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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Targeting Pro-Inflammatory Function Of Microglia Using Small Molecules To Combat Neurodegeneration, Gabrielle C. Williams, Priya Prakash, Gaurav Chopra Aug 2018

Targeting Pro-Inflammatory Function Of Microglia Using Small Molecules To Combat Neurodegeneration, Gabrielle C. Williams, Priya Prakash, Gaurav Chopra

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Microglia are the brain’s resident immune cells that are responsible for maintaining homeostasis in healthy conditions. During injury or infection, resting microglia get activated and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-1a, IL-6, etc. along with reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide (NO) to combat neuroinflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Inflammation is characterized by the activation of resident-immune cells in the brain called microglia that respond to the eat-me signals released by the toxic amyloid beta peptides as well as the dying neurons in the microenvironment. Recent studies have shown that activated microglia induce neuronal death ...


Structural And Functional Characterization Of Hyper-Phosphorylated Grk5 Protein Expressed From E. Coli, Joseph M. Krampen, John Tesmer, Qiuyan Chen Aug 2018

Structural And Functional Characterization Of Hyper-Phosphorylated Grk5 Protein Expressed From E. Coli, Joseph M. Krampen, John Tesmer, Qiuyan Chen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are proteins in the cell responsible for regulating GPCRs located on the cell membrane. GRKs regulate active GPCRs by phosphorylating them at certain sites which causes them to stop normal signaling on the membrane. This ultimately affects how the cell responds to its environment. GRK5 is a kinase of particular interest due to its involvement in the pathology of diseases such as cardiac failure, cancers, and diabetes. Understanding the structure and function of GRK5 is essential for discovering ways to manipulate its behavior with these diseases, but not much is known about how GRK5 ...


Ros Regulation Of Axonal Mitochondrial Transport, Pin-Chao Liao Dec 2016

Ros Regulation Of Axonal Mitochondrial Transport, Pin-Chao Liao

Open Access Dissertations

Mitochondria perform critical functions including aerobic ATP production and calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, but are also a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To maintain cellular function and survival in neurons, mitochondria are transported along axons, and accumulate in regions with high demand for their functions. Oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondrial axonal transport are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, we know little about the connection between these two. Using primaryDrosophila neuronal cell culture and the third instar larval nervous system as in vitro and in vivo models, respectively, we studied mitochondrial transport under oxidative stress conditions. In vitro ...


Investigating The Effects Of Ph On Alphaviral E3-E2 Glycoprotein Association, Organization, And Cellular Tropism, Jason Michael Sequra Dec 2016

Investigating The Effects Of Ph On Alphaviral E3-E2 Glycoprotein Association, Organization, And Cellular Tropism, Jason Michael Sequra

Open Access Dissertations

In alphaviruses the role of E3 is required in protecting the fusion peptide region of E1 during intracellular transport. Throughout viral processing, the association of E2 and E3 is required for the successful trafficking and incorporation of E1 into the mature virion. This E3-E2 association has been observed to extend to mature virions in the solved structure for the envelope of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and supported by the solved structure for the entire Venezuelan equine encephalitis virion (VEEV) with exclusive contacts being made between E3-E2. Immunization with monoclonal antibodies against VEEV E3 provided protection for mice challenged by lethal ...


Intestinal Adaptation To Repeated Exposure Of Flavonoid-Rich Foods: In Vitro And Clinical Data, Bejamin W. Redan Aug 2016

Intestinal Adaptation To Repeated Exposure Of Flavonoid-Rich Foods: In Vitro And Clinical Data, Bejamin W. Redan

Open Access Dissertations

Interest in application of flavonoids for chronic disease prevention has grown significantly, but the low oral bioavailability of these compounds from acute doses is commonly highlighted as a limitation when considering their biological significance. Still, the impact of broad dietary patterns such as repeated exposure on flavonoid’s absorption, metabolism, and eventual efficacy is critical to consider since evidence suggests that their bioavailability may be enhanced with repeated exposure. To fill this gap in knowledge, this dissertation will focus on three major areas including characterization of flavonoid metabolites, in addition to use of in vitro models and clinical work to ...


Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila Aug 2016

Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila

Open Access Dissertations

Dietary fat provides essential nutrients, contributes to energy balance, and regulates blood lipid concentrations. These functions are important to health, but can also become dysregulated and contribute to diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The small intestine absorbs dietary fat through an efficient multi step process of digestion, uptake, metabolism, and secretion or storage. When dietary fat is taken up by the absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, it can be secreted into circulation where it contributes to blood lipid levels or temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). The objective of this dissertation is to investigate ...


Axonal Transport And Life Cycle Of Mitochondria In Parkinson's Disease Model, Hyun Sung Apr 2016

Axonal Transport And Life Cycle Of Mitochondria In Parkinson's Disease Model, Hyun Sung

Open Access Dissertations

In neurons, normal distribution and selective removal of mitochondria are essential for preserving compartmentalized cellular function. Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with familial Parkinson’s disease, has been implicated in mitochondrial dynamics and removal. However, it is not clear how Parkin plays a role in mitochondrial turnover in vivo, and whether the mature neurons possess a compartmentalized Parkin-dependent mitochondrial life cycle. Using the live Drosophila nervous system, here, I investigate the involvement of Parkin in mitochondrial dynamics; organelle distribution, morphology and removal. Parkin deficient animals displayed less number of axonal mitochondria without disturbing organelle motility behaviors, morphology and metabolic ...


Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve Aug 2015

Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The field of regenerative medicine seeks to create replacement tissues and organs, both to repair deficiencies in biological function and to treat structural damage caused by injury. Scaffoldings mimicking extracellular matrix (ECM), the structure to which cells attach to form tissues, have been developed from synthetic polymers and also been prepared by decellularizing adult tissue. However, the structure of ECM undergoes significant remodeling during natural tissue repair, suggesting that ECM-replacement constructs that mirror developing tissues may promote better regeneration than those modeled on adult tissues. This work investigated the effectiveness of a method of viewing the extracellular matrix of developing ...


Analysis Of Mitochondrial Turnover In Neuromuscular Junctions Of Parkin Mutants, Kenny Nguyen, Hyun Sung, Peter J. Hollenbeck Aug 2015

Analysis Of Mitochondrial Turnover In Neuromuscular Junctions Of Parkin Mutants, Kenny Nguyen, Hyun Sung, Peter J. Hollenbeck

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The accumulation of dysfunctional or damaged mitochondria in neurons has been linked to the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease. It has been proposed that proteins PINK1 and Parkin regulate mitochondrial quality control by selectively targeting depolarized mitochondria for autophagic degradation, a process known as mitophagy. Though previously analyzed in the cell bodies and axons of neurons, the role of the PINK1/Parkin pathway in the synapse is unclear, and it is not known whether mitochondrial turnover occurs in the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). To study this, intact Drosophila nervous systems were analyzed in vivo by performing ...


Detection Of Ubiquitination On Syk And Documenting Syk Stability, Izabela Mazur, Wen Horng Wang, Robert J. Geahlen Aug 2015

Detection Of Ubiquitination On Syk And Documenting Syk Stability, Izabela Mazur, Wen Horng Wang, Robert J. Geahlen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Post-translational modifications regulate the activities of proteins important to numerous diseases. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) is particularly interesting to researchers because it modifies many targets and plays multiple roles in regulating cells in our bodies and its abnormal modifications may contribute to cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and allergies. In an attempt to study these modifications of Syk, we first looked at detecting ubiquitination on Syk protein. Ubiquitin, a small 8 kDa molecule, attaches to lysine residues on protein. The attachment of ubiquitin to Syk may cause Syk to either propagate signals onwards to activate other proteins or signal it to ...


A Model Of How Different Biology Experts Explain Molecular And Cellular Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo, Trevor R. Anderson, Nancy J. Pelaez Jun 2015

A Model Of How Different Biology Experts Explain Molecular And Cellular Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo, Trevor R. Anderson, Nancy J. Pelaez

PIBERG Publications

Constructing explanations is an essential skill for all science learners. The goal of this project was to model the key components of expert explanation of molecular and cellular mechanisms. As such, we asked: What is an appropriate model of the components of explanation used by biology experts to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms? Do explanations made by experts from different biology subdisciplines at a university support the validity of this model? Guided by the modeling framework of R. S. Justi and J. K. Gilbert, the validity of an initial model was tested by asking seven biologists to explain a molecular ...


Analysis Of Chd Remodelers During Development: A Tale In Two Organisms, Brett Bishop Apr 2015

Analysis Of Chd Remodelers During Development: A Tale In Two Organisms, Brett Bishop

Open Access Dissertations

The correct development of different organisms requires the precise timing of genes important for development transitions. Organisms have recruited ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers to ensure the correct timing of gene expression during developmental transitions. Here I show how different CHD ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers regulate developmental transitions of different organisms. I show that PICKLE not only promotes H3K27me3 during development to repress developmental genes but also is targeted to these genes. The association of PICKLE to these genes suggests that both repression and H3K27me3 levels is a direct action of PICKLE on these loci. Using zebrafish as a model system, I show ...


Mach: A Model For Explaining Molecular And Cellular Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo Jan 2015

Mach: A Model For Explaining Molecular And Cellular Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo

Open Access Dissertations

Biologists use mechanistic explanations to understand behaviors of the immense complexity of molecular and cellular systems. In undergraduate biology courses, students are expected to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms, but teaching this skill presents many challenges due to the highly abstract, intangible nature of the cellular world, the influence of everyday language, and the tendency of students to overestimate how much they can explain. Therefore, across three studies this dissertation addresses these obstacles to teach undergraduate biology students to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms. ^ The first step was to model how biology experts explain molecular and cellular mechanisms, and to ...


An Activity Aimed At Improving Student Explanations Of Biological Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo, Trevor R. Anderson, Nancy J. Pelaez Dec 2014

An Activity Aimed At Improving Student Explanations Of Biological Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo, Trevor R. Anderson, Nancy J. Pelaez

PIBERG Instructional Innovation Materials

This document is intended for use by instructors and their students. The activity contains steps to introduce students to the MACH model involving analyzing and discussing explanations about biological mechanisms. Initially, students read modified articles about biological mechanisms during class, although instructors may prefer to assign readings outside of class before the activity. During the activity, students are required to analyze the readings for evidence of research methods, analogies, context, and mechanisms. In so doing, students learn how to integrate the information pertaining to each of the MACH model components into a coherent explanation about their biological mechanism. After performing ...


A Tetrahedral Version Of The Mach Model For Explaining Biological Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo, Trevor R. Anderson, Nancy J. Pelaez Dec 2014

A Tetrahedral Version Of The Mach Model For Explaining Biological Mechanisms, Caleb M. Trujillo, Trevor R. Anderson, Nancy J. Pelaez

PIBERG Instructional Innovation Materials

This document is intended for both instructors and students. Modified from the original MACH model this version, once cut and folded, creates a tetrahedral model that can conveniently be used as a teaching and learning tool to inform and guide students on how to write expert quality explanations of biological mechanisms. Each vertex of the tetrahedron represents a component of the model namely, Methods, Analogy, Context, and How. For a coherent and complete explanation about molecular mechanisms, it is important to integrate information pertaining to all four components of the model. The tetrahedral MACH model has been tested in both ...


Associated Behavioral, Genetic, And Gene Expression Variation With Alternative Life History Tactics In Salmonid Fishes, Ashley Chin-Baarstad Oct 2014

Associated Behavioral, Genetic, And Gene Expression Variation With Alternative Life History Tactics In Salmonid Fishes, Ashley Chin-Baarstad

Open Access Dissertations

Individual differences in behavior can have potential fitness consequences and often reflect underlying genetic variation. My research focuses on three objectives related to individual level variation: 1) evaluating the innate behavioral variation within and between individuals, families, and progeny of different life-history types across time; 2) testing for differences in gene expression within the brain associated with this behavioral variation; and 3) using genetic polymorphisms to test for associations with ecotype, as well as population structure, in polymorphic populations. First, we evaluated the variation in a suite of ecologically relevant behaviors across time in juvenile progeny produced from crosses within ...


Modulation Of Host Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates By Salmonella Effector Protein Sopb, Heather L. Piscatelli Oct 2014

Modulation Of Host Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates By Salmonella Effector Protein Sopb, Heather L. Piscatelli

Open Access Dissertations

Salmonella spp. are gram negative bacteria capable of infecting a number of eukaryotic hosts. In humans, Salmonella infection can range anywhere from acute gastroenteritis to typhoid fever which can oftentimes be fatal.Salmonella are facultative intracellular pathogens that have acquired the ability to enter non-phagocytic cells such as those lining the intestinal epithelium. Uptake into epithelial cells is mediated by the Salmonellapathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) encoded type III secretion system (T3SS), a needle-like complex composed of over 20 proteins that translocates effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol. Salmonella possess a second type III secretion system encoded on ...


Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson Oct 2014

Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson

Open Access Dissertations

The nucleus is a membrane bound organelle and regulation center for gene expression in the cell. Mechanical forces transfer to the nucleus directly and indirectly through specific cellular cytoskeletal structures and pathways. There is increasing evidence that the transferred forces to the nucleus orchestrate gene expression activity. Methods to characterize nuclear mechanics typically study isolated cells or cells embedded in 3D gel matrices. Often report only aspect ratio and volume changes, measures that oversimplify the inherent complexity of internal strain patterns. This presents technical challenges to simultaneously observe small scale nuclear mechanics and gene expression levels inside the nuclei of ...


Electrophoresis Staining: A New Method Of Whole Mount Staining, Mitchell G. Ayers, Sarah Calve, Zhiyu Li Aug 2014

Electrophoresis Staining: A New Method Of Whole Mount Staining, Mitchell G. Ayers, Sarah Calve, Zhiyu Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Advances in tissue clearing techniques have allowed almost a ten-fold increase in the viewing depth of confocal microscopy. This allows for intact cellular structures to be rendered in 3D. However, viewing tissues to this depth is often limited to endogenous fluorescence as passive diffusion of antibodies via whole mount staining can take weeks. Our lab is developing a new method involving electrophoresis as a driving force that will promote active antibody binding deep into tissue, reducing the amount of time needed to stain for cellular structures. Due to the inherent charge within antibodies, they are able to be directionally forced ...


Key Residues Of Human Cytoplasmic Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-A And -B For Substrate Binding And Specificity, Byunghyun Park Jul 2014

Key Residues Of Human Cytoplasmic Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-A And -B For Substrate Binding And Specificity, Byunghyun Park

Open Access Theses

Reversible tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in signaling pathways that are essential for regulating cellular growth, differentiation and metabolism. Moreover, several human diseases such as diabetes, obesity and cancers are associated with the deregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Several studies provide evidence that PTPs not only contribute to cellular differentiation, but over-expression of these molecules also leads to transformation of non-transfomed cells as well. Based on these results, designing specific PTP inhibitors may ultimately function as potential therapeutic agents to treat various diseases including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase which is hypo-phosphorylated ...


Neurotrophins And Their Effects On Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation And Migration, Kayla Elise Minser Apr 2014

Neurotrophins And Their Effects On Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation And Migration, Kayla Elise Minser

Open Access Theses

Cancer is a large health issue in all parts of the world. In the United States alone, approximately 1 in 4 deaths are cancer related. Breast cancer is a particularly prevalent form, accounting for a little over 14 percent of all cancer incidence. The largest obstacle to overcome for breast cancer morbidity is metastasis. Over 90 percent of all breast cancer related deaths are due to metastasis. Because metastasis is a complex, multi-step process, it is difficult to treat. A recent observation in the Kirshner lab has revealed a type of phenotypic plasticity, where migratory cancer cells have a neuronal-like ...


Dj-1 And Atp13a2: Two Proteins Involved In Parkinson’S Disease, Josephat M Asiago Jan 2014

Dj-1 And Atp13a2: Two Proteins Involved In Parkinson’S Disease, Josephat M Asiago

Open Access Dissertations

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, affecting approximately 0.3% of the total U.S. population, and its prevalence increases with age. Two neuropathological hallmarks of PD are the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, a region in the midbrain involved in initiating and sustaining movement, and the presence of cytosolic inclusions called Lewy bodies (LBs) in various brain regions. LBs are enriched with fibrillar forms of the presynaptic protein &agr;-synuclein (aSyn). Two autosomal recessive genes implicated in familial PD are PARK9, encoding the P-type ATPase ATP13A2 ...


Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao Oct 2013

Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Engineering synthetic multicellular systems will lead to new synthetic biology technological platforms, inform developmental biology through recapitulation of natural systems and possibly unveil novel morphologies with practical applications not before reached throughout natural history (Maharbiz, 2012). Creating an exogenous molecular circuit that will polarize unicellular cells into “apical” and “basal” domains relative to a substrate plane would fulfill a missing component towards fully multicellular synthetic cellular communities (Maharbiz, 2012). To this end, a PIP3 polarization network previously designed by Chau and associates (Chau, Walter, Gerardin, Tang, Lim 2012) was coupled to the specific activation by niacin of a recombinant ...


Establishing The Role Of The Pancreatic Transcription Factor Mist1 In Xbp1-Mediated Maintenance Of Pancreatic Acinar Cell Homeostasis, David Alan Hess Oct 2013

Establishing The Role Of The Pancreatic Transcription Factor Mist1 In Xbp1-Mediated Maintenance Of Pancreatic Acinar Cell Homeostasis, David Alan Hess

Open Access Dissertations

Pancreatic acinar cells (PACs) continuously produce more protein than any other cell type in the human body. As a result, PACs and other specialized secretory cells have a constant demand placed on their protein synthetic and packaging machinery. When demand for secreted products exceeds the capacity of the cell's basal protein production facilities, dangerous accumulations of misfolded proteins can build up, resulting in a condition known as ER stress. To ameliorate this stress, secretory cells activate a coordinated, three-part compensatory network collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) to both expand the capacity of the ER and directly ...


Measuring And Modeling The Response Characteristics Of The Environmental Phosphate Transducer In Escherichia Coli, Chetan Sood Oct 2013

Measuring And Modeling The Response Characteristics Of The Environmental Phosphate Transducer In Escherichia Coli, Chetan Sood

Open Access Dissertations

The PhoR/PhoB two-component system in Escherichia coli is a biological transducer that senses the limitation of environmental inorganic orthophosphate, the bacteria's preferred source of the essential nutrient phosphate, and transmits that information to the interior of the cell initiating a response that mitigates phosphate starvation. In the first part of this study, we present and apply a fluorescence microscopy technique to measure, in vivo, the dynamic response characteristics of the transducer with single-cell resolution. We report that the transience in the PhoR/PhoB TCS response is consistent with the transducer having a threshold sensitivity to the concentration of ...


Modulation Of Cell-Matrix Interaction For Cryopreservation Of Engineered Tissue, Angela Christine Seawright Jan 2013

Modulation Of Cell-Matrix Interaction For Cryopreservation Of Engineered Tissue, Angela Christine Seawright

Open Access Theses

Long term preservation of functional engineered tissues can significantly advance tissue engineering industry and regenerative medicine. Several preservation techniques have been proposed and investigated for this purpose, and cryopreservation is a leading candidate. While tissues are cryopreserved, ice forms in both the extracellular and intracellular spaces and causes freezing-induced spatiotemporal deformation of the tissue. During this process the cells undergo dehydration by the freezing-induced osmotic pressure difference and mechanical deformation, transmitted through cell-extracellular matrix adhesions. However, the significance and interaction of these cellular level transport and mechanics processes are not well understood. Therefore, this study aims to establish mechanistic understanding ...


Interaction Between Centromeric Histone H3 Variant And Shugoshin, Visarut Buranasudja Jan 2013

Interaction Between Centromeric Histone H3 Variant And Shugoshin, Visarut Buranasudja

Open Access Theses

Precise and faithful segregation of chromosome segregation during mitosis depends on the ability of the cell to regulate chromosome bi-orientation on the mitotic spindle. Shugoshin (Sgo1), the protector of meiotic centromeric cohesin, is required for proper establishment of chromosome bi-orientation. Sgo1 plays a crucial role as part of a mitotic tension sensor between sister chromatids. Recently, Sgo1 has been reported to interact with histone H3 at the pericentromere region, as an important factor for tension sensing and chromosome segregation. However, the role of Sgo1 in tension sensing at centromere is still elusive. The centromere is the region of attachment of ...