considering loss of Su ...


Examining The Functional Consequences Of The Flexibility Of Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase (3’)-Iiia, Katelyn Dawn Rosendall May 2014

Examining The Functional Consequences Of The Flexibility Of Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase (3’)-Iiia, Katelyn Dawn Rosendall

Masters Theses

The use of aminoglycoside antibiotics began in 1940 with the discovery of streptomycin. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics has resulted in prevalent cases of antibiotic resistance. The most common source of aminoglycoside resistance is the presence of enzymes that covalently modify the antibiotics at specific locations. One such enzyme, APH(3′)-IIIa [the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase three prime three a] conveys resistance by transferring the γ-phosphate [gamma phosphate] from ATP [adenosine triphosphate] onto the 3′ [three prime] carbon of the aminoglycoside antibiotic sugar ring. APH(3′)-IIIa has been shown to be flexible in solution and this flexibility is proposed ...


Mechanism Of Lpa-Induced Lipid Uptake In Macrophages, Kan Xu Aug 2013

Mechanism Of Lpa-Induced Lipid Uptake In Macrophages, Kan Xu

Masters Theses

Cardiovascular disease, currently the leading cause of mortality throughout the developed countries, is mainly caused by atherosclerosis, which is recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Atherosclerotic plaques are characterized by accumulations of lipid in arterial walls together with infiltration of macrophages. These macrophages differentiate from monocytes which transform into foam cells through phagocytizing various forms of lipid, are believed to be the main component of early atherosclerotic lesions.

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a potent bioactive lipid, regulates a broad range of cellular functions in various cell types. In our findings, LPA-induced macrophages may enhance the lipid uptake effect in both J774A ...


Chromatin Insulators: Master Regulators Of The Eukaryotic Genome, Todd Andrew Schoborg Aug 2013

Chromatin Insulators: Master Regulators Of The Eukaryotic Genome, Todd Andrew Schoborg

Doctoral Dissertations

Proper organization of the chromatin fiber within the three dimensional space of the eukaryotic nucleus relies on a number of DNA elements and their interacting proteins whose structural and functional consequences exert significant influence on genome behavior. Chromatin insulators are one such example, where it is thought that these elements assist in the formation of higher order chromatin loop structures by mediating long-range contacts between distant sites scattered throughout the genome. Such looping serves a dual role, helping to satisfy both the physical constraints needed to package the linear DNA polymer within the small volume of the nucleus while simultaneously ...


Role Of Retinoids In The Regulation Of Hepatic Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Rui Li May 2013

Role Of Retinoids In The Regulation Of Hepatic Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Rui Li

Doctoral Dissertations

The liver plays an important role in controlling glucose and lipid homeostasis. Metabolic abnormalities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are often associated with profound changes in the expression of genes involved in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Dietary nutrients provide us with macronutrients for energy and micronutrients for maintenance of general health. However, the effects of individual micronutrients on the development of metabolic diseases are unknown. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is the master regulator of fatty acid synthesis, and glucokinase (GK) is the key enzyme in glucose metabolism. Based on the preliminary results from our laboratory ...


Experimental And Computational Analysis Of Chloroplast Transit Peptide Domain Architecture And Function, Prakitchai Chotewutmontri May 2013

Experimental And Computational Analysis Of Chloroplast Transit Peptide Domain Architecture And Function, Prakitchai Chotewutmontri

Doctoral Dissertations

The Majority of chloroplast proteins are nuclear-encoded and utilize an N-terminal transit peptide (TP) to target into chloroplasts via the general import pathway. Bioinformatic and proteomic analyses provide thousands of predicted TPs, which show low sequence similarity. How the common chloroplast translocon components recognize these diverse TPs is not well understood. Previous results support either sequence- or physicochemical-specific recognitions. To further address this question, a reverse sequence approach was utilized such that the reverse TP contains the same amino acid composition as wild-type TP but lack similar sequence motifs. Using both native and reverse TPs of the two well-studied precursors ...


Development And Application Of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics To Generate And Navigate The Proteomes Of The Genus Populus, Paul Edward Abraham May 2013

Development And Application Of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics To Generate And Navigate The Proteomes Of The Genus Populus, Paul Edward Abraham

Doctoral Dissertations

Historically, there has been tremendous synergy between biology and analytical technology, such that one drives the development of the other. Over the past two decades, their interrelatedness has catalyzed entirely new experimental approaches and unlocked new types of biological questions, as exemplified by the advancements of the field of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. MS-based proteomics, which provides a more complete measurement of all the proteins in a cell, has revolutionized a variety of scientific fields, ranging from characterizing proteins expressed by a microorganism to tracking cancer-related biomarkers. Though MS technology has advanced significantly, the analysis of complicated proteomes, such ...


Phosphorylation Regulates Myosin Driven Organelle Movements, Peter Andrew Duden Mar 2013

Phosphorylation Regulates Myosin Driven Organelle Movements, Peter Andrew Duden

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells is the continuous flow of cytoplasm and organelles throughout the cell, with the first observation of cytoplasmic streaming being publicized in 1774. However, the mechanism of cytoplasmic streaming remained unclear until components of the cytoskeleton were researched. Research now supports that the motive force generating cytoplasmic streaming is the interaction of myosin XI motor proteins with organelles while sliding along actin filaments. From this, a key topic of interest is how myosin driven organelle movement is regulated. Our research focuses on whether phosphorylation affects the regulation of myosin XI motor proteins. Specifically, the goal of ...


Metabolic Rescue Of “Glucose Addicted” Cancer Cells In Vitro, Paolo Vignali Mar 2013

Metabolic Rescue Of “Glucose Addicted” Cancer Cells In Vitro, Paolo Vignali

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Transformations in the glycolytic metabolism of neoplasms modulate their robust cellular division. This characteristic leads to an “addiction” to glucose for continued proliferation and viability. This study investigated whether glucose metabolites could rescue cellular viability in glucose-starvation conditions, a model of the inter-tumoral nutrient-deficient environment. Findings illustrated potential cellular viability rescue with pyruvate addition in glucose-deprived conditions, yet the same potential was not observed with lactic acid, a metabolite that exists at characteristically high concentrations within the intertumoral microenvironment. These results could implicate a predominance of certain metabolic pathways in nutrient-starved cells. Molecular transport capacities across plasma membranes are tied ...


Characterization Of The Function Of The Azospirillum Brasilense Che1 Chemotaxis Pathway In The Regulation Of Chemotaxis, Cell Length And Clumping, Amber Nicole Bible May 2012

Characterization Of The Function Of The Azospirillum Brasilense Che1 Chemotaxis Pathway In The Regulation Of Chemotaxis, Cell Length And Clumping, Amber Nicole Bible

Doctoral Dissertations

Azospirillum brasilense is a gram-negative alphaproteobacterium that lives in the soil where it colonizes the root surfaces of cereals and grasses. The genome of A. brasilense has recently been sequenced and shown to possess four different chemotaxis-like operons. This dissertation project focused on characterizing the Che1 chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathway, which was initially implicated in regulation of the chemotaxis behavior. Deletions of individual genes within the Che1 pathway did not exhibit a null chemotaxis phenotype, leading us to investigate the role of this pathway in the lifestyle of A. brasilense and the mechanism(s) by which it functions. We have ...


Elucidating The Effect Of Silver On Ethylene Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Brittany Kathleen Mcdaniel May 2012

Elucidating The Effect Of Silver On Ethylene Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Brittany Kathleen Mcdaniel

Masters Theses

Ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone, is involved in numerous plant developmental processes such as seed germination, senescence, and fruit ripening. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ethylene is perceived by a family of five membrane-bound receptors, which upon binding ethylene trigger downstream effects. At the receptor level, it is known that the coordination of a copper ion is necessary for ethylene to bind, resulting in a conformational change of the receptor and the initiation of the ethylene signal transduction pathway. Interestingly, silver ions are also able to support binding of ethylene but ethylene responses are blocked in the presence of silver. When etiolated ...


Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore Dec 2011

Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore

Doctoral Dissertations

Sporadic breast cancers are mainly attributable to long-term exposure to environmental factors, via a multi-year, multi-step, and multi-path process of tumorigenesis involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells from a non-cancerous stage to precancerous and cancerous stages. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have suggested that various dietary compounds like green tea and grape seed may be used as preventive agents for breast cancer control. In this research, I have developed a cellular model that mimics breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by cumulative exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. I used the chronic carcinogenesis model ...