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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

A Naturally Generated Decoy Of The Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Protein Overcomes Therapy Resistance In Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nidhi Shukla, Shirley Qiu, Yanming Zhao, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Vivek M. Rangnekar Aug 2017

A Naturally Generated Decoy Of The Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Protein Overcomes Therapy Resistance In Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nidhi Shukla, Shirley Qiu, Yanming Zhao, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

Primary tumors are often heterogeneous, composed of therapy-sensitive and emerging therapy-resistant cancer cells. Interestingly, treatment of therapy-sensitive tumors in heterogeneous tumor microenvironments results in apoptosis of therapy-resistant tumors. In this study, we identify a prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) amino-terminal fragment (PAF) that is released by diverse therapy-sensitive cancer cells following therapy-induced caspase cleavage of the tumor suppressor Par-4 protein. PAF caused apoptosis in cancer cells resistant to therapy and inhibited tumor growth. A VASA segment of Par-4 mediated its binding and degradation by the ubiquitin ligase Fbxo45, resulting in loss of Par-4 proapoptotic function. Conversely, PAF, which contains this VASA ...


Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair Mar 2017

Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Cancer cells typically experience higher oxidative stress than normal cells, such that elevating pro-oxidant levels can trigger cancer cell death. Although pre-exposure to mild oxidative agents will sensitize cancer cells to radiation, this pre-exposure may also activate the adaptive stress defense system in normal cells. Ascorbic acid is a prototype redox modulator that when infused intravenously appears to kill cancers without injury to normal tissues; however, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. In this study, we show how ascorbic acid kills cancer cells and sensitizes prostate cancer to radiation therapy while also conferring protection upon normal prostate epithelial cells against radiation-induced ...


Pleckstrin Homology (Ph) Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity By Negatively Regulating The Activity Of Atypical Protein Kinase C, Xiaopeng Xiong, Xin Li, Yang-An Wen, Tianyan Gao Oct 2016

Pleckstrin Homology (Ph) Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity By Negatively Regulating The Activity Of Atypical Protein Kinase C, Xiaopeng Xiong, Xin Li, Yang-An Wen, Tianyan Gao

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

The proper establishment of epithelial polarity allows cells to sense and respond to signals that arise from the microenvironment in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. Atypical PKCs (aPKCs) are implicated as key regulators of epithelial polarity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the negative regulation of aPKCs remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP), a novel family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, plays an important role in regulating epithelial polarity by controlling the phosphorylation of both aPKC isoforms. Altered expression of PHLPP1 or PHLPP2 disrupted polarization of Caco2 cells grown in 3D cell ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...


Bcma Is Essential For The Survival Of Long-Lived Bone Marrow Plasma Cells, Brian P. O'Connor, Vanitha S. Raman, Loren D. Erickson, W. James Cook, Lehn K. Weaver, Cory Ahonen, Ling-Li Lin, George Mantchev, Richard J. Bram, Randolph J. Noelle Jan 2004

Bcma Is Essential For The Survival Of Long-Lived Bone Marrow Plasma Cells, Brian P. O'Connor, Vanitha S. Raman, Loren D. Erickson, W. James Cook, Lehn K. Weaver, Cory Ahonen, Ling-Li Lin, George Mantchev, Richard J. Bram, Randolph J. Noelle

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Long-lived humoral immunity is manifested by the ability of bone marrow plasma cells (PCs) to survive for extended periods of time. Recent studies have underscored the importance of BLyS and APRIL as factors that can support the survival of B lineage lymphocytes. We show that BLyS can sustain PC survival in vitro, and this survival can be further enhanced by inter- leukin 6. Selective up-regulation of Mcl-1 in PCs by BLyS suggests that this ō¸°€-apoptotic gene product may play an important role in PC survival. Blockade of BLyS, via transmembrane activator and cyclophilin ligand interactorā€“immunoglobulin treatment, inhibited PC survival ...