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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Characterization Of Ca2+ Influx Pathway(S) During Mouse Oocyte Maturation, Banyoon Cheon Sep 2014

Characterization Of Ca2+ Influx Pathway(S) During Mouse Oocyte Maturation, Banyoon Cheon

Doctoral Dissertations

Ca2+ signaling induced at fertilization, also known as oscillations, is essential in mammalian eggs to initiate early embryonic development. The generation of the oscillations relies on optimization of Ca2+ toolkit components during oocyte maturation. In this dissertation, we intend to deepen our understanding of how this differentiation of the Ca2+ toolkit, especially those components associated with Ca2+ influx, is achieved during maturation, and how it contributes to the filling of the ER Ca2+ store during the maturation and fertilization.

We first identified the expression and characterized the function of the components of the Store Operated ...


The Roles Of Myosin Xi And Rop In Moss Tip Growth, Graham M. Burkart May 2014

The Roles Of Myosin Xi And Rop In Moss Tip Growth, Graham M. Burkart

Doctoral Dissertations

Because of the large number of myosin XI and ROP genes found in many angiosperms, it has been difficult to determine their precise role with respect to tip growth. In contrast, there are only two myosin XI genes in four ROP genes in the moss Physcomitrella patens. To determine their role in tip growth using a loss-of-function approach, I used RNA interference (RNAi) and found that both of these proteins are essential for tip growth. Consistent with a role in tip growth, I show that a functional, full-length fusion of mEGFP to myosin XI accumulates at a subcortical, apical region ...


Functional Analysis Of Moss Class Viii Myosin And Its Role In Plant Cell Division, Shu-Zon Wu May 2014

Functional Analysis Of Moss Class Viii Myosin And Its Role In Plant Cell Division, Shu-Zon Wu

Doctoral Dissertations

The moss Physcomitrella patens is a great model system for studying plant gene function using reverse genetic approaches. It undergoes efficient gene-targeting by homologous recombination, allowing the generation of specific gene knockout and tagging a gene at its endogenous locus. Additionally, RNAi is quite effective in P. patens, providing an effective tool for rapid gene silencing and phenotypic characterization. Taking advantage of these features, this dissertation described the establishment of a system to perform an unbiased gene-by-gene RNAi assay to screen for tip growth phenotypes in P. patens. A small set of RNAi constructs were tested, within them one gene ...


The Identification And Characterization Of A Group Of Er Tpr-Containing Adapter Proteins, Johan C. Sunryd Dr. Apr 2014

The Identification And Characterization Of A Group Of Er Tpr-Containing Adapter Proteins, Johan C. Sunryd Dr.

Doctoral Dissertations

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle responsible for a variety of functions in all eukaryotic cells. Some of these functions are localized to specific regions in the ER, such as the ribosome-studded rough ER sheets or the ribosome-free smooth ER sheets. The smooth ER sheets have the ability to form ER tubules, which extend throughout the cell and make contact with other organelles. In order to accommodate these localized functional regions, a certain degree of heterogeneity and compartmentalization into sub-domains exists within the ER. Since the ER membrane and lumen are contiguous, the compartmentalization of the ER into sub-domain ...


The Inflammatory Response To Acute Muscle Injury, Kevin O'Fallon Feb 2014

The Inflammatory Response To Acute Muscle Injury, Kevin O'Fallon

Doctoral Dissertations

The overall goal of this dissertation was to examine inflammatory and regenerative responses to acute skeletal muscle damage and to define molecular mediators of repair. Study I examined the effects of an oral anti-inflammatory supplement on exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and systemic inflammation in a human model. Quercetin has been shown in animal and in vitro models to downregulate nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) nuclear transactivation and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) secretion, which regulate muscle regeneration and inflammatory signaling between muscle and immune cells after injury. Subjects ingested quercetin (N=15) or placebo (N=15) before and after performing 24 ...


Effect Of A 10 Day Decrease In Physical Activity On Circulating Angiogenic Cells, Gayatri Guhanarayan Jan 2014

Effect Of A 10 Day Decrease In Physical Activity On Circulating Angiogenic Cells, Gayatri Guhanarayan

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) are early predictors of cardiovascular health and are inversely proportional to related outcomes. Increased number and function of CACs is seen in healthy individuals compared with individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise increases CAC number and function in CVD populations, through a nitric oxide-mediated mechanism. Inactivity is a growing concern in industrialized nations; it is an independent risk factor for CVD and is linked to increased mortality. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of reduced physical activity (rPA) on two CAC populations (CFU-Hill and CD34+) in highly active individuals. We examined the ...


Rapid Method Of Processing Sperm For Nucleic Acid Extraction In Clinical Research, Matthew K. De Gannes Jan 2014

Rapid Method Of Processing Sperm For Nucleic Acid Extraction In Clinical Research, Matthew K. De Gannes

Masters Theses

Background: Sperm contain highly compact nuclei, inhibiting DNA extraction using traditional techniques. Current methods extracting sperm DNA involve lengthy lysis and no means of stabilizing DNA, hindering clinical research.

Objective: We sought to optimize an efficient method of extracting high quality human sperm DNA.

Methods: Sperm from three volunteers were isolated using PureCeption. We tested 1) proteinase K with DNA/RNA Shield, 2) DTT and TCEP as reducing agents, 3) QIAshredder homogenization, and 4) stability of sperm DNA fresh (baseline) or after 4 weeks of storage at 4OC in DNA/RNA Shield using modified Quick-gDNA MiniPrep. DNA was ...


The Role Of The Novel Lupus Antigen, Acheron, In Moderating Life And Death Decisions, Ankur Sheel Jan 2014

The Role Of The Novel Lupus Antigen, Acheron, In Moderating Life And Death Decisions, Ankur Sheel

Masters Theses

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a major regulatory mechanism employed during development and homeostasis. The term PCD was coined to describe the death of the intersegmental muscles (ISMs) of moths at the end of metamorphosis. The timing of ISM death in the Tobacco Hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, is regulated by a fall in the titer of the steroid molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) late on day 17of pupal-adult development. This triggers the release of the peptide hormone, Eclosion Hormone (EH), which mediates its effects via the secondary messenger cGMP. It has been previously demonstrated that ISM death requires de novo gene expression ...