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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Role And Regulation Of Snon/Skil And Plscr1 Located At 3q26.2 And 3q23, Respectively, In Ovarian Cancer Pathophysiology, Madhav Karthik Kodigepalli Sep 2014

Role And Regulation Of Snon/Skil And Plscr1 Located At 3q26.2 And 3q23, Respectively, In Ovarian Cancer Pathophysiology, Madhav Karthik Kodigepalli

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of gynecological cancer related deaths in women. In 2014, the estimated number of deaths due to ovarian cancer is 14,270 with occurrence of over 22, 240 new cases (National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/ovary.html). Despite improvement in treatment strategies, the 5-year survival rate is still below 50% mainly due to chemoresistance and relapse. Amplification of chromosomal region 3q26 is a common characteristic in various epithelial cancers including ovarian cancer. This region harbors various oncogenes including the TGFβ signaling mediators EVI1 and SnoN/SkiL, PKCι and ...


Karst Estuaries: A Newly Described Ecosystem Governed By Aquifer Hydrology, Damian M. Menning Aug 2014

Karst Estuaries: A Newly Described Ecosystem Governed By Aquifer Hydrology, Damian M. Menning

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this dissertation is to define the hydrological, geochemical, and biological characteristics of a Karst Estuary. These types of estuaries represent a unique ecosystem created by freshwater inputs from direct flow through karst conduits and/or diffuse flow through a karst matrix. In order to determine the characteristics of a Karst Estuary we monitored short-term tidal fluctuations, long-term rainfall patterns, aquifer levels, spring discharge, multiple geochemical parameters, microbial communities in the water column and sediment, and macrofaunal communities in the sediment along a transect from a submarine spring through the Gulf of Mexico. Four sites were selected ...


Bi-Directional Signaling Between Melanoma And The Microenvironment Generates A Protective Niche That Mediates Therapeutic Escape, Inna Fedorenko Jul 2014

Bi-Directional Signaling Between Melanoma And The Microenvironment Generates A Protective Niche That Mediates Therapeutic Escape, Inna Fedorenko

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Very few cancer patients are cured through drug therapy alone, with the majority exhibiting acquired resistance. To date, most studies of therapeutic escape have focused upon tumor-intrinsic mechanisms of drug resistance with little attention paid to the role of normal host cells in preventing complete tumor eradication. In the present study we implicate co-operative bi-directional signaling between melanoma cells and fibroblasts in the generation of a pro-survival niche that mediates drug resistance. Mass-spectrometry based phosphoproteomics was used to show that BRAF inhibition and chemotherapy drugs enhanced the survival of both melanoma cells and fibroblasts through the induction of fibronectin (FN ...


Manipulating The Tumor Microenvironment For Therapeutic Benefit, Kate M. Bailey Jun 2014

Manipulating The Tumor Microenvironment For Therapeutic Benefit, Kate M. Bailey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The physical tumor microenvironment contributes significantly to carcinogenesis, cancer progression and metastatic dissemination. Two main components of the tumor microenvironment, hypoxia and acidosis, are present in nearly every solid tumor and act as powerful selection forces against the tumor. Hypoxia and acidosis promote tumor heterogeneity and contribute to chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. This dissertation interrogates methods to target the tumor microenvironment including two novel studies describing mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance and targeting tumor hypoxia with vasodilators to enhance the efficacy of a hypoxia activated prodrug, TH-302.

In the first study, mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance were identified and detailed ...


Regulatory Roles Of Facit Collagens Xii And Xiv In Cornea Stromal And Endothelial Development And Function, Chinda Hemmavanh Apr 2014

Regulatory Roles Of Facit Collagens Xii And Xiv In Cornea Stromal And Endothelial Development And Function, Chinda Hemmavanh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Purpose:

Corneal transparency depends upon the precise organization of corneal stromal extracellular matrix and corneal endothelial function. Stromal structure and extracellular matrix organization is responsible for proper refraction of light into the eye. The corneal endothelium is responsible for pumping excess fluid out of the cornea, effectively maintaining corneal hydration and thickness. Corneal transplantation is the current form of treatment for corneal endothelial and stromal dystrophies. The mechanisms controlling stromal collagen fibril packing and organization into orthogonal layers as well as maturation of the endothelium into a fully functioning cellular layer are unknown. Collagens XII and XIV, fibril associated collagens ...


Characterization Of Iron Response In Gynecological Cell Lines, Kyle A. Bauckman Mar 2014

Characterization Of Iron Response In Gynecological Cell Lines, Kyle A. Bauckman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ovarian carcinoma afflicts over 22,000 women each year with a 5 year survival rate of only 18% for stage IV patients [23]. Current treatment options are limited due to high rates of drug resistance and recurrence. Further, the identity of "precursor lesions" which give rise to various subclasses of epithelial ovarian cancer has been evasive. This is due to discovery of the cancer at already an advanced stage. Interestingly, endometriosis a benign but invasive gynecological disease has been described as a "precursor lesion" in the development of specific subtypes of ovarian cancer. Endometriotic cyst development involves the accumulation of ...


Exploration Of Mutations In Erythroid 5-Aminolevulinate Synthase That Lead To Increased Porphyrin Synthesis, Erica Jean Fratz Mar 2014

Exploration Of Mutations In Erythroid 5-Aminolevulinate Synthase That Lead To Increased Porphyrin Synthesis, Erica Jean Fratz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS; EC 2.3.1.37) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of heme biosynthesis in animals, the condensation of glycine and succinyl-CoA yielding 5-aminolevuliante (ALA), CoA, and CO2. Murine erythroid-specific ALAS (mALAS2) variants that cause high levels of PPIX accumulation provide a new means of targeted, and potentially enhanced, photosensitization. Transfection of HeLa cells with expression plasmids for mALAS2 variants, specifically for those with mutated mitochondrial presequences and a mutation in the active site loop, caused significant cellular accumulation of PPIX, particularly in the membrane. Light treatment of HeLa ...


Immature Myeloid Cells Promote Tumor Formation Via Non-Suppressive Mechanism, Myrna Lillian Ortiz Feb 2014

Immature Myeloid Cells Promote Tumor Formation Via Non-Suppressive Mechanism, Myrna Lillian Ortiz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Although there is ample evidence linking chronic inflammation with cancer, the cellular mechanisms involved in early events leading to tumor development remain unclear. Myeloid cells are an intricate part of inflammation. They consist of mature cells represented by macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes and a population of Immature Myeloid Cells (IMC), which in healthy individuals are cells in transition to mature cells. There is a substantial expansion of IMC in cancer and many other pathological conditions which is associated with pathologic activation of these cells. As a result, these cells acquire the ability to suppress immune responses and are ...