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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell Apr 2019

A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in plants in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays an important role in mitigating stress damage. Multiple factors act in the UPR, including the membrane-associated transcription factor, BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER 17 (bZIP17), and the membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, INOSITOL REQUIRING ENZYME1 (IRE1). We have analyzed an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ire1a ire1b bzip17 triple mutant, with defects in stress signaling, and found that the mutant is also impaired in vegetative plant growth under conditions without externally applied stress. This raised the possibility that the UPR functions in plant development in the same manner ...


Development And Characterization Of An Immunologically Humanized And Cancer Xenograft Model In Pigs With Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (Scid), Adeline Nicole Boettcher Jan 2019

Development And Characterization Of An Immunologically Humanized And Cancer Xenograft Model In Pigs With Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (Scid), Adeline Nicole Boettcher

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Swine with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) are an emerging large animal model for biomedical research. There have been several SCID pig models described since our first discovery of naturally occurring SCID with mutations in Artemis (DCLRE1C) in 2012. SCID animals are particularly useful in biomedical research due to their lack of T, B, and sometimes NK cells. Absence of the adaptive immune system allows for human cell and tissue xenotransplantation into these SCID animals. The works described within this thesis are categorized under four main goals: (1) further characterization of the immune system of Art-/- SCID pigs, (2) development of ...


Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham Dec 2018

Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Various environmental stresses or artificial reagents can trigger unfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to the folding capacity of the ER being exceeded. This is termed ER stress, and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR). Assays for activation of the UPR in plants include Tunicamycin (Tm)- or dithiothreitol (DTT)-mediated root growth inhibition, analysis of splicing of the UPR-responsive transcription factor bZIP60 (basic Leucine Zipper Domain 60), and upregulation of relevant UPR genes. We provide here a quick and robust method to detect UPR signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. This assay can also be applied to other ...


Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham Dec 2018

Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy is a major degradation and recycling pathway in plants. It functions to maintain cellular homeostasis and is induced by environmental cues and developmental stimuli. Over the past decade, the study of autophagy has expanded from model plants to crop species. Many features of the core machinery and physiological functions of autophagy are conserved among diverse organisms. However, several novel functions and regulators of autophagy have been characterized in individual plant species. In light of its critical role in development and stress responses, a better understanding of autophagy in crop plants may eventually lead to beneficial agricultural applications. Here, we ...


Ire1b Degrades Rnas Encoding Proteins That Interfere With The Induction Of Autophagy By Er Stress In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yan Bao, Yunting Pu, Xiang Yu, Brian D. Gregory, Renu Srivastava, Stephen H. Howell, Diane C. Bassham Aug 2018

Ire1b Degrades Rnas Encoding Proteins That Interfere With The Induction Of Autophagy By Er Stress In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yan Bao, Yunting Pu, Xiang Yu, Brian D. Gregory, Renu Srivastava, Stephen H. Howell, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved process in eukaryotes that contributes to cell survival in response to stress. Previously, we found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces autophagy in plants via a pathway dependent upon AT5G24360/IRE1B (INOSITOL REQUIRING 1–1), an ER membrane-anchored factor involved in the splicing of AT1G42990/BZIP60 (basic leucine zipper protein 60) mRNA. IRE1B is a dual protein kinase and ribonuclease, and here we determined the involvement of the protein kinase catalytic domain, nucleotide binding and RNase domains of IRE1B in activating autophagy. We found that the nucleotide binding and RNase activity of IRE1B, but not ...


Dynamics Of Autophagosome Formation, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Xiaohong Zhuang, Liwen Jiang, Diane C. Bassham Jan 2018

Dynamics Of Autophagosome Formation, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Xiaohong Zhuang, Liwen Jiang, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy, literally defined as “self-eating,” functions as a degradation process by recycling cytoplasmic contents under stress conditions or during development. Upon activation of autophagy, a membrane structure known as a phagophore forms and expands, finally closing to form a double-membrane vesicle called an autophagosome (Fig. 1; Lamb et al., 2013; Yin et al., 2016). The completed autophagosome, which contains the autophagic cargo, is delivered to the vacuole (plants and yeast) or lysosome (animals). The outer membrane fuses with the vacuolar/lysosomal membrane, and the inner membrane and contents are released into the vacuole/lysosome as an autophagic body and are ...


Cellular Dynamics: Cellular Systems In The Time Domain, Dan Szymanski, Diane Bassham, Teun Munnik, Wataru Sakamoto Jan 2018

Cellular Dynamics: Cellular Systems In The Time Domain, Dan Szymanski, Diane Bassham, Teun Munnik, Wataru Sakamoto

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Plant cells are the fundamental building blocks of growth and development. For each cell type, the size, shape, and mechanical properties of the cell wall are customized for particular physiological functions (Szymanski and Cosgrove, 2009; Winship et al., 2011). The morphogenesis of highly polarized cell types such as trichoblasts and pollen tubes is internally programmed and occurs largely in the absence of a neighbor. Most cell types differentiate in the context of a tissue. Therefore, their growth and shape change can operate at larger spatial scales to influence tissue- and organ-level processes. Because plant cells grow symplastically and are mechanically ...


Effect Of Increased Ratio Of Butyrate To Physiological Concentrations Of Acetate And Propionate On Intestinal Integrity And Il-8 Secretion In Caco-2 Cells, Nidhi Shah Jan 2018

Effect Of Increased Ratio Of Butyrate To Physiological Concentrations Of Acetate And Propionate On Intestinal Integrity And Il-8 Secretion In Caco-2 Cells, Nidhi Shah

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a growing global health problem. Current pharmacological therapies are not effective in all IBD patients, tend to cause side effects and in some cases lose effectiveness when used for a prolonged period of time. Hence, there is a need to develop dietary interventions that are safe and be applicable to all. Chronic inflammation of the gut could be combated by increasing the consumption of dietary fiber which would lead to an increased butyrate production in the colon. Butyrate has been shown to improve intestinal integrity and suppress the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-8 – which ...


Characterization Of A Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I And Galnac Transferase Deficiency Double Knockout Mouse, Karan Gera Jan 2018

Characterization Of A Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I And Galnac Transferase Deficiency Double Knockout Mouse, Karan Gera

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) which are characterized by the aberrant primary storage of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lysosomes of multiple organ and tissue systems. The most commonly diagnosed is MPS Type I (MPS I), caused by mutations in the gene which codes for α-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Biochemically, MPS I is characterized by the aberrant primary lysosomal storage of incompletely degraded dermatan and heparan sulfates, along with a secondary accumulation of gangliosides and other compounds in lysosomes. Its clinical manifestation in severe form leads to early death, characterized by progressive central nervous system disease (with behavioral ...


Single Cell Transcriptome Profiling Of Developing Chick Retinal Cells, Lauren A. Laboissonniere, Gregory M. Martin, Jillian J. Goetz, Ran Bi, Brock Pope, Kallie Weinand, Laura Ellson, Diane Fru, Miranda Lee, Andrea K. Wester, Peng Liu, Jeffrey M. Trimarchi Aug 2017

Single Cell Transcriptome Profiling Of Developing Chick Retinal Cells, Lauren A. Laboissonniere, Gregory M. Martin, Jillian J. Goetz, Ran Bi, Brock Pope, Kallie Weinand, Laura Ellson, Diane Fru, Miranda Lee, Andrea K. Wester, Peng Liu, Jeffrey M. Trimarchi

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell’s fate determination and development challenging. We have analyzed transcriptomes from individual cells isolated from the chick retina throughout retinogenesis. While we focused our efforts ...


Snrk1 Activates Autophagy Via The Tor Signaling Pathway In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Diane C. Bassham Aug 2017

Snrk1 Activates Autophagy Via The Tor Signaling Pathway In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy is a degradation process in which cells break down and recycle their cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress or during cellular remodeling. The Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK1 complex is a protein kinase that senses changes in energy levels and triggers downstream responses to enable survival. Its mammalian ortholog, AMPK, and yeast ortholog, Snf-1, activate autophagy in response to low energy conditions. We therefore hypothesized that SnRK1 may play a role in the regulation of autophagy in response to nutrient or energy deficiency in Arabidopsis. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of overexpression or knockout of the SnRK1 ...


Lasting Retinal Injury In A Mouse Model Of Blast-Induced Trauma, Najiba Mammadova, Shivani Ghaisas, Gary Zenitsky, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin J. Greenlee, M. Heather West Greenlee Jul 2017

Lasting Retinal Injury In A Mouse Model Of Blast-Induced Trauma, Najiba Mammadova, Shivani Ghaisas, Gary Zenitsky, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin J. Greenlee, M. Heather West Greenlee

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Traumatic brain injury due to blast exposure is currently the most prevalent of war injuries. Although secondary ocular blast injuries due to flying debris are more common, primary ocular blast exposure resulting from blast wave pressure has been reported among survivors of explosions, but with limited understanding of the resulting retinal pathologies. Using a compressed air-driven shock tube system, adult male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to blast wave pressure of 300 kPa (43.5 psi) per day for 3 successive days, and euthanized 30 days after injury. We assessed retinal tissues using immunofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic ...


Tor-Dependent And -Independent Pathways Regulate Autophagy In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yunting Pu, Xinjuan Luo, Diane C. Bassham Jul 2017

Tor-Dependent And -Independent Pathways Regulate Autophagy In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yunting Pu, Xinjuan Luo, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy is a critical process for recycling of cytoplasmic materials during environmental stress, senescence and cellular remodeling. It is upregulated under a wide range of abiotic stress conditions and is important for stress tolerance. Autophagy is repressed by the protein kinase target of rapamycin (TOR), which is activated in response to nutrients and in turn upregulates cell growth and translation and inhibits autophagy. Down-regulation of TOR in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to constitutive autophagy and to decreased growth, but the relationship to stress conditions is unclear. Here, we assess the extent to which TOR controls autophagy activation by abiotic stress. Overexpression ...


Selective Autophagy Of Bes1 Mediated By Dsk2 Balances Plant Growth And Survival, Trevor M. Nolan, Benjamin Brennan, Mengran Yang, Jiani Chen, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li, Xuelu Wang, Diane C. Bassham, Justin Walley, Yanhai Yin Apr 2017

Selective Autophagy Of Bes1 Mediated By Dsk2 Balances Plant Growth And Survival, Trevor M. Nolan, Benjamin Brennan, Mengran Yang, Jiani Chen, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li, Xuelu Wang, Diane C. Bassham, Justin Walley, Yanhai Yin

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Plants encounter a variety of stresses and must fine-tune their growth and stress-response programs to best suit their environment. BES1 functions as a master regulator in the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway that promotes plant growth. Here, we show that BES1 interacts with the ubiquitin receptor protein DSK2 and is targeted to the autophagy pathway during stress via the interaction of DSK2 with ATG8, a ubiquitin-like protein directing autophagosome formation and cargo recruitment. Additionally, DSK2 is phosphorylated by the GSK3-like kinase BIN2, a negative regulator in the BR pathway. BIN2 phosphorylation of DSK2 flanking its ATG8 interacting motifs (AIMs) promotes DSK2-ATG8 interaction ...


The Asymmetric Cell Division Machinery In Early Annelid Embryogenesis: Maternal And Embryonic Contributions, Aron Nakama Jan 2017

The Asymmetric Cell Division Machinery In Early Annelid Embryogenesis: Maternal And Embryonic Contributions, Aron Nakama

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background

About one third of all animal phyla utilize a mode of early embryogenesis called ‘spiral cleavage’ to divide the fertilized egg into embryonic cells with different cell fates. This mode is characterized by a series of invariant, stereotypic, asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) that generates cells of different size and defined position within the early embryo. The spiral arrangement of cells must depend on highly choreographed molecular mechanisms by recognizing polarity cues, orienting mitotic spindles, and generating cell size asymmetries between sister cells with astonishing precision and predictability. Although conserved molecular mechanisms for ACD have been unraveled in several genetic ...


Tno1, A Tgn-Localized Snare-Interacting Protein, Modulates Root Skewing In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rahul Roy, Diane C. Bassham Jan 2017

Tno1, A Tgn-Localized Snare-Interacting Protein, Modulates Root Skewing In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rahul Roy, Diane C. Bassham

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Background: The movement of plant roots within the soil is key to their ability to interact with the environment and maximize anchorage and nutrient acquisition. Directional growth of roots occurs by a combination of sensing external cues, hormonal signaling and cytoskeletal changes in the root cells. Roots growing on slanted, impenetrable growth medium display a characteristic waving and skewing, and mutants with deviations in these phenotypes assist in identifying genes required for root movement. Our study identifies a role for a trans-Golgi network-localized protein in root skewing.

Results: We found that Arabidopsis thaliana TNO1 (TGN-localized SYP41-interacting protein), a putative tethering ...


Interaction Between Regulation Of Autophagy, Stress Responses And Growth In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yunting Pu Jan 2017

Interaction Between Regulation Of Autophagy, Stress Responses And Growth In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yunting Pu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to balance between growth and stress tolerance upon changing environmental conditions. Autophagy is a critical process for recycling of cytoplasmic materials during nutrient remodeling and stress responses. Upon activation, the materials to be degraded are engulfed by a double-membrane vesicle called an autophagosome, which delivers the cargo to the vacuole for degradation and recycling. Studies in plants have revealed genes that are involved in the core machinery of autophagosome formation and delivery, and key regulators of autophagy. However, the upstream regulators of autophagy and the functions of autophagy in balancing growth and stress tolerance remain ...


Two Components Of Maintaining Developmental Competence: Microrna-21 In The Maturing Oocyte And Autophagy Induction In The Follicular Stage Ovary, Benjamin J. Hale Jan 2017

Two Components Of Maintaining Developmental Competence: Microrna-21 In The Maturing Oocyte And Autophagy Induction In The Follicular Stage Ovary, Benjamin J. Hale

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes two processes that the oocyte and ovary potentially utilize to maintain reproductive competence: autophagy in response to heat stress and microRNA-21 function during meiotic maturation. Heat stress (HS) occurs when heat accumulation (from internal and external sources) exceeds heat dissipation. HS is associated with seasonal infertility and therefore is a production issue and profitability constraint in the swine industry. Autophagy is the process by which somatic cells recycle cellular components and it is activated by a variety of stressors. Therefore, characterizing autophagy in the ovary and oocyte is valuable because of the potential of autophagy to mitigate ...


The Transdifferentiation Of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Secreting Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Neuroprotection, Metzere Bierlein De La Rosa Jan 2017

The Transdifferentiation Of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Secreting Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Neuroprotection, Metzere Bierlein De La Rosa

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The ultimate purpose of this project was to create a modified stem cell line which could enhance nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve trauma. Specifically, this work was focused upon answering two questions. First, could we chemically transdifferentiate genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells to resemble a Schwann cell-like state? A protocol for the chemical transdifferentiation of MSCs was validated and well tested in the Sakaguchi lab, but no one had ever attempted to chemically transdifferentiate BDNF hyper-secreting MSCs. Second, if we succeeded in creating BDNF hyper-secreting transdifferentiated MSCs (BDNF tMSCs), would levels of BDNF secretion be affected, and, more importantly, would ...


Investigating The Synergistic Effects Of Combined Modified Alginates On Macrophage Phenotype, Hannah C. Bygd, Kaitlin M. Bratlie Dec 2016

Investigating The Synergistic Effects Of Combined Modified Alginates On Macrophage Phenotype, Hannah C. Bygd, Kaitlin M. Bratlie

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Understanding macrophage responses to biomaterials is crucial to the success of implanted medical devices, tissue engineering scaffolds, and drug delivery vehicles. Cellular responses to materials may depend synergistically on multiple surface chemistries, due to the polyvalent nature of cell–ligand interactions. Previous work in our lab found that different surface functionalities of chemically modified alginate could sway macrophage phenotype toward either the pro-inflammatory or pro-angiogenic phenotype. Using these findings, this research aims to understand the relationship between combined material surface chemistries and macrophage phenotype. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion, nitrite production, and arginase activity were measured and used to determine ...


Alterations Of The Ileal And Colonic Mucosal Microbiota In Canine Chronic Enteropathies, Eric Cassmann, Robin White, Todd Atherly, Chong Wang, Yaxuan Sun, Samir Khoda, Curtis L. Mosher, Mark R. Ackermann, Albert Jergens Feb 2016

Alterations Of The Ileal And Colonic Mucosal Microbiota In Canine Chronic Enteropathies, Eric Cassmann, Robin White, Todd Atherly, Chong Wang, Yaxuan Sun, Samir Khoda, Curtis L. Mosher, Mark R. Ackermann, Albert Jergens

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Background

The intestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of chronic enteropathies (CE) in dogs. While imbalances in duodenal and fecal microbial communities have been associated with mucosal inflammation, relatively little is known about alterations in mucosal bacteria seen with CE involving the ileum and colon.

Aim

To investigate the composition and spatial organization of mucosal microbiota in dogs with CE and controls.

Methods

Tissue sections from endoscopic biopsies of the ileum and colon from 19 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 6 dogs with granulomatous colitis (GC), 12 dogs with intestinal neoplasia, and 15 controls were studied by ...


Mutations In Tubb8 And Human Oocyte Meiotic Arrest, Ruizhi Feng, Qing Sang, Yanping Kuang, Xiaoxi Sun, Zheng Yan, Shaozhen Zhang, Juanzi Shi, Guoling Tian, Anna Luchniak, Yusuke Fukuda, Bin Li, Min Yu, Junling Chen, Yao Xu, Luo Guo, Ronggui Qu, Xueqian Wang, Zhaogui Sun, Miao Liu, Huijuan Shi, Hongyan Wang, Yi Feng, Ruijin Shao, Renjie Chai, Qiaoli Li, Qinghe Xing, Rui Zhang, Eva Nogales, Li Jin, Lin He, Mohan L. Gupta Jr., Nicholas J. Cowan, Lei Wang Jan 2016

Mutations In Tubb8 And Human Oocyte Meiotic Arrest, Ruizhi Feng, Qing Sang, Yanping Kuang, Xiaoxi Sun, Zheng Yan, Shaozhen Zhang, Juanzi Shi, Guoling Tian, Anna Luchniak, Yusuke Fukuda, Bin Li, Min Yu, Junling Chen, Yao Xu, Luo Guo, Ronggui Qu, Xueqian Wang, Zhaogui Sun, Miao Liu, Huijuan Shi, Hongyan Wang, Yi Feng, Ruijin Shao, Renjie Chai, Qiaoli Li, Qinghe Xing, Rui Zhang, Eva Nogales, Li Jin, Lin He, Mohan L. Gupta Jr., Nicholas J. Cowan, Lei Wang

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

BACKGROUND Human reproduction depends on the fusion of a mature oocyte with a sperm cell to form a fertilized egg. The genetic events that lead to the arrest of human oocyte maturation are unknown.

METHODS We sequenced the exomes of five members of a four-generation family, three of whom had infertility due to oocyte meiosis I arrest. We performed Sanger sequencing of a candidate gene, TUBB8, in DNA samples from these members, additional family members, and members of 23 other affected families. The expression of TUBB8 and all other β-tubulin isotypes was assessed in human oocytes, early embryos, sperm cells ...


Identification Of G Protein-Coupled Receptors Required For Vitellogenin Uptake Into The Oocytes Of The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum, Hua Bai, Subba R. Palli Jan 2016

Identification Of G Protein-Coupled Receptors Required For Vitellogenin Uptake Into The Oocytes Of The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum, Hua Bai, Subba R. Palli

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Previous studies suggested that a membrane receptor might be involved in mediating vitellogenin (Vg) uptake and juvenile hormone (JH)-regulated remodeling of follicular epithelium (also called ‘patency’). G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family is one of the largest membrane receptor protein families and controls many key physiological processes. To investigate the role of GPCRs in insect reproduction and juvenile hormone-regulated Vg uptake, we performed a comprehensive RNA interference (RNAi) screen targeting GPCRs in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of 112 GPCRs tested, knockdown of 41 GPCRs resulted in a reduction in fecundity. Interestingly, RNAi against two GPCRs (a Rhodopsin-like ...


Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Mscs) Stimulate Neurite Outgrowth From Differentiating Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cells, Eun-Ah Ye, Sagar S. Chawla, Michael Z. Khan, Donald S. Sakaguchi Jan 2016

Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (Mscs) Stimulate Neurite Outgrowth From Differentiating Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cells, Eun-Ah Ye, Sagar S. Chawla, Michael Z. Khan, Donald S. Sakaguchi

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Background: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as beneficial cellular vehicles for nervous system rescue and repair. A better understanding how MSCs are involved in mediating neural repair will facilitate development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Methods: In the present study bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated and characterized from Brown Norway rats. The capacity of the MSCs to influence the differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitor cells (AHPCs) was investigated using contact and non-contact co-culture configurations.

Results: These MSCs showed a stable and consistent growth rate, retained short population doubling time (PDT) and showed high capacity of cell proliferation. Co-culturing ...


Polycaprolactone Microfibrous Scaffolds To Navigate Neural Stem Cells, Farrokh Sharifi, Bhavika B. Patel, Adam K. Dzuilko, Reza Montazami, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Nastaran Hashemi Jan 2016

Polycaprolactone Microfibrous Scaffolds To Navigate Neural Stem Cells, Farrokh Sharifi, Bhavika B. Patel, Adam K. Dzuilko, Reza Montazami, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Nastaran Hashemi

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Fibrous scaffolds have shown promise in tissue engineering due to their ability to improve cell alignment and migration. In this paper, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers are fabricated in different sizes using a microfluidic platform. By using this approach, we demonstrated considerable flexibility in ability to control the size of the fibers. It was shown that the average diameter of the fibers was obtained in the range of 2.6–36.5 μm by selecting the PCL solution flow rate from 1 to 5 μL min–1 and the sheath flow rate from 20 to 400 μL min–1 in the ...


Microbial Community And Chemical Characteristics Of Swine Manure During Maturation, Steven L. Trabue, Brian J. Kerr, Bradley L. Bearson, Manhoi Hur, Timothy Parkin, Eve S. Wurtele, Cherrie J. Ziemer Jan 2016

Microbial Community And Chemical Characteristics Of Swine Manure During Maturation, Steven L. Trabue, Brian J. Kerr, Bradley L. Bearson, Manhoi Hur, Timothy Parkin, Eve S. Wurtele, Cherrie J. Ziemer

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Swine diet formulations have the potential to lower animal emissions, including odor and ammonia (NH3). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of manure storage duration on manure chemical and microbial properties in swine feeding trials. Three groups of 12 pigs were fed a standard corn–soybean meal diet over a 13-wk period. Urine and feces were collected at each feeding and transferred to 12 manure storage tanks. Manure chemical characteristics and headspace gas concentrations were monitored for NH3, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles. Microbial analysis of the stored ...


Polo-Like Kinase 3 Appears Dispensable For Normal Retinal Development Despite Robust Embryonic Expression, Jillian J. Goetz, Lauren A. Laboissonniere, Andrea K. Wester, Madison R. Lynch, Jeffrey M. Trimarchi Jan 2016

Polo-Like Kinase 3 Appears Dispensable For Normal Retinal Development Despite Robust Embryonic Expression, Jillian J. Goetz, Lauren A. Laboissonniere, Andrea K. Wester, Madison R. Lynch, Jeffrey M. Trimarchi

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

During retinogenesis seven different cell types are generated in distinct yet overlapping timepoints from a population of retinal progenitor cells. Previously, we performed single cell transcriptome analyses of retinal progenitor cells to identify candidate genes that may play roles in the generation of early-born retinal neurons. Based on its expression pattern in subsets of early retinal cells, polo-like kinase 3 (Plk3) was identified as one such candidate gene. Further characterization of Plk3 expression by in situ hybridization revealed that this gene is expressed as cells exit the cell cycle. We obtained a Plk3 deficient mouse and investigated changes in the ...


Tno1 & Vps45: Snare-Associated Proteins Required For Plant Growth, Rahul Roy Jan 2016

Tno1 & Vps45: Snare-Associated Proteins Required For Plant Growth, Rahul Roy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cellular trafficking of cargo vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is required for multiple processes such as cell expansion, stress responses and hormonal transport in plants. Activity of membrane proteins known as SNAREs drives membrane fusion events. Associated proteins such as tethering factors and Sec1/Munc18 proteins aid the fidelity and efficiency of these fusion events by interacting with SNAREs. The TGN-localized SYP41/SYP61/VTI12 SNARE complex is required for vacuolar and secretory cargo trafficking.

TNO1, a putative tethering factor, associates with SYP41 and is required for TGN membrane fusion dynamics and proper SYP61 localization. My dissertation research discovered a ...


Prokineticin-2: A Novel Anti-Apoptotic And Anti-Inflammatory Signaling Protein In Parkinson’S Disease, Matthew Neal Jan 2016

Prokineticin-2: A Novel Anti-Apoptotic And Anti-Inflammatory Signaling Protein In Parkinson’S Disease, Matthew Neal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The mechanisms behind the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are still not fully understood. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been implicated in the progression of the disease including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, protein aggregation, and neuroinflammation. Since current therapeutic options for PD treat only the symptoms without influencing disease progression, recent translational studies have focused on identifying factors that protect against putative pathophysiological mechanisms of PD. We show herein, that the chemokine-like signaling protein, Prokineticin-2 (PK2), is expressed and secreted at higher levels in dopaminergic neurons during the acute phase of inflammatory or neurotoxic stress. Furthermore, we ...


Analysis Of The Induction Of Autophagy During Er Stress And The Vesicle Fusion Machinery At The Trans-Golgi Network In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Xiaochen Yang Jan 2016

Analysis Of The Induction Of Autophagy During Er Stress And The Vesicle Fusion Machinery At The Trans-Golgi Network In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Xiaochen Yang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The vacuole in plant cells occupies more than 80% of the cellular volume and is involved in development, detoxification, and degradation of proteins. In this dissertation, I focused on the two vesicle trafficking pathways, autophagy and vacuolar trafficking, which deliver cellular components to the vacuole.

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in eukaryotic cells for degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic materials and damaged cell components during development or upon encountering stress conditions. Previous studies showed that autophagy is activated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and delivers ER fragments to the vacuole. ER stress is defined as accumulation of unfolded or ...