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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Next Generation Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Patterns In The Zebrafish Inner Ear Following Growth Hormone Injection, Gopinath Rajadinakaran Aug 2012

Next Generation Sequencing Reveals Gene Expression Patterns In The Zebrafish Inner Ear Following Growth Hormone Injection, Gopinath Rajadinakaran

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Loss of hair cells due to acoustic trauma results in the loss of hearing. In humans, unlike other vertebrates, the mechanism of hair cell regeneration is not possible. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this regeneration in nonmammalian vertebrates remain elusive. To understand the gene regulation during hair cell regeneration, our previous microarray study on zebrafish inner ears found that growth hormone (GH) was significantly upregulated after noise exposure. In this current study, we utilized Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to examine the genes and pathways that are significantly regulated in the zebrafish inner ear following sound exposure and GH injection. Four ...


Treatment Of Aortic Heart Valve Conduit With Glutamine And Heat Shock As A Means To Deter The Constituent Cellular Population From Becoming Apoptotic, Alyce Marie Linthurst Jones Apr 2012

Treatment Of Aortic Heart Valve Conduit With Glutamine And Heat Shock As A Means To Deter The Constituent Cellular Population From Becoming Apoptotic, Alyce Marie Linthurst Jones

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Cryopreserved allograft heart valves represent the best solution for a patient with a failing heart valve. However, the constituent cells become apoptotic and within months of transplant the heart valve becomes acellular and the recipient's cells do not repopulate the allograft (3, 51). A strategy to prevent this situation would be to minimize or prevent apoptosis from occurring by strategically altering steps during heart valve processing. Recently it has been demonstrated that: 1) Heat shock protein 70 is a negative modulator of the apoptotic cascade; 2) Cells in culture exposed to hypothermic conditions produce heat shock protein 70 upon ...


Combined Experimental And Computational Analysis Of Dna Damage Signaling Reveals Context-Dependent Roles For Erk In Apoptosis And G1/S Arrest After Genotoxic Stress, Andrea R. Tentner, Michael J. Lee, Gerry J. Ostheimer, Leona D. Samson, Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Michael B. Yaffe Jan 2012

Combined Experimental And Computational Analysis Of Dna Damage Signaling Reveals Context-Dependent Roles For Erk In Apoptosis And G1/S Arrest After Genotoxic Stress, Andrea R. Tentner, Michael J. Lee, Gerry J. Ostheimer, Leona D. Samson, Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Michael B. Yaffe

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

Following DNA damage, cells display complex multi-pathway signaling dynamics that connect cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair in G1, S, or G2/M phase with phenotypic fate decisions made between survival, cell-cycle re-entry and proliferation, permanent cell-cycle arrest, or cell death. How these phenotypic fate decisions are determined remains poorly understood, but must derive from integrating genotoxic stress signals together with inputs from the local microenvironment. To investigate this in a systematic manner, we undertook a quantitative time-resolved cell signaling and phenotypic response study in U2OS cells receiving doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in the presence or absence of TNFalpha co-treatment; we measured ...


Paternal Mitochondria Elimination And Cell Death Regulation In C. Elegans, Qinghua Zhou Jan 2012

Paternal Mitochondria Elimination And Cell Death Regulation In C. Elegans, Qinghua Zhou

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The nematode C. elegans is a model organism for various biomedical studies due to its genetic simplicity and conservation with humans. As C. elegans is uniquely amenable to cellular, molecular genetic, and biochemical analyses, many basic biological processes are investigated by experimentally manipulating and observing worms. My thesis describes how I used C. elegans models to advance our understanding of paternal mitochondria elimination and cell death regulation.

Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelles that carry their own genome (mtDNA). In mammals, the inheritance of mitochondria and mtDNA is strictly maternal, despite the fact that a sperm can inject up to 100 functional ...


Novel Molecular Mechanisms That Modulate The Cellular Response To P53 Activation, Ryan Edward Henry Jan 2012

Novel Molecular Mechanisms That Modulate The Cellular Response To P53 Activation, Ryan Edward Henry

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The p53 tumor suppressor protein is the most frequently mutated gene in human tumors and is amongst the most intensely studied molecules in modern biology. p53 acts primarily as a stress-responsive transcription factor that directly regulates the expression of over one hundred target genes, the products of which mediate such tumor suppressive responses as cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence and DNA damage repair. It is well established that p53-dependent cellular stress responses can vary, depending on both the nature of the p53-activating stimulus as well as the cell type experiencing the stress; however, the molecular mechanisms that drive cells to ...


The Drosophila Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Tie Instructs Function Of The Bantam Microrna In The Response To Ionizing Radiation, Amber Bilak Jan 2012

The Drosophila Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Tie Instructs Function Of The Bantam Microrna In The Response To Ionizing Radiation, Amber Bilak

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Life or death choices of cells in Drosophila depend on the accumulation of critical levels of pro-apoptotic factors such as hid. Ionizing radiation (IR) causes lesions to macromolecules in cells that trigger damage responses and result in death of cells expressing critical amounts of hid. Cells are eliminated by apoptosis to prevent the transfer of damaged genetic material to daughter cells. However, some cells must be preserved in order for organisms to survive and regenerate. Therefore, genes that limit apoptosis can enhance organismal survival. The ban miRNA limits apoptosis after IR exposure by regulating the 3'UTR of hid. Though ...


Hdm2 Small-Molecule Inhibitors For Therapeutic Intervention In B-Cell Lymphoma, Angela Sosin Jan 2012

Hdm2 Small-Molecule Inhibitors For Therapeutic Intervention In B-Cell Lymphoma, Angela Sosin

Wayne State University Dissertations

Lymphomas frequently retain wild-type (wt) p53 function but overexpress HDM2, compromising p53 activity. Therefore, lymphoma is a suitable model for studying therapeutic value of disrupting HDM2-p53 association by small-molecule inhibitors (SMIs). HDM2 SMIs have been developed and are currently under various stages of preclinical and clinical investigation. This study examined various molecular mechanisms associated and biological effects of two different classes of HDM2 SMIs: the spiro-oxindoles (MI-219) and cis-imidazoline (Nutlin-3) in lymphoma cell lines and patient-derived B-lymphoma cells. Surprisingly, results revealed significant quantitative and qualitative differences between these two agents. At the molecular level, effect of Nutlin-3 was generally more ...