Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 4 of 4

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Bidirectional Interactions Between Mitochondrial Function And Cell Mechanics, Judith Kandel Jan 2016

Bidirectional Interactions Between Mitochondrial Function And Cell Mechanics, Judith Kandel

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Energetic and structural maintenance are both critical to cellular homeostasis, and clinical disease is often characterized by alterations in both of these realms. While the manifestation of pathology in each of these fields has been extensively studied, little research has been done to characterize basic, direct interactions between mitochondrial function and cell mechanics. The experiments described in this dissertation endeavored to address that gap, first by investigating the cytoskeletal and mechanical effects of mitochondrial dysfunction and then by considering the mitochondrial consequences of cytoarchitectural breakdown.

Mechanical integrity of the cell following mitochondrial dysfunction was investigated through multiple experimental platforms, including ...


Opposing Actin Networks Modulate The Mechano-Activation Of The Integrin Lfa-1 During Immunological Synapse Formation, William Andrew Comrie Jan 2014

Opposing Actin Networks Modulate The Mechano-Activation Of The Integrin Lfa-1 During Immunological Synapse Formation, William Andrew Comrie

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Formation of a functional immune response requires the regulated transfer of information between T cells, and APCs, which leads to a variety of functional outcomes. In many cases this information transfer occurs at a regulated area of cell - cell contact termed the immunological synapse (IS). In T cells responding to APCs there is a robust accumulation of F-actin on the T cell side of the synapse. This F-actin response is characterized by robust polymerization at the periphery of the contact site followed by centripetal flow of the network towards the center of the IS. While it is well known that ...


The Role Of The Exocyst In Membrane Deformation, Cell Migration And Exocytosis, Yuting Zhao Jan 2014

The Role Of The Exocyst In Membrane Deformation, Cell Migration And Exocytosis, Yuting Zhao

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Dynamic shape changes of the plasma membrane are fundamental to many processes ranging from morphogenesis and cell migration to phagocytosis and viral propagation. In this study, I showed that Exo70, a component of the exocyst complex, induces tubular membrane invaginations towards the lumen of synthetic vesicles in vitro and generates actin-free protrusions on the surface of cells. Analyses using Exo70 mutants suggest that Exo70 generates negative membrane curvature through an oligomerization-based mechanism. The membrane-deformation function of Exo70 is likely to be independent of the other exocyst subunits. Exo70 thus represents a novel membrane-deforming protein for plasma membrane remodeling. Directional cell ...


The Cytoskeletal Mechanisms Of Cell-Cell Junction Formation In Endothelial Cells, Matthew K. Hoelzle Dec 2011

The Cytoskeletal Mechanisms Of Cell-Cell Junction Formation In Endothelial Cells, Matthew K. Hoelzle

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Intercellular adhesions are essential for compartmentalization and integrity of tissues in an organism, cell-cell communication, and morphogenesis. The actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins play a vital role in establishing and maintaining cell-cell adhesion. However, the procedure by which cells establish adherens junctions remains largely unclear.

We investigated the dynamics of cell-cell junction formation and the corresponding architecture of the underlying cytoskeleton in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that the initial interaction between cells is mediated by protruding lamellipodia. Upon their retraction, cells maintain contact through thin bridges formed by filopodia-like protrusions connected by VE-cadherin-rich junctions.

Bridges ...