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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Mdm2-Mediated Degradation Of Sirt6 Phosphorylated By Akt1 Promotes Tumorigenesis And Trastuzumab Resistance In Breast Cancer, Umadevi Thirumurthi Dec 2014

Mdm2-Mediated Degradation Of Sirt6 Phosphorylated By Akt1 Promotes Tumorigenesis And Trastuzumab Resistance In Breast Cancer, Umadevi Thirumurthi

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Sirtuin6 (SIRT6) is one of the members of the Sirtuin family and functions as a longevity assurance gene by promoting genomic stability. It also regulates various cancer-associated pathways and was recently established as a bonafide tumor suppressor in colon cancer. This suggests that SIRT6 is an attractive target for pharmacological activation in cancer treatment, and hence, identification of potential regulators of SIRT6 would be an important and critical contribution towards cancer treatment. Here, we show that AKT1 phosphorylates SIRT6 at Ser338 and induces MDM2-SIRT6 interaction, priming SIRT6 for degradation via the MDM2-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Blocking SIRT6 Ser338 phosphorylation ...


Brit1/Mcph1 Mediates The Dna Damage Response By Inducing P53 Stability And Promoting Atr Signaling, Edward Wang Aug 2014

Brit1/Mcph1 Mediates The Dna Damage Response By Inducing P53 Stability And Promoting Atr Signaling, Edward Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The BRCT-repeat inhibitor of hTERT (BRIT1)/MCPH1 protein promotes the process of homologous recombination (HR) to repair DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). In response to DSBs, BRIT1 foci form at damaged sites, and recruits downstream repair proteins including 53BP1, MDC1, NBS1, and the SWI/SNF complex to the DSB region to promote DNA repair. BRIT1 copy number deficiency correlates with increased genomic instability in ovarian cancer specimens and breast cancer cell lines. Here, we propose that additional functions of BRIT1 include a direct interaction with the p53 tumor suppressor protein to promote p53 stability, and binding and recruitment of TopBP1 ...


Neurotrophins And Their Effects On Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation And Migration, Kayla Elise Minser Apr 2014

Neurotrophins And Their Effects On Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation And Migration, Kayla Elise Minser

Open Access Theses

Cancer is a large health issue in all parts of the world. In the United States alone, approximately 1 in 4 deaths are cancer related. Breast cancer is a particularly prevalent form, accounting for a little over 14 percent of all cancer incidence. The largest obstacle to overcome for breast cancer morbidity is metastasis. Over 90 percent of all breast cancer related deaths are due to metastasis. Because metastasis is a complex, multi-step process, it is difficult to treat. A recent observation in the Kirshner lab has revealed a type of phenotypic plasticity, where migratory cancer cells have a neuronal-like ...


A Potential Mechanism For Extracellular Matrix Induction Of Breast Cancer Cell Normality, Robert D. Bruno, Gilbert H. Smith Jan 2014

A Potential Mechanism For Extracellular Matrix Induction Of Breast Cancer Cell Normality, Robert D. Bruno, Gilbert H. Smith

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Extracellular matrix proteins from embryonic mesenchyme have a normalizing effect on cancer cells in vitro and slow tumor growth in vivo. This concept is suggestive of a new method for controlling the growth and spread of existing cancer cells in situ and indicates the possibility that extracellular proteins and/or embryonic mesenchymal fibroblasts may represent a fertile subject for study of new anti-cancer treatments.


Combating Resistance To Epidermal Growth Factor Recpetor Inhibitors In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Julie Marie Madden Jan 2014

Combating Resistance To Epidermal Growth Factor Recpetor Inhibitors In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Julie Marie Madden

Wayne State University Dissertations

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients suffer from a highly malignant and aggressive cancer that lacks an effective targeted therapeutic. Although many TNBCs, both in vitro and in vivo, have increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFR targeted inhibitors, such as gefitinib (GEF), have yet to demonstrate efficacy. Using mass spectrometry to identify pathways that remain activated in the presence of GEF, we found that components of the mTOR signaling pathway remain phosphorylated. While inhibiting mTOR with temsirolimus (TEM) decreased mTOR signaling, EGFR signaling pathways remained activated and the TNBC cell lines continued to proliferate. However, dual treatment ...