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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Yap Drives Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Formation And Progression, Zoe Vincent-Mistiaen, Ahmed Elbediwy, Hannah Vanyai, Jennifer L. Cotton, Gordon Stamp, Emma Nye, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Gareth J. Thomas, Junhao Mao, Barry Thompson Sep 2018

Yap Drives Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Formation And Progression, Zoe Vincent-Mistiaen, Ahmed Elbediwy, Hannah Vanyai, Jennifer L. Cotton, Gordon Stamp, Emma Nye, Bradley Spencer-Dene, Gareth J. Thomas, Junhao Mao, Barry Thompson

Open Access Articles

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can progress to malignant metastatic cancer, including an aggressive subtype known as spindle cell carcinoma (spSCC). spSCC formation involves epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), yet the molecular basis of this event remains unknown. The transcriptional co-activator YAP undergoes recurrent amplification in human SCC and overexpression of YAP drives SCC formation in mice. Here, we show that human spSCC tumours also feature strong nuclear localisation of YAP and overexpression of activated YAP (NLS-YAP-5SA) with Keratin-5 (K5-CreERt) is sufficient to induce rapid formation of both SCC and spSCC in mice. spSCC tumours arise at sites of epithelial scratch wounding, where ...


Tale Factors Use Two Distinct Functional Modes To Control An Essential Zebrafish Gene Expression Program, Franck Ladam, William Stanney, Ian J. Donaldson, Ozge Yildiz, Nicoletta Bobola, Charles G. Sagerstrom Jun 2018

Tale Factors Use Two Distinct Functional Modes To Control An Essential Zebrafish Gene Expression Program, Franck Ladam, William Stanney, Ian J. Donaldson, Ozge Yildiz, Nicoletta Bobola, Charles G. Sagerstrom

Open Access Articles

TALE factors are broadly expressed embryonically and known to function in complexes with transcription factors (TFs) like Hox proteins at gastrula/segmentation stages, but it is unclear if such generally expressed factors act by the same mechanism throughout embryogenesis. We identify a TALE-dependent gene regulatory network (GRN) required for anterior development and detect TALE occupancy associated with this GRN throughout embryogenesis. At blastula stages, we uncover a novel functional mode for TALE factors, where they occupy genomic DECA motifs with nearby NF-Y sites. We demonstrate that TALE and NF-Y form complexes and regulate chromatin state at genes of this GRN ...


Microengineering Approaches For Regenerative Medicine, Yubing Sun May 2016

Microengineering Approaches For Regenerative Medicine, Yubing Sun

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Stem cells, especially human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), hold significant promise for modeling developmental and disease processes, drug and toxicology screening, and cell-based regenerative medicine. Most hPSC studies have so far focused on identifying extrinsic soluble factors, intracellular signaling pathways, and transcriptional regulatory networks involved in regulating hPSC behaviors. We focus on the development and applications of some novel synthetic micromechanical systems to understand the mechano-sensitive and -responsive properties of hPSCs and their functional regulation of self-renewal, directed differentiation, and survival of hPSCs. First, we have demonstrated that rigid PDMS micropost arrays (PMAs) support the maintenance of pluripotency of hPSCs ...


Expansion, Characterization, Differentiation, And Visualization Of Mc 3t3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells: An In Vitro Model To Study Bone Healing And Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration, Jakob T. Samsel, Madhu Dhar, Austin Bow, Tom Masi May 2016

Expansion, Characterization, Differentiation, And Visualization Of Mc 3t3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells: An In Vitro Model To Study Bone Healing And Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration, Jakob T. Samsel, Madhu Dhar, Austin Bow, Tom Masi

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Embryonic Stem Cell-Differentiated Cells As Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Rachael N. Kuehn Dec 2015

Characterization Of Embryonic Stem Cell-Differentiated Cells As Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Rachael N. Kuehn

Honors Theses

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), due to their ability to differentiate into different cell types while still maintaining a high proliferation capacity, have been considered as a potential cell source in regenerative medicine. However, current ESC differentiation methods are low yielding and create heterogeneous cell populations. If transplanted in the human body, differentiated ESCs could be rejected by the immune system, form tumors, or may not function normally within the human body. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a type of adult stem cell typically derived from bone marrow, have proved to be excellent candidates in clinical applications due ...


Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve Aug 2015

Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The field of regenerative medicine seeks to create replacement tissues and organs, both to repair deficiencies in biological function and to treat structural damage caused by injury. Scaffoldings mimicking extracellular matrix (ECM), the structure to which cells attach to form tissues, have been developed from synthetic polymers and also been prepared by decellularizing adult tissue. However, the structure of ECM undergoes significant remodeling during natural tissue repair, suggesting that ECM-replacement constructs that mirror developing tissues may promote better regeneration than those modeled on adult tissues. This work investigated the effectiveness of a method of viewing the extracellular matrix of developing ...


Activation Of Nf-Κb Transcription Factor During In Vitro Differentiation Of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Natalya A. Ortolano May 2015

Activation Of Nf-Κb Transcription Factor During In Vitro Differentiation Of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Natalya A. Ortolano

Honors Theses

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. However, recent studies indicated that ESCs and ESC-derived cells (ESC-DCs) lack functional innate immunity against various pathogens and inflammatory cytokines. This presents a barrier to clinical application, as ESC-DCs would be placed in a wound site and exposed to pathogens and inflammatory cytokines. Using mouse ESCs (mESCs) as a model, we recently demonstrated that they are deficient in expressing type I interferons (IFN) and inflammatory cytokines. To determine the molecular basis for this finding, this study examined the activation state of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor that ...


Dysregulated Fgf And P38 Mapk Signaling Underlies Loss Of Stem Cell Self-Renewal In Aging Skeletal Muscle, Jennifer Delaney Bernet Jan 2013

Dysregulated Fgf And P38 Mapk Signaling Underlies Loss Of Stem Cell Self-Renewal In Aging Skeletal Muscle, Jennifer Delaney Bernet

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass, skeletal muscle function and decreased regenerative capacity. A number of skeletal muscle-specific physiological decrements may contribute to sarcopenia; among these is an age-related impairment of satellite cells, the skeletal muscle stem cells required for muscle regeneration. I find that cell-autonomous deficits underlie a loss of self-renewal in aging satellite cells. The decline in self-renewal implicates altered p38αβ mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, which is activated by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and involved in satellite cell activation, differentiation and self-renewal in young satellite cells. Asymmetric activation of active ...