Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Role Of Integrin-Linked Kinase In Epidermal Integrity And Barrier Function, Samar Sayedyahossein Dec 2014

Role Of Integrin-Linked Kinase In Epidermal Integrity And Barrier Function, Samar Sayedyahossein

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a β integrin adaptor protein that translates extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling events. ILK plays a role in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cell adhesion. The structure and function of the epidermis is highly dependent on cell-cell adhesion and cell-basement membrane interactions. The mechanisms whereby ILK contributes to epidermal integrity are poorly understood. Using a mouse model of epidermis-restricted Ilk gene inactivation, I observed that ILK loss causes abnormal morphology and presence of intra-epidermal and epidermal-dermal microblisters in embryos as early as E17.5. ILK-deficient epidermis is also characterized by abnormal localization or/and absence of adherens ...


A Rhog/Ilk/Elmo2/Rac1 Pathways Modulates Microtubule Stability, Bradley C. Jackson Sep 2014

A Rhog/Ilk/Elmo2/Rac1 Pathways Modulates Microtubule Stability, Bradley C. Jackson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a widely expressed scaffold protein important for cell adhesion, migration, and phagocytosis. ILK and its interacting partner, engulfment and cell motility protein 2 (ELMO2), may also modulate microtubule dynamics. Here, I show that sustained microtubule growth and acetylated tubulin levels are reduced in the absence of ILK and, conversely, that exogenous ILK exerts a stabilizing effect on microtubules. Further, exogenous ELMO2, ras homology growth related protein (RHOG) and ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1) stabilize microtubules in an ILK-dependent manner. Potential downstream effectors of the effect of ILK on microtubule stability include glycogen synthase kinase- ...


Elucidating The Signalling Pathway Of Mer Tyrosine Kinase Receptor In Efferocytosis, Ekenedelichukwu Azu Aug 2014

Elucidating The Signalling Pathway Of Mer Tyrosine Kinase Receptor In Efferocytosis, Ekenedelichukwu Azu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Efferocytosis is the clearance of apoptotic cells and is necessary for homeostasis. Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MerTK) is a crucial efferocytic receptor whose loss is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. While previous studies have shown that MerTK mediates efferocytosis through a unique mechanism that requires integrins, MerTK signalling pathway remains unknown. Given this unusual internalization mechanism, I hypothesized that MerTK signals and engages integrins through a novel signalling pathway different from that used by other phagocytic receptors. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the signalling pathways activated by MerTK, utilizing conventional cell biology and pharmacological approaches.

I found that ...


Characterization Of Efferosome Maturation And The Processing Of Apoptotic Bodies, Yohan Kim Aug 2014

Characterization Of Efferosome Maturation And The Processing Of Apoptotic Bodies, Yohan Kim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Every day billions of cells in our bodies undergo apoptosis and are cleared through efferocytosis – a phagocytosis-like process in which phagocytes engulf and degrade apoptotic cells. Proper processing of efferosomes prevents inflammation and immunogenic presentation of antigens. In this thesis I determined that the early stages of efferosome maturation parallel that of the pro-immunogenic phagocytosis of pathogens. Mass spectrometry analysis of later maturation stages identified unique regulatory proteins on efferosomes and phagosomes. Keys among these were Rab17 and Rab45 on efferosomes versus Rab6b and PI-4-Kinase on phagosomes. The later would allow for antigen presentation from phagosomes, while the former would ...


The Role Of Lactate Dehydrogenase B In Aerobic Glycolysis-Mediated Resistance To Ab Toxicity, Tyler Tam Aug 2014

The Role Of Lactate Dehydrogenase B In Aerobic Glycolysis-Mediated Resistance To Ab Toxicity, Tyler Tam

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques in affected brain regions. Strong evidence indicates that Aβ exerts neurotoxic effects by promoting mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production, leading to widespread oxidative damage and activation of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. Past investigations suggest that neuronal resistance to Aβ toxicity is partly mediated by a Warburg Effect-like metabolism, in which cells exhibit elevated glycolytic activity and lactate production, while limiting mitochondrial respiration. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) activity, which catalyzes lactate production from pyruvate, has been demonstrated to counter Aβ-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, however ...


The Role Of C-Kit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase In Beta-Cell Proliferation, Function And Survival, Zhi Chao Feng Jul 2014

The Role Of C-Kit Receptor Tyrosine Kinase In Beta-Cell Proliferation, Function And Survival, Zhi Chao Feng

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, interacts with Stem Cell Factor (SCF), mediating cell differentiation, function, and survival. c-Kit is critical for the development and maintenance of beta-cell function in both rodents and humans. The mutation of c-Kit at W locus (c-KitWv/+) in mice results in an early onset of diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms by which c-Kit deficiency leads to beta-cell failure are unknown. Therefore, studying SCF/c-Kit downstream signaling pathways is essential to understanding the precise mechanism by which c-Kit regulates beta-cell survival and function in vivo.

We identified that dysregulated Akt/Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (Gsk3β)/cyclin ...


Genomic Predictors Of Drug Response To The Alpha-Specific Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase (Pi3ka-Alpha) Inhibitor Byl719 In Head And Neck Cancers, Giananthony T. Rizzo Jul 2014

Genomic Predictors Of Drug Response To The Alpha-Specific Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase (Pi3ka-Alpha) Inhibitor Byl719 In Head And Neck Cancers, Giananthony T. Rizzo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PIK3CA is the only frequently mutated, druggable oncogene in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC), with PIK3CA point mutations and gene amplification rates of 17.5% and 40% respectively, with higher rates in HPV-positive disease. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of BYL719, an α-specific PI3K inhibitor in HNSCC cell lines.

All cell lines with PIK3CA hotspot point mutations or gene amplifications will be sensitive to BYL719.

Twenty-eight HNSCC cell lines were subjected to increasing concentrations of BYL719 and cell viability was measured over time. Cell lines were screened for activating PIK3CA hotspot mutations and ...


The Role Of Integrins In Support Of Pancreatic Function, Survival And Maturation, Matthew Riopel May 2014

The Role Of Integrins In Support Of Pancreatic Function, Survival And Maturation, Matthew Riopel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The pancreas is a glandular organ composed of endocrine and exocrine compartments. Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that connect cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Integrins modulate a variety of cellular effects, yet their mechanism of action in the developed pancreas is not well understood. Fibrin is a provisional ECM protein that contains ligands for integrin receptors. Fibrin is capable of supporting islet health, but it is unclear how fibrin exerts its effects. The objective of this thesis is to understand the role of integrin receptors on in vivo pancreatic cell function, survival, and proliferation. In addition, this thesis investigates ...


Signaling Events During Extraembryonic Endoderm Differentiation, Jason Taek Ki Hwang Apr 2014

Signaling Events During Extraembryonic Endoderm Differentiation, Jason Taek Ki Hwang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mouse F9 cells differentiate into primitive endoderm (PrE) when treated with retinoic acid (RA) and into parietal endoderm (PE) following subsequent treatment with dibutyryl cAMP. Wnt6 is up-regulated in PrE cell, and although it is sufficient to induce differentiation by signaling through the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway, the mechanism by which the Wnt6 gene is regulated is not known. In addition to WNT signaling, PrE differentiation is accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS have been implicated in regulating the canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway through Nucleoredoxin (NRX), but whether they are sufficient to induce extraembryonic endoderm ...


Distinct Roles Of Bmp And Lkb1/Ampk Signalling Impacting Ovarian Cancer Spheroid Biology, Teresa M. Peart Mar 2014

Distinct Roles Of Bmp And Lkb1/Ampk Signalling Impacting Ovarian Cancer Spheroid Biology, Teresa M. Peart

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

High-grade serous (HGS) carcinoma, the most prevalent and most deadly subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), presents unique therapeutic challenges since the majority of cases are diagnosed at advanced, metastatic stage. At this point widespread intraperitoneal metastatic lesions are numerous, which is why models that recapitulate disease dissemination are critical to uncover novel therapeutic targets. One of the initiating events in ovarian cancer metastasis is shedding from the primary tumour into the peritoneal cavity where cells must survive in suspension in order to seed secondary tumours. This non-adherent population of cells exists as multicellular aggregates, or spheroids; data from our ...


The Role Of Oxygen Tension And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling In The Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate, Amer Youssef Jan 2014

The Role Of Oxygen Tension And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling In The Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate, Amer Youssef

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human placenta of different gestational ages is a readily available source for isolation of adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) for potential use in regenerative therapies. The chorionic villous region, the largest component of a placenta that interfaces with the maternal circulation, is a rich source of placental MSCs (PMSCs). To remain multipotent, PMSCs are best maintained in culture conditions that mimic the in vivo microenvironment. Insulin like growth factors (IGFs, IGF-I and -II) and oxygen tension are two of the most important microenvironmental factors in the placenta. They are of low concentration or tension respectively, at early gestation, and ...