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2014

Old Dominion University

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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Experimental And Computational Analysis Of The Synucleins, Agatha Munyanyi Jul 2014

Experimental And Computational Analysis Of The Synucleins, Agatha Munyanyi

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The synuclein proteins α, β and γ which are located in the brain, have been a subject of intense research. Of particular interest is α-synuclein, which is found in misfolded forms in Lewy bodies that are associated with Parkinson's disease. Despite the efforts of researchers across the world, the physiological structure and function of the synucleins remains elusive. In recent years, highly controversial reports by some investigators indicate that in its natural form, α-synuclein exists as a tetramer instead of as an intrinsically unstructured monomer. This dissertation presents results of the experimental and computational analysis of the synucleins. First ...


Paracrine-Rescued Lobulogenesis In Chimeric Outgrowths Comprising Progesterone-Receptor-Null Mammary Epithelium And Redirected Wild-Type Testicular Cells, Robert D. Bruno, Corinne A. Boulanger, Sonia M. Rosenfield, Lisa H. Anderson, John P. Lydon, Gilbert H. Smith Jan 2014

Paracrine-Rescued Lobulogenesis In Chimeric Outgrowths Comprising Progesterone-Receptor-Null Mammary Epithelium And Redirected Wild-Type Testicular Cells, Robert D. Bruno, Corinne A. Boulanger, Sonia M. Rosenfield, Lisa H. Anderson, John P. Lydon, Gilbert H. Smith

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

We have previously shown that non-mammary and tumorigenic cells can respond to the signals of the mammary niche and alter their cell fate to that of mammary epithelial progenitor cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that paracrine signals from mammary epithelial cells expressing progesterone receptor (PR) are dispensable for redirection of testicular cells, and that re-directed wild-type testicular-derived mammary cells can rescue lobulogenesis of PR-null mammary epithelium by paracrine signaling during pregnancy. We injected PR-null epithelial cells mixed with testicular cells from wild-type adult male mice into cleared fat-pads of recipient mice. The testicular cells were redirected in vivo to ...


A Potential Mechanism For Extracellular Matrix Induction Of Breast Cancer Cell Normality, Robert D. Bruno, Gilbert H. Smith Jan 2014

A Potential Mechanism For Extracellular Matrix Induction Of Breast Cancer Cell Normality, Robert D. Bruno, Gilbert H. Smith

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Extracellular matrix proteins from embryonic mesenchyme have a normalizing effect on cancer cells in vitro and slow tumor growth in vivo. This concept is suggestive of a new method for controlling the growth and spread of existing cancer cells in situ and indicates the possibility that extracellular proteins and/or embryonic mesenchymal fibroblasts may represent a fertile subject for study of new anti-cancer treatments.


Cellular Regulation Of Extension And Retraction Of Pseudopod-Like Blebs Produced By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Mikhail A. Rassokhin, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2014

Cellular Regulation Of Extension And Retraction Of Pseudopod-Like Blebs Produced By Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field, Mikhail A. Rassokhin, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Recently we described a new phenomenon of anodotropic pseudopod-like blebbing in U937 cells exposed to nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). In Ca2+ -free buffer such exposure initiates formation of pseudopod-like blebs (PLBs), protrusive cylindrical cell extensions that are distinct from apoptotic and necrotic blebs. PLBs nucleate predominantly on anode-facing cell pole and extend toward anode during nsPEF exposure. Bleb extension depends on actin polymerization and availability of actin monomers. Inhibition of intracellular Ca2+ , cell contractility, and RhoA produced no effect on PLB initiation. Meanwhile, inhibition of WASP by wiskostatin causes dose-dependent suppression of PLB growth. Soon after the ...


Tracing Beta Strands Using Strandtwister From Cryo-Em Density Maps At Medium Resolutions, Dong Si, Jing He Jan 2014

Tracing Beta Strands Using Strandtwister From Cryo-Em Density Maps At Medium Resolutions, Dong Si, Jing He

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Major secondary structure elements such as α helices and β sheets can be computationally detected from cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps with medium resolutions of 5–10 A˚ . However, a critical piece of information for modeling atomic structures is missing, because there are no tools to detect β strands from cryo-EM maps at medium resolutions. We propose a method, StrandTwister, to detect the traces of β strands through the analysis of twist, an intrinsic nature of a β sheet. StrandTwister has been tested using 100 β sheets simulated at 10 A˚ resolution and 39 β sheets computationally detected from cryo-EM ...


Basic Features Of A Cell Electroporation Model: Illustrative Behavior For Two Very Different Pulses, Reuben S. Son, Kyle C. Smith, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar, P. Thomas Vernier, James C. Weaver Jan 2014

Basic Features Of A Cell Electroporation Model: Illustrative Behavior For Two Very Different Pulses, Reuben S. Son, Kyle C. Smith, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar, P. Thomas Vernier, James C. Weaver

Bioelectrics Publications

Science increasingly involves complex modeling. Here we describe a model for cell electroporation in which membrane properties are dynamically modified by poration. Spatial scales range from cell membrane thickness (5 nm) to a typical mammalian cell radius (10 μm), and can be used with idealized and experimental pulse waveforms. The model consists of traditional passive components and additional active components representing nonequilibrium processes. Model responses include measurable quantities: transmembrane voltage, membrane electrical conductance, and solute transport rates and amounts for the representative "long" and "short" pulses. The long pulse-1.5 kV/cm, 100 μs-evolves two pore subpopulations with a valley ...


Dielectric Characterization Of Coastal Cartilage Chondrocytes, Michael W. Stacey, Ahmet C. Sabuncu, Ali Beskok Jan 2014

Dielectric Characterization Of Coastal Cartilage Chondrocytes, Michael W. Stacey, Ahmet C. Sabuncu, Ali Beskok

Bioelectrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Chondrocytes respond to biomechanical and bioelectrochemical stimuli by secreting appropriate extracellular matrix proteins that enable the tissue to withstand the large forces it experiences. Although biomechanical aspects of cartilage are well described, little is known of the bioelectrochemical responses. The focus of this study is to identify bioelectrical characteristics of human costal cartilage cells using dielectric spectroscopy.

METHODS: Dielectric spectroscopy allows non-invasive probing of biological cells. An in house computer program is developed to extract dielectric properties of human costal cartilage cells from raw cell suspension impedance data measured by a microfluidic device. The dielectric properties of chondrocytes are ...


Introduction To Fourth Special Issue On Electroporation-Based Technologies And Treatments, Damijan Miklavčič, Lluis M. Mir, P. Thomas Vernier Jan 2014

Introduction To Fourth Special Issue On Electroporation-Based Technologies And Treatments, Damijan Miklavčič, Lluis M. Mir, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

This fourth special electroporation-based technologies and treatments issue of the Journal of Membrane Biology contains reports on recent developments in the field of electroporation by participants in the 7th International Workshop and Postgraduate Course on electroporation based technologies and treatments (EBTT 2013) held in Ljubljana, November 17–23, 2013. The 65 participants included faculty members, invited lecturers, special guests, and young scientists, and students from 16 countries. In addition to lectures on the fundamentals, this year’s sessions included talks on microbial inactivation by pulsed electric fields, modeling of intracellular electroporation, electroporation in food processing, and electrotransfer-facilitated DNA vaccination.