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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

A Novel Autophagy Regulatory Mechanism That Functions During Programmed Cell Death: A Dissertation, Tsun-Kai Chang Sep 2013

A Novel Autophagy Regulatory Mechanism That Functions During Programmed Cell Death: A Dissertation, Tsun-Kai Chang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Autophagy is a cellular process that delivers cytoplasmic materials for degradation by the lysosomes. Autophagy-related (Atg) genes were identified in yeast genetic screens for vehicle formation under stress conditions, and Atg genes are conserved from yeast to human. When cells or animals are under stress, autophagy is induced and Atg8 (LC3 in mammal) is activated by E1 activating enzyme Atg7. Atg8-containing membranes form and surround cargos, close and mature to become the autophagosomes. Autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes, and cargos are degraded by lysosomal enzymes to sustain cell viability. Therefore, autophagy is most frequently considered to function in cell survival. Whether ...


Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway: Effects Of Calcium On Murine Cytochrome C Release In Brain And Liver Mitochondria, Dane M. Edwards Apr 2013

Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway: Effects Of Calcium On Murine Cytochrome C Release In Brain And Liver Mitochondria, Dane M. Edwards

Senior Honors Theses

A cell may use one of three main apoptotic pathways leading to programmed cell death: the extrinsic pathway, the perforin/granzyme pathway and the intrinsic pathway. The most pertinent to this discussion is the intrinsic pathway, which utilizes the mitochondria as an essential intermediary. Mitochondria’s primary function in relation to this pathway is the subsequent release of pro-apoptotic factors including cytochrome c, which activate a caspase cascade leading to the death of the cell. Cytochrome c is released partly due to an increase in cytosolic calcium levels. Two methods of the release of cytochrome c have been proposed. The ...