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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

A Small Peptide Antagonist Of The Fas Receptor Inhibits Neuroinflammation And Prevents Axon Degeneration And Retinal Ganglion Cell Death In An Inducible Mouse Model Of Glaucoma, Anitha Krishnan, Andrew J. Kocab, David N. Zacks, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Meredith Gregory-Ksander Sep 2019

A Small Peptide Antagonist Of The Fas Receptor Inhibits Neuroinflammation And Prevents Axon Degeneration And Retinal Ganglion Cell Death In An Inducible Mouse Model Of Glaucoma, Anitha Krishnan, Andrew J. Kocab, David N. Zacks, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Meredith Gregory-Ksander

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a complex, multifactorial disease where apoptosis, microglia activation, and inflammation have been linked to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and axon degeneration. We demonstrated previously that FasL-Fas signaling was required for axon degeneration and death of RGCs in chronic and inducible mouse models of glaucoma and that Fas activation triggered RGC apoptosis, glial activation, and inflammation. Here, we investigated whether targeting the Fas receptor with a small peptide antagonist, ONL1204, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in a microbead-induced mouse model of glaucoma.

METHODS: Intracameral injection of microbeads was used to elevate intraocular pressure (IOP) in ...


Atf6alpha Impacts Cell Number By Influencing Survival, Death And Proliferation, Rohit B. Sharma, Jarin T. Snyder, Laura C. Alonso Sep 2019

Atf6alpha Impacts Cell Number By Influencing Survival, Death And Proliferation, Rohit B. Sharma, Jarin T. Snyder, Laura C. Alonso

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature suggests the cell-intrinsic activity of Atf6alpha during ER stress responses has implications for tissue cell number during growth and development, as well as in adult biology and tumorigenesis [1]. This concept is important, linking the cellular processes of secretory protein synthesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress response with functional tissue capacity and organ size. However, the field contains conflicting observations, especially notable in secretory cell types like the pancreatic beta cell.

SCOPE OF REVIEW: Here we summarize current knowledge of the basic biology of Atf6alpha, along with the pleiotropic roles Atf6alpha plays in cell life ...


Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair Mar 2017

Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Cancer cells typically experience higher oxidative stress than normal cells, such that elevating pro-oxidant levels can trigger cancer cell death. Although pre-exposure to mild oxidative agents will sensitize cancer cells to radiation, this pre-exposure may also activate the adaptive stress defense system in normal cells. Ascorbic acid is a prototype redox modulator that when infused intravenously appears to kill cancers without injury to normal tissues; however, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. In this study, we show how ascorbic acid kills cancer cells and sensitizes prostate cancer to radiation therapy while also conferring protection upon normal prostate epithelial cells against radiation-induced ...


Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton May 2016

Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Endogenous and exogenous agents that can damage DNA are a constant threat to genome stability in all living cells. In response, cells have evolved an array of mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the cells damaged beyond repair. One of these mechanisms is nucleotide excision repair (NER) which is the major repair pathway responsible for removing a wide variety of bulky DNA lesions. Deficiency, or mutation, in one or several of the NER repair proteins is responsible for many diseases, including cancer. Prokaryotic NER involves only three proteins to recognize and incise a damaged site, while eukaryotic NER ...


Functional Analysis Of Ing1 And Ing4 In Cell Growth And Tumorigenesis: A Dissertation, Andrew H. Coles May 2008

Functional Analysis Of Ing1 And Ing4 In Cell Growth And Tumorigenesis: A Dissertation, Andrew H. Coles

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The five member Inhibitor of Growth (ING) gene family has been proposed to participate in the regulation of cell growth, DNA repair, inflammation, chromatin remodeling, and tumor suppression. All ING proteins contain a PHD motif implicated in binding to methylated histones and are components of large chromatin remodeling complexes containing histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, suggesting a role for ING proteins in regulating gene transcription. Additionally, forced overexpression studies performed in vitro have indicated that several ING proteins can interact with the p53 tumor suppressor protein and/or the NF-кB protein complex. Since these two proteins play ...