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Apoptosis

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Articles 61 - 69 of 69

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Mechanisms Of Yttrium Oxide Toxicity In Hek293 Cells, Sravanthi Bodapati Jan 2011

Mechanisms Of Yttrium Oxide Toxicity In Hek293 Cells, Sravanthi Bodapati

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

As a non-metal oxide, yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles have numerous applications in chemical synthesis, mechanical polishing and as additives to drugs, cosmetics, varnishes and food. Recent data have suggested that these particles are capable of inducing oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human endothelial cell lines. To examine the potential mechanisms of yttrium oxide toxicity, human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 μM of Y2O3 nanoparticles for 12, 24, 36 or 48 hr. We hypothesized that exposure of HEK293 kidney cells to Y2O3 nanoparticles would be associated with increased evidence of intracellular oxidative stress ...


Notch 1 Mediated Inhibition Of Nur77-Induced Apoptosis: Implications For T-Cell Leukemia, Jonathan George Rud May 2010

Notch 1 Mediated Inhibition Of Nur77-Induced Apoptosis: Implications For T-Cell Leukemia, Jonathan George Rud

Open Access Dissertations

It is widely accepted that activating mutations of genes encoding the Notch family of transmembrane receptors, specifically Notch1, are associated with oncogenic transformation. Previous data from our lab has shown that an active form of Notch1 (NICD) provides protection against apoptosis in D011.10 T cells; and that this effect may be attributed to NICD binding the pro-apoptotic protein Nur77. Nur77 is an immediate early gene that is upregulated during both negative selection of thymocytes and activation-induced apoptosis in D011.10 T cells. Nur77 upregulation is tightly regulated and requires MEF2D, NFAT, and the transcriptional co-activator, p300, to effectively respond ...


Apoptosis Initiation And Angiogenesis Inhibition: Melanoma Targets For Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Xinhua Chen, Juergen F. Kolb, R. James Swanson, Karl H. Schoenbach, Stephen J. Beebe Jan 2010

Apoptosis Initiation And Angiogenesis Inhibition: Melanoma Targets For Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields, Xinhua Chen, Juergen F. Kolb, R. James Swanson, Karl H. Schoenbach, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

Many effective anti-cancer strategies target apoptosis and angiogenesis mechanisms. Applications of non-ionizing, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) induce apoptosis in vitro and eliminate cancer in vivo; however in vivo mechanisms require closer analysis. These studies investigate nsPEF-induced apoptosis and anti-angiogenesis examined by fluorescent microscopy, immunoblots, and morphology. Six hours after treatment with one hundred 300 ns pulses at 40 kV/cm, cells transiently expressed active caspases indicating that caspase-mediated mechanisms. Three hours after treatment transient peaks in Histone 2AX phosphorylation coincided with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive cells and pyknotic nuclei, suggesting caspase-independent mechanisms on nuclei/DNA ...


Mtorc1 Hyperactivity Inhibits Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis Via Increased Hexokinase Ii And Glut1 Expression, Sustained Mcl-1 Expression, And Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3Β Inhibition, Prashanth T. Bhaskar, Veronique Nogueira, Krushna C. Patra, Sang-Min Jeon, Youngkyu Park, R. Brooks Robey, Nissim Hay Sep 2009

Mtorc1 Hyperactivity Inhibits Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis Via Increased Hexokinase Ii And Glut1 Expression, Sustained Mcl-1 Expression, And Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3Β Inhibition, Prashanth T. Bhaskar, Veronique Nogueira, Krushna C. Patra, Sang-Min Jeon, Youngkyu Park, R. Brooks Robey, Nissim Hay

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The current concept is that Tsc-deficient cells are sensitized to apoptosis due to the inhibition of Akt activity by the negative feedback mechanism induced by the hyperactive mTORC1. Unexpectedly, however, we found that Tsc1/2-deficient cells exhibit increased resistance to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. mTORC1 hyperactivity contributes to the apoptotic resistance of serum-deprived Tsc1/2-deficient cells in part by increasing the growth factor-independent expression of hexokinase II (HKII) and GLUT1. mTORC1-mediated increase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) abundance, which occurs in the absence of serum in normoxic Tsc2-deficient cells, contributes to these changes. Increased HIF1α abundance in these cells is attributed ...


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce A Mitochondria-Independent Apoptosis In B16f10 Melanoma Cells In Vitro, Wentia Elissa Ford Jul 2008

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce A Mitochondria-Independent Apoptosis In B16f10 Melanoma Cells In Vitro, Wentia Elissa Ford

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are ultra-short pulses that induce direct electric field and biological effects that initiate apoptosis. Here the application of ten 300ns pulses ranging in electric fields from 12kV/cm-60kV/cm was administered to determine the effects on B16F10 melanoma cells evaluated by in vitro studies. Initial application of nsPEFs demonstrated apoptosis induction in an electric field- and pulse number-dependent manner measured by caspase activation that correlated with decrease in cell viability 24hr post pulse. In addition caspase activity was shown to be independent of calcium mobilization though ions may play a part in other aspects of ...


Functional Analysis Of Ing1 And Ing4 In Cell Growth And Tumorigenesis: A Dissertation, Andrew H. Coles May 2008

Functional Analysis Of Ing1 And Ing4 In Cell Growth And Tumorigenesis: A Dissertation, Andrew H. Coles

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The five member Inhibitor of Growth (ING) gene family has been proposed to participate in the regulation of cell growth, DNA repair, inflammation, chromatin remodeling, and tumor suppression. All ING proteins contain a PHD motif implicated in binding to methylated histones and are components of large chromatin remodeling complexes containing histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, suggesting a role for ING proteins in regulating gene transcription. Additionally, forced overexpression studies performed in vitro have indicated that several ING proteins can interact with the p53 tumor suppressor protein and/or the NF-кB protein complex. Since these two proteins play ...


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Effects On Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Emily H. Hall Apr 2006

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Effects On Cell Cycle And Apoptosis, Emily H. Hall

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is a highly regulated and complex pathway essential for embryonic development, immune-system function and maintenance of tissue homeostasis where cells induce their own cell death. Cells undergoing apoptosis exhibit a distinctive phenotype characterized by maintenance of membrane integrity, cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization at the plasma membrane, caspase protease activation, DNA fragmentation, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, and membrane blebbing. An important regulatory protein in the apoptotic pathway is p53. The p53 protein functions to modulate the cell cycle by arresting cells in the G1 and G 2 phases to repair DNA damage, and ...


The Antitumor Agent, Arglabin-Dma, Preferentially Induces Apoptosis In Human Colon Tumor Cells, Sung Wook Kwon Apr 2005

The Antitumor Agent, Arglabin-Dma, Preferentially Induces Apoptosis In Human Colon Tumor Cells, Sung Wook Kwon

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Arglabin-DMA, an analog of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), reportedly inhibits farnesyltransferase (FTase) directly by competitively blocking the binding of Ras protein and its posttranslational modification, as suggested in previous studies. But, the mechanisms by which Arglabin-DMA inhibits tumor growth in vivo and in vitro are still relatively poorly characterized. To determine the mechanism by which this drug inhibits tumor growth, the effects of Arglabin-DMA in two human colon tumor cell lines (mutant K-ras HCT 116 and wild-type ras HT-29) were explored on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle kinetics in vitro. In cell viability studies, we showed that Arglabin-DMA had ...


Apoptosis Pathways: Presence And Significance In Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa, Steven Lewis Taylor Jan 2002

Apoptosis Pathways: Presence And Significance In Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa, Steven Lewis Taylor

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Ejaculated sperm display markers that are indicative of apoptosis in somatic cells. The question remains as to whether sperm have operative apoptosis mechanisms. The aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that apoptosis markers in sperm and somatic cells are different.

Ejaculated human sperm from patients and donors were separated into high and low motility fractions using Percoll™ gradients. Contaminating cells were removed using anti-CD45 conjugated paramagnetic beads. Fractions were divided into groups: staurosporine, anti-Fas antibody, and hydrogen peroxide treated and control. Direct enzymatic measurement of caspase activity, flow cytometric evaluation of phosphatidylserine translocation, immunoblots, and immunocytochemistry were ...