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2014

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Articles 31 - 60 of 299

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Two Ways To Fold The Genome During The Cell Cycle: Insights Obtained With Chromosome Conformation Capture, Job Dekker Nov 2014

Two Ways To Fold The Genome During The Cell Cycle: Insights Obtained With Chromosome Conformation Capture, Job Dekker

Open Access Articles

Genetic and epigenetic inheritance through mitosis is critical for dividing cells to maintain their state. This process occurs in the context of large-scale re-organization of chromosome conformation during prophase leading to the formation of mitotic chromosomes, and during the reformation of the interphase nucleus during telophase and early G1. This review highlights how recent studies over the last 5 years employing chromosome conformation capture combined with classical models of chromosome organization based on decades of microscopic observations, are providing new insights into the three-dimensional organization of chromatin inside the interphase nucleus and within mitotic chromosomes. One striking observation is that ...


Amphiphilic Degradable Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composites As Smart Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds: A Dissertation, Artem B. Kutikov Nov 2014

Amphiphilic Degradable Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composites As Smart Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds: A Dissertation, Artem B. Kutikov

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Over 600,000 bone-grafting operations are performed each year in the United States. The majority of the bone used for these surgeries comes from autografts that are limited in quantity or allografts with high failure rates. Current synthetic bone grafting materials have poor mechanical properties, handling characteristics, and bioactivity. The goal of this dissertation was to develop a clinically translatable bone tissue engineering scaffold with improved handling characteristics, bioactivity, and smart delivery modalities. We hypothesized that this could be achieved through the rational selection of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved materials that blend favorably with hydroxyapatite (HA), the principle ...


Nuclear Transport Of Single Molecules: Dwell Times At The Nuclear Pore Complex, Ulrich Kubitscheck, David Grunwald, Andreas Hoekstra, Daniel Rohleder, Thorsten Kues, Jan Peter Siebrasse, Reiner Peters Nov 2014

Nuclear Transport Of Single Molecules: Dwell Times At The Nuclear Pore Complex, Ulrich Kubitscheck, David Grunwald, Andreas Hoekstra, Daniel Rohleder, Thorsten Kues, Jan Peter Siebrasse, Reiner Peters

David Grünwald

The mechanism by which macromolecules are selectively translocated through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is still essentially unresolved. Single molecule methods can provide unique information on topographic properties and kinetic processes of asynchronous supramolecular assemblies with excellent spatial and time resolution. Here, single-molecule far-field fluorescence microscopy was applied to the NPC of permeabilized cells. The nucleoporin Nup358 could be localized at a distance of 70 nm from POM121-GFP along the NPC axis. Binding sites of NTF2, the transport receptor of RanGDP, were observed in cytoplasmic filaments and central framework, but not nucleoplasmic filaments of the NPC. The dwell times of ...


Intranuclear Binding Kinetics And Mobility Of Single Native U1 Snrnp Particles In Living Cells, David Grunwald, Beatrice Spottke, Volker Buschmann, Ulrich Kubitscheck Nov 2014

Intranuclear Binding Kinetics And Mobility Of Single Native U1 Snrnp Particles In Living Cells, David Grunwald, Beatrice Spottke, Volker Buschmann, Ulrich Kubitscheck

David Grünwald

Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) are splicing factors, which are diffusely distributed in the nucleoplasm and also concentrated in nuclear speckles. Fluorescently labeled, native U1 snRNPs were microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells. After nuclear import single U1 snRNPs could be visualized and tracked at a spatial precision of 30 nm at a frame rate of 200 Hz employing a custom-built microscope with single-molecule sensitivity. The single-particle tracks revealed that most U1 snRNPs were bound to specific intranuclear sites, many of those presumably representing pre-mRNA splicing sites. The dissociation kinetics from these sites showed a multiexponential decay ...


Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck Nov 2014

Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck

David Grünwald

All molecular traffic between nucleus and cytoplasm occurs via the nuclear pore complex (NPC) within the nuclear envelope. In this study we analyzed the interactions of the nuclear transport receptors kapalpha2, kapbeta1, kapbeta1DeltaN44, and kapbeta2, and the model transport substrate, BSA-NLS, with NPCs to determine binding sites and kinetics using single-molecule microscopy in living cells. Recombinant transport receptors and BSA-NLS were fluorescently labeled by AlexaFluor 488, and microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells expressing POM121-GFP as a nuclear pore marker. After bleaching the dominant GFP fluorescence the interactions of the microinjected molecules could be studied using video microscopy ...


Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives Nov 2014

Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives

David Grünwald

The p53 tumor suppressor utilizes multiple mechanisms to selectively regulate its myriad target genes, which in turn mediate diverse cellular processes. Here, using conventional and single-molecule mRNA analyses, we demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup98 is required for full expression of p21, a key effector of the p53 pathway, but not several other p53 target genes. Nup98 regulates p21 mRNA levels by a posttranscriptional mechanism in which a complex containing Nup98 and the p21 mRNA 3'UTR protects p21 mRNA from degradation by the exosome. An in silico approach revealed another p53 target (14-3-3sigma) to be similarly regulated by Nup98. The ...


Quantitative Analysis Of App Axonal Transport In Neurons: Role Of Jip1 In Enhanced App Anterograde Transport, Kyoko Chiba, Masahiko Araseki, Keisuke Nozawa, Keiko Furukori, Yoichi Araki, Takahide Matsushima, Tadashi Nakaya, Saori Hata, Yuhki Saito, Seiichi Uchida, Yasushi Okada, Angus C. Nairn, Roger J. Davis, Tohru Yamamoto, Masataka Kinjo, Hidenori Taru, Toshiharu Suzuki Nov 2014

Quantitative Analysis Of App Axonal Transport In Neurons: Role Of Jip1 In Enhanced App Anterograde Transport, Kyoko Chiba, Masahiko Araseki, Keisuke Nozawa, Keiko Furukori, Yoichi Araki, Takahide Matsushima, Tadashi Nakaya, Saori Hata, Yuhki Saito, Seiichi Uchida, Yasushi Okada, Angus C. Nairn, Roger J. Davis, Tohru Yamamoto, Masataka Kinjo, Hidenori Taru, Toshiharu Suzuki

Davis Lab Publications

Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) associates with kinesin-1 via JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1); however, the role of JIP1 in APP transport by kinesin-1 in neurons remains unclear. We performed a quantitative analysis to understand the role of JIP1 in APP axonal transport. In JIP1-deficient neurons, we find that both the fast velocity ( approximately 2.7 mum/s) and high frequency (66%) of anterograde transport of APP cargo are impaired to a reduced velocity ( approximately 1.83 mum/s) and a lower frequency (45%). We identified two novel elements linked to JIP1 function, located in the central region of JIP1b ...


Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2014

Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as alpha6beta4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits beta4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress beta4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the beta4 promoter and constrains ...


Regulated Splicing Of The Alpha6 Integrin Cytoplasmic Domain Determines The Fate Of Breast Cancer Stem Cells, Hira Lal Goel, Tatiana Gritsko, Bryan Pursell, Cheng Chang, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Jens Henrik Norum, Rune Toftgard, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2014

Regulated Splicing Of The Alpha6 Integrin Cytoplasmic Domain Determines The Fate Of Breast Cancer Stem Cells, Hira Lal Goel, Tatiana Gritsko, Bryan Pursell, Cheng Chang, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Jens Henrik Norum, Rune Toftgard, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Although the alpha6beta1 integrin has been implicated in the function of breast and other cancer stem cells (CSCs), little is known about its regulation and relationship to mechanisms involved in the genesis of CSCs. We report that a CD44(high)/CD24(low) population, enriched for CSCs, is comprised of distinct epithelial and mesenchymal populations that differ in expression of the two alpha6 cytoplasmic domain splice variants: alpha6A and alpha6B. alpha6Bbeta1 expression defines the mesenchymal population and is necessary for CSC function, a function that cannot be executed by alpha6A integrins. The generation of alpha6Bbeta1 is tightly controlled and occurs as ...


Peptide Arrays For Detecting Naphthenic Acids In Oil Sands Process Affected Water, Kamaljit Kaur, Subir Bhattacharjee, Rajesh G. Pillai, Sahar Ahmed, Sarfuddin Azmi Nov 2014

Peptide Arrays For Detecting Naphthenic Acids In Oil Sands Process Affected Water, Kamaljit Kaur, Subir Bhattacharjee, Rajesh G. Pillai, Sahar Ahmed, Sarfuddin Azmi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are water-soluble components of petroleum. The characterization and quantification of NAs by analytical methods have proved quite challenging, whilst the toxic effects of these water-soluble compounds on a variety of organisms adversely affecting reproduction and steroid production is becoming apparent. In this study, we report a fluorescence-based competitive binding method for rapid sensing of the presence of NAs using cellulosic peptide array strips as sensors. The peptide array was designed from sequences derived from the estrogen receptor (ER). Several of these peptides were able to detect the presence of NAs at low micromolar (∼5 mg L−1 ...


Exosome-Mediated Delivery Of Rna Interference And Mirna Mimic, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala, Terence N. Bukong, Gyongyi Szabo Nov 2014

Exosome-Mediated Delivery Of Rna Interference And Mirna Mimic, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala, Terence N. Bukong, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Exosomes, membranous nanovesicles, naturally carry bio-macromolecules and play pivotal roles in both physiological intercellular crosstalk and disease pathogenesis. Here, we showed that B cell-derived exosomes can function as vehicles to deliver exogenous miRNA-155 mimic or inhibitor into hepatocytes or macrophages, respectively. Stimulation of B cells significantly increased exosome production. Unlike in parental cells, baseline level of miRNA-155 was very low in exosomes derived from stimulated B cells. Exosomes loaded with a miRNA-155 mimic significantly increased miRNA-155 levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and the liver of miRNA-155 knockout mice. Treatment of RAW macrophages with miRNA-155 inhibitor loaded exosomes resulted in statistically ...


Majority Of Cells Lining The Walls Of The 3rd Ventricle In The Adult Rat Brain Are Not Neural Progenitor Cells, C. Hasken, S. Vermilyea, M. Hendrickson, R. Kalil Nov 2014

Majority Of Cells Lining The Walls Of The 3rd Ventricle In The Adult Rat Brain Are Not Neural Progenitor Cells, C. Hasken, S. Vermilyea, M. Hendrickson, R. Kalil

Science Research Fellows Posters

No abstract provided.


Intercellular Cooperation And Competition In Brain Cancers: Lessons From Drosophila And Human Studies, Indrayani Waghmare, Austin Roebke, Mutsuko Minata, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ichiro Nakano Nov 2014

Intercellular Cooperation And Competition In Brain Cancers: Lessons From Drosophila And Human Studies, Indrayani Waghmare, Austin Roebke, Mutsuko Minata, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ichiro Nakano

Biology Faculty Publications

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a primary brain cancer with an extremely poor prognosis. GBM tumors contain heterogeneous cellular components, including a small subpopulation of tumor cells termed glioma stem cells (GSCs). GSCs are characterized as chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-resistant cells with prominent tumorigenic ability. Studies in Drosophila cancer models demonstrated that interclonal cooperation and signaling from apoptotic clones provokes aggressive growth of neighboring tumorigenic clones, via compensatory proliferation or apoptosis induced proliferation. Mechanistically, these aggressive tumors depend on activation of Jun-N-terminal kinase (upstream of c-JUN), and Drosophila Wnt (Wg) in the apoptotic clones. Consistent with these nonmammalian studies, data from several mammalian ...


Neural Stem Cells As A Model To Study Huntington’S Disease, Rawan Bakhsh Nov 2014

Neural Stem Cells As A Model To Study Huntington’S Disease, Rawan Bakhsh

Graduate Master's Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects

Huntington’s disease (HD) is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder that affects muscle coordination and diminishes cognitive abilities, by affecting the medium spiny neurons in the brain. In HD patients, neurons are damaged and destroyed because of the toxicity of the mutant Huntington protein (mHtt). The mechanism of how mHtt protein affects the neurons is unknown. In this study we explored the effects of mHtt expression by looking at changes in huntingtin localization, changes in the expression and co-localization of related proteins and differences in cell morphology. We examine how this expression affects the cytoskeletal structures using neural stem cells Q7 ...


Human Breast Progenitor Cell Numbers Are Regulated By Wnt And Tbx3, Lisa M. Arendt, Jessica St. Laurent, Ania Wronski, Silvia Caballero, Stephen Lyle, Stephen P. Naber, Charlotte Kuperwasser Oct 2014

Human Breast Progenitor Cell Numbers Are Regulated By Wnt And Tbx3, Lisa M. Arendt, Jessica St. Laurent, Ania Wronski, Silvia Caballero, Stephen Lyle, Stephen P. Naber, Charlotte Kuperwasser

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Although human breast development is mediated by hormonal and non-hormonal means, the mechanisms that regulate breast progenitor cell activity remain to be clarified. This limited understanding of breast progenitor cells has been due in part to the lack of appropriate model systems to detect and characterize their properties.

METHODS: To examine the effects of WNT signaling and TBX3 expression on progenitor activity in the breast, primary human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) were isolated from reduction mammoplasty tissues and transduced with lentivirus to overexpress WNT1 or TBX3 or reduce expression of their cognate receptors using shRNA. Changes in progenitor activity ...


Reassessment Of The Role Of Tsc, Mtorc1 And Micrornas In Amino Acids-Meditated Translational Control Of Top Mrnas, Ilona Patursky-Polischuk, Judith Kasir, Rachel Miloslavski, Zvi Hayouka, Mirit Hausner-Hanochi, Miri Stolovich-Rain, Pinchas Tsukerman, Moshe Biton, Rajini R. Mudhasani, Stephen N. Jones, Oded Meyuhas Oct 2014

Reassessment Of The Role Of Tsc, Mtorc1 And Micrornas In Amino Acids-Meditated Translational Control Of Top Mrnas, Ilona Patursky-Polischuk, Judith Kasir, Rachel Miloslavski, Zvi Hayouka, Mirit Hausner-Hanochi, Miri Stolovich-Rain, Pinchas Tsukerman, Moshe Biton, Rajini R. Mudhasani, Stephen N. Jones, Oded Meyuhas

Open Access Articles

TOP mRNAs encode components of the translational apparatus, and repression of their translation comprises one mechanism, by which cells encountering amino acid deprivation downregulate the biosynthesis of the protein synthesis machinery. This mode of regulation involves TSC as knockout of TSC1 or TSC2 rescued TOP mRNAs translation in amino acid-starved cells. The involvement of mTOR in translational control of TOP mRNAs is demonstrated by the ability of constitutively active mTOR to relieve the translational repression of TOP mRNA upon amino acid deprivation. Consistently, knockdown of this kinase as well as its inhibition by pharmacological means blocked amino acid-induced translational activation ...


Regulation Of Cdk1 Activity During The G1/S Transition In S. Cerevisiae Through Specific Cyclin-Substrate Docking: A Dissertation, Samyabrata Bhaduri Oct 2014

Regulation Of Cdk1 Activity During The G1/S Transition In S. Cerevisiae Through Specific Cyclin-Substrate Docking: A Dissertation, Samyabrata Bhaduri

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Several cell cycle events require specific forms of the cyclin-CDK complexes. It has been known for some time that cyclins not only contribute by activating the CDK but also by choosing substrates and/or specifying the location of the CDK holoenzyme. There are several examples of B-type cyclins identifying certain peptide motifs in their specific substrates through a conserved region in their structure. Such interactions were not known for the G1 class of cyclins, which are instrumental in helping the cell decide whether or not to commit to a new cell cycle, a function that is non-redundant with B-type cylins ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George Mcnamara Oct 2014

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20141018, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Tattletales and T-Bow Update 20141018

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/63

Tattletales is my concept to multiplex fluorescent protein biosensors ("Tattletales", which is also the overall concept name) and multicolor FP reporters ("T-Bow" for Rainbow T-cells and tumor cells) to study the physiology of live cells.

These are based on:

1. LacI-GFP :: LacO operator synthetic tandem repeat array (Robinett et al 1996 JCB, Fig 4A, http://jcb.rupress.org/content/135/6/1685.full.pdf )

2. the plethora of fluorescent protein biosensors - see page 1 of this "63" download site.

3. the many colors, and combinations of colors (CY11.5 ...


Astrocyte-Specific Regulation Of Hmecp2 Expression In Drosophila, David Hess-Homeier, Chia-Yu Fan, Tarun Gupta, Ann-Shyn Chiang, Sarah J. Certel Oct 2014

Astrocyte-Specific Regulation Of Hmecp2 Expression In Drosophila, David Hess-Homeier, Chia-Yu Fan, Tarun Gupta, Ann-Shyn Chiang, Sarah J. Certel

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Alterations in the expression of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) either by mutations or gene duplication leads to a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders including Rett Syndrome and MeCP2 duplication disorder. Common features of Rett Syndrome (RTT), MeCP2 duplication disorder, and neuropsychiatric disorders indicate that even moderate changes in MeCP2 protein levels result in functional and structural cell abnormalities. In this study, we investigated two areas of MeCP2 pathophysiology using Drosophila as a model system: the effects of MeCP2 glial gain-of-function activity on circuits controlling sleep behavior, and the cell-type specific regulation of MeCP2 expression. In this study, we first examined ...


Enteroendocrine Cells Support Intestinal Stem-Cell-Mediated Homeostasis In Drosophila, Alla Amcheslavsky, Wei Song, Qi Li, Yingchao Nie, Ivan Bragatto, Dominique Ferrandon, Norbert Perrimon, Y. Tony Ip Oct 2014

Enteroendocrine Cells Support Intestinal Stem-Cell-Mediated Homeostasis In Drosophila, Alla Amcheslavsky, Wei Song, Qi Li, Yingchao Nie, Ivan Bragatto, Dominique Ferrandon, Norbert Perrimon, Y. Tony Ip

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Intestinal stem cells in the adult Drosophila midgut are regulated by growth factors produced from the surrounding niche cells including enterocytes and visceral muscle. The role of the other major cell type, the secretory enteroendocrine cells, in regulating intestinal stem cells remains unclear. We show here that newly eclosed scute loss-of-function mutant flies are completely devoid of enteroendocrine cells. These enteroendocrine cell-less flies have normal ingestion and fecundity but shorter lifespan. Moreover, in these newly eclosed mutant flies, the diet-stimulated midgut growth that depends on the insulin-like peptide 3 expression in the surrounding muscle is defective. The depletion of Tachykinin-producing ...


Genetic Analysis Of Ton2 Dependent Processes In Microtubule Organization In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Samantha Nicole Atkinson Oct 2014

Genetic Analysis Of Ton2 Dependent Processes In Microtubule Organization In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Samantha Nicole Atkinson

Theses and Dissertations

Microtubules carry out many functions within the cell. They're used during mitosis and meiosis to move chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell so that cell division can occur. They're also used as structural support for the cell and are involved in establishing the cell shape. Microtubules are also able to reorient from a longitudinal orientation to a transverse orientation in response to gibberellic acid and auxin (two hormones that are involved in cell elongation). The mechanism for how this reorientation occurs is unknown. The TONNEAU2 (TON2) protein is necessary for proper microtubule organization. We looked at how ...


Associated Behavioral, Genetic, And Gene Expression Variation With Alternative Life History Tactics In Salmonid Fishes, Ashley Chin-Baarstad Oct 2014

Associated Behavioral, Genetic, And Gene Expression Variation With Alternative Life History Tactics In Salmonid Fishes, Ashley Chin-Baarstad

Open Access Dissertations

Individual differences in behavior can have potential fitness consequences and often reflect underlying genetic variation. My research focuses on three objectives related to individual level variation: 1) evaluating the innate behavioral variation within and between individuals, families, and progeny of different life-history types across time; 2) testing for differences in gene expression within the brain associated with this behavioral variation; and 3) using genetic polymorphisms to test for associations with ecotype, as well as population structure, in polymorphic populations. First, we evaluated the variation in a suite of ecologically relevant behaviors across time in juvenile progeny produced from crosses within ...


Modulation Of Host Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates By Salmonella Effector Protein Sopb, Heather L. Piscatelli Oct 2014

Modulation Of Host Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates By Salmonella Effector Protein Sopb, Heather L. Piscatelli

Open Access Dissertations

Salmonella spp. are gram negative bacteria capable of infecting a number of eukaryotic hosts. In humans, Salmonella infection can range anywhere from acute gastroenteritis to typhoid fever which can oftentimes be fatal.Salmonella are facultative intracellular pathogens that have acquired the ability to enter non-phagocytic cells such as those lining the intestinal epithelium. Uptake into epithelial cells is mediated by the Salmonellapathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) encoded type III secretion system (T3SS), a needle-like complex composed of over 20 proteins that translocates effector proteins directly into the host cell cytosol. Salmonella possess a second type III secretion system encoded on ...


Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson Oct 2014

Intranuclear Strain Measured By Iterative Warping In Cells Under Mechanical And Osmotic Stress, Jonathan T Henderson

Open Access Dissertations

The nucleus is a membrane bound organelle and regulation center for gene expression in the cell. Mechanical forces transfer to the nucleus directly and indirectly through specific cellular cytoskeletal structures and pathways. There is increasing evidence that the transferred forces to the nucleus orchestrate gene expression activity. Methods to characterize nuclear mechanics typically study isolated cells or cells embedded in 3D gel matrices. Often report only aspect ratio and volume changes, measures that oversimplify the inherent complexity of internal strain patterns. This presents technical challenges to simultaneously observe small scale nuclear mechanics and gene expression levels inside the nuclei of ...


Editorial Overview: Environmental Physiology: Insect Environmental Physiology, Brent J. Sinclair Oct 2014

Editorial Overview: Environmental Physiology: Insect Environmental Physiology, Brent J. Sinclair

Biology Publications

No abstract provided.


Neural Transcription Factors: From Embryos To Neural Stem Cells, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Hyun-Shik Lee, Sally Ann Moody Oct 2014

Neural Transcription Factors: From Embryos To Neural Stem Cells, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Hyun-Shik Lee, Sally Ann Moody

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

The early steps of neural development in the vertebrate embryo are regulated by sets of transcription factors that control the induction of proliferative, pluripotent neural precursors, the expansion of neural plate stem cells, and their transition to differentiating neural progenitors. These early events are critical for producing a pool of multipotent cells capable of giving rise to the multitude of neurons and glia that form the central nervous system. In this review we summarize findings from gain- and loss-of-function studies in embryos that detail the gene regulatory network responsible for these early events. We discuss whether this information is likely ...


Asynchronous Remodeling Is A Driver Of Failed Regeneration In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Sherry Dadgar, Zuyi Wang, Helen Johnston, Akanchha Kesari, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Yi-Wen Chen, D. Ashley Hill, Terence A. Partridge, Robert J. Freishtat, Javad Nazarian, Jianhua Xuan, Yue Wang, Eric P. Hoffman Oct 2014

Asynchronous Remodeling Is A Driver Of Failed Regeneration In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Sherry Dadgar, Zuyi Wang, Helen Johnston, Akanchha Kesari, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Yi-Wen Chen, D. Ashley Hill, Terence A. Partridge, Robert J. Freishtat, Javad Nazarian, Jianhua Xuan, Yue Wang, Eric P. Hoffman

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

We sought to determine the mechanisms underlying failure of muscle regeneration that is observed in dystrophic muscle through hypothesis generation using muscle profiling data (human dystrophy and murine regeneration). We found that transforming growth factor β-centered networks strongly associated with pathological fibrosis and failed regeneration were also induced during normal regeneration but at distinct time points. We hypothesized that asynchronously regenerating microenvironments are an underlying driver of fibrosis and failed regeneration. We validated this hypothesis using an experimental model of focal asynchronous bouts of muscle regeneration in wild-type (WT) mice. A chronic inflammatory state and reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity are ...


Modeling T Cell Receptor Recognition Of Cd1-Lipid And Mr1-Metabolite Complexes, Brian G. Pierce, Thom Vreven, Zhiping Weng Sep 2014

Modeling T Cell Receptor Recognition Of Cd1-Lipid And Mr1-Metabolite Complexes, Brian G. Pierce, Thom Vreven, Zhiping Weng

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: T cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize diverse lipid and metabolite antigens presented by MHC-like molecules CD1 and MR1, and the molecular basis of many of these interactions has not been determined. Here we applied our protein docking algorithm TCRFlexDock, previously developed to perform docking of TCRs to peptide-MHC (pMHC) molecules, to predict the binding of alphabeta and gammadelta TCRs to CD1 and MR1, starting with the structures of the unbound molecules.

RESULTS: Evaluating against TCR-CD1d complexes with crystal structures, we achieved near-native structures in the top 20 models for two out of four cases, and an acceptable-rated prediction for ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...


Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Sting-Irf3 Pathway Links Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress With Hepatocyte Apoptosis In Early Alcoholic Liver Disease, Jan Petrasek, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Timea Csak, Abhishek Satishchandran, Karen Kodys, Evelyn A. Kurt-Jones, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Emerging evidence suggests that innate immunity drives alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and that the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3),a transcription factor regulating innate immune responses, is indispensable for the development of ALD. Here we report that IRF3 mediates ALD via linking endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes. We found that ethanol induced ER stress and triggered the association of IRF3 with the ER adaptor, stimulator of interferon genes (STING), as well as subsequent phosphorylation of IRF3. Activated IRF3 associated with the proapoptotic molecule Bax [B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein] and contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis ...