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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Synthesis And Functionalization Of Gold Nanoparticles Using Chemically Modified Ssdna, Philip Gerard Calabrese Jan 2014

Synthesis And Functionalization Of Gold Nanoparticles Using Chemically Modified Ssdna, Philip Gerard Calabrese

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

In the first part of this thesis, methods for functionalizing spherical gold nanoparticles with nucleic acid binding ligands (aptamers) that target the VEGF receptor complex were developed. In order to provide a multiplexed labeling strategy for imaging the VEGF receptor complex in electron microscopy, gold nanoparticles of distinct sizes were conjugated to modified ssDNA aptamers that target the VEGF-A cytokine, the VEGFR-2 RTK receptor and a membrane associated co-receptor, Nrp-1. The modified ssDNA gold nanoparticle conjugates were applied to a human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) which has been shown to express each of these proteins and used as a ...


Discovery, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Small-Molecule Inhibitors Of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways, Shuting Zhang Jan 2014

Discovery, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Small-Molecule Inhibitors Of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways, Shuting Zhang

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential to the innate immune system. These receptors help drive inflammatory responses, host defense, and adaptive immune responses upon detection of invading microorganisms. Small molecules capable of targeting TLR signaling are of considerable interest as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of human inflammatory diseases and cancers that are caused by dysregulation of TLR signaling. The goal of this doctoral dissertation research is to identify small-molecule modulators of TLR signaling via high-throughput screening (HTS) approach followed by structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies.

Chapter 1 is an overview of the current knowledge of TLRs, including their structures and ...


Examining Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell Homeostasis, Activation And Fate Determination, Crystal Dawn Pulliam Jan 2014

Examining Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cell Homeostasis, Activation And Fate Determination, Crystal Dawn Pulliam

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is essential for respiration, mobility, reproduction and metabolism. Deficits in muscle function due to disease, injury or age reduce both quality of life and lifespan. Muscles are long-lived tissues that require maintenance to retain functional integrity throughout the life of an organism. Satellite cells are the adult stem cells responsible for muscle repair and maintenance. Upon myotrauma, satellite cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate, and terminally differentiate to repair the muscle. In uninjured tissue, satellite cells are quiescent and infrequently proceed through myogenesis for muscle maintenance. The molecular mechanisms that regulate satellite cell quiescence and activation are poorly ...


Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess Jan 2014

Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is a remarkable organ system that is required for almost all animal life. In vertebrates, skeletal muscle can alter its functional and molecular characteristics in response to pathologic and physiologic stimuli. Additionally, adult muscle retains the ability to regenerate following injury, activating progenitor cells much like the process of muscle formation during embryonic development. Much work has been done to characterize the changes in gene expression that occur during regeneration, and this knowledge has been invaluable in treatment of muscle wasting diseases, such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Further expanding the complexity of gene expression changes is the discovery ...


Phosphoregulation Of Sfi1 Is Required For Yeast Centrosome Duplication And Separation, Jennifer Susan Avena Jan 2014

Phosphoregulation Of Sfi1 Is Required For Yeast Centrosome Duplication And Separation, Jennifer Susan Avena

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Centrosomes serve as the main microtubule–organizing centers in many eukaryotic cells. Duplication of centrosomes once per cell cycle is essential for bipolar spindle formation and genome maintenance and requires control by protein kinases, including cyclin–dependent kinases (Cdks). However, an understanding of the mechanisms by which centrosome duplication is regulated and, in particular, restricted to once per cell cycle is still lacking. Sfi1, a conserved component of centrosomes, is a phospho–protein that is a key candidate for establishing the site of new centrosome assembly in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, likely via domain–specific functions. I have examined ...


Primary Cilia Act As Gravity Transducers In Bone Cells, Mustafa Aydogan Jan 2014

Primary Cilia Act As Gravity Transducers In Bone Cells, Mustafa Aydogan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Environmental mechanical signals play important roles in the cell fate determination of metazoans, including bone tissues, which utilize mechanical stress to balance the amount of bone formation versus bone resorption. In this case, the force due to gravity is essentially a constant mechanical signal on Earth and has been a key factor in the evolution of skeletal systems in vertebrates. Accordingly, changes in this force, such as is experienced under hyperor microgravity conditions, leads to various cellular responses including altered proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Although the modes of response in vertebrate cells to changes in gravitational acceleration have been widely ...