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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey Apr 2019

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey

Biology ETDs

Properly executed cell division is crucial to development, maintenance, and longevity of multicellular organisms. Defects in both symmetric and asymmetric divisions can lead to improper developmental patterning, as well as genomic instability, disruption of tissue homeostasis, and cancer. Our research focuses on how regulators orchestrate proper cell divisions. Mushroom Body Defect (Mud) is one such regulator, and here we describe how Mud is regulated via the Hippo signaling pathway kinase Warts (Wts), showing Wts phosphorylates Mud to enhance interaction with the polarity protein Partner of Inscuteable, promoting spindle orientation activity. We next focus on another regulator, Shortstop (Shot), describing a ...


The Caspase Cascade During Hibernation In The Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus Lateralis, Michael David Treat May 2018

The Caspase Cascade During Hibernation In The Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus Lateralis, Michael David Treat

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In several human pathologies like heart attack, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune disorders, widespread cell death, or apoptosis, is a major cause of organ dysfunction and death. Hibernating golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus lateralis, experience numerous conditions during the winter that are known to be pro-apoptotic in other mammal systems (e.g. extreme hypothermia, ischemia and reperfusion, acidosis, increased reactive oxygen species, bone and muscle disuse). However, studies suggest that hibernators may invoke a protective phenotype to limit widespread cell damage and loss during the hibernation season. Could regulating apoptosis provide protection against the harmful conditions experienced during the hibernation season ...


Mir494 Reduces Renal Cancer Cell Survival Coinciding With Increased Lipid Droplets And Mitochondrial Changes, Punashi Dutta, Edward Haller, Arielle Sharp, Meera Nanjundan Jan 2016

Mir494 Reduces Renal Cancer Cell Survival Coinciding With Increased Lipid Droplets And Mitochondrial Changes, Punashi Dutta, Edward Haller, Arielle Sharp, Meera Nanjundan

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Background: miRNAs can regulate cellular survival in various cancer cell types. Recent evidence implicates the formation of lipid droplets as a hallmark event during apoptotic cell death response. It is presently unknown whether MIR494, located at 14q32 which is deleted in renal cancers, reduces cell survival in renal cancer cells and if this process is accompanied by changes in the number of lipid droplets.

Methods: 769-P renal carcinoma cells were utilized for this study. Control or MIR494 mimic was expressed in these cells following which cell viability (via crystal violet) and apoptotic cell numbers (via Annexin V/PI staining) were ...


Calpain 5: A Non-Classical Calpain Highly Expressed In The Cns And Localized To Mitochondria And Nuclear Pml Bodies, Ranjana Singh Jan 2014

Calpain 5: A Non-Classical Calpain Highly Expressed In The Cns And Localized To Mitochondria And Nuclear Pml Bodies, Ranjana Singh

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Calpain 5 (CAPN5) is a non-classical member of the calpain family. It lacks the EF-hand motif characteristic of the classical calpains, calpain 1 and 2, but retains catalytic and Ca2+ binding non EF domains. Tra-3, an ortholog of CAPN5, is involved in necrotic cell death in C.elegans; although specific role of CAPN5 has not been investigated in the mammalian CNS. I compared relative mRNA levels of calpains in rat CNS, which revealed that CAPN5 is the second most highly expressed calpain. We examined relative levels of CAPN5 from late embryonic day 18 to postnatal day 90 and found ...


Treatment Of Aortic Heart Valve Conduit With Glutamine And Heat Shock As A Means To Deter The Constituent Cellular Population From Becoming Apoptotic, Alyce Marie Linthurst Jones Apr 2012

Treatment Of Aortic Heart Valve Conduit With Glutamine And Heat Shock As A Means To Deter The Constituent Cellular Population From Becoming Apoptotic, Alyce Marie Linthurst Jones

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Cryopreserved allograft heart valves represent the best solution for a patient with a failing heart valve. However, the constituent cells become apoptotic and within months of transplant the heart valve becomes acellular and the recipient's cells do not repopulate the allograft (3, 51). A strategy to prevent this situation would be to minimize or prevent apoptosis from occurring by strategically altering steps during heart valve processing. Recently it has been demonstrated that: 1) Heat shock protein 70 is a negative modulator of the apoptotic cascade; 2) Cells in culture exposed to hypothermic conditions produce heat shock protein 70 upon ...


Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song Aug 2011

Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

PAX2 is one of nine PAX genes regulating tissue development and cellular differentiation in embryos. PAX2 promotes cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell-lineage specification, migration, and survival. Unattenuated PAX2 has been found in several cancer types. We therefore sought to elucidate the role of PAX2 in ovarian carcinomas. We found that PAX2 was expressed in low-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively chemoresistant compared to high grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Four ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUGL (mucinous), TOV21G (clear cell), MDAH-2774 (endometrioid) and IGROV1 (endometrioid), which express high-levels of PAX2, were used to study the ...