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2014

Developmental Biology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 49

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Subcellular Metabolite And Lipid Analysis Of Xenopus Laevis Eggs By Laesi Mass Spectrometry, Bindesh Shrestha, Prabhakar Sripadi, Brent R. Reschke, Holly D. Henderson, Matthew J. Powell, Sally Ann Moody, Akos Vertes Dec 2014

Subcellular Metabolite And Lipid Analysis Of Xenopus Laevis Eggs By Laesi Mass Spectrometry, Bindesh Shrestha, Prabhakar Sripadi, Brent R. Reschke, Holly D. Henderson, Matthew J. Powell, Sally Ann Moody, Akos Vertes

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Xenopus laevis eggs are used as a biological model system for studying fertilization and early embryonic development in vertebrates. Most methods used for their molecular analysis require elaborate sample preparation including separate protocols for the water soluble and lipid components. In this study, laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), an ambient ionization technique, was used for direct mass spectrometric analysis of X. laevis eggs and early stage embryos up to five cleavage cycles. Single unfertilized and fertilized eggs, their animal and vegetal poles, and embryos through the 32-cell stage were analyzed. Fifty two small metabolite ions, including glutathione, GABA and amino ...


Autophagy In Plants And Algae, Diane C. Bassham, Jose L. Crespo Dec 2014

Autophagy In Plants And Algae, Diane C. Bassham, Jose L. Crespo

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Autophagy is a major cellular degradation pathway in which materials are delivered to the vacuole in double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes, broken down, and recycled (Li and Vierstra, 2012; Liu and Bassham, 2012). In photosynthetic organisms, the pathway is strongly activated by biotic and abiotic stresses, including nutrient limitation, oxidative, salt and drought stress and pathogen infection, and during senescence (Perez-Perez et al., 2012; Lv et al., 2014). Mutation of genes required for autophagy causes hypersensitivity to stress, indicating that autophagy is important for tolerance of multiple stresses. While autophagy is often non-selective, a growing number of examples of selectivity ...


P120-Catenin Regulates Rest And Corest, And Modulates Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Moonsup Lee Dec 2014

P120-Catenin Regulates Rest And Corest, And Modulates Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Moonsup Lee

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The canonical-Wnt pathway and beta-catenin have been extensively studied to determine their contributions to stem cell biology, but less is known about p120-catenin in the nuclear compartment. P120 is developmentally required as a consequence of its biochemical and functional interactions with cadherins, small-GTPases and transcriptional regulators. We report here that p120-catenin binds to and negatively regulates REST and CoREST, that others have indicated form a repressive complex having diverse key roles in developmental and pathologic gene regulation. We thus provide the first evidence for a direct upstream modulator of REST/CoREST function. Using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), mammalian cell ...


Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2014

Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as alpha6beta4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits beta4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress beta4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the beta4 promoter and constrains ...


Human Breast Progenitor Cell Numbers Are Regulated By Wnt And Tbx3, Lisa M. Arendt, Jessica St. Laurent, Ania Wronski, Silvia Caballero, Stephen Lyle, Stephen P. Naber, Charlotte Kuperwasser Oct 2014

Human Breast Progenitor Cell Numbers Are Regulated By Wnt And Tbx3, Lisa M. Arendt, Jessica St. Laurent, Ania Wronski, Silvia Caballero, Stephen Lyle, Stephen P. Naber, Charlotte Kuperwasser

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Although human breast development is mediated by hormonal and non-hormonal means, the mechanisms that regulate breast progenitor cell activity remain to be clarified. This limited understanding of breast progenitor cells has been due in part to the lack of appropriate model systems to detect and characterize their properties.

METHODS: To examine the effects of WNT signaling and TBX3 expression on progenitor activity in the breast, primary human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) were isolated from reduction mammoplasty tissues and transduced with lentivirus to overexpress WNT1 or TBX3 or reduce expression of their cognate receptors using shRNA. Changes in progenitor activity ...


Neural Transcription Factors: From Embryos To Neural Stem Cells, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Hyun-Shik Lee, Sally Ann Moody Oct 2014

Neural Transcription Factors: From Embryos To Neural Stem Cells, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Hyun-Shik Lee, Sally Ann Moody

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

The early steps of neural development in the vertebrate embryo are regulated by sets of transcription factors that control the induction of proliferative, pluripotent neural precursors, the expansion of neural plate stem cells, and their transition to differentiating neural progenitors. These early events are critical for producing a pool of multipotent cells capable of giving rise to the multitude of neurons and glia that form the central nervous system. In this review we summarize findings from gain- and loss-of-function studies in embryos that detail the gene regulatory network responsible for these early events. We discuss whether this information is likely ...


Asynchronous Remodeling Is A Driver Of Failed Regeneration In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Sherry Dadgar, Zuyi Wang, Helen Johnston, Akanchha Kesari, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Yi-Wen Chen, D. Ashley Hill, Terence A. Partridge, Robert J. Freishtat, Javad Nazarian, Jianhua Xuan, Yue Wang, Eric P. Hoffman Oct 2014

Asynchronous Remodeling Is A Driver Of Failed Regeneration In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Sherry Dadgar, Zuyi Wang, Helen Johnston, Akanchha Kesari, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Yi-Wen Chen, D. Ashley Hill, Terence A. Partridge, Robert J. Freishtat, Javad Nazarian, Jianhua Xuan, Yue Wang, Eric P. Hoffman

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

We sought to determine the mechanisms underlying failure of muscle regeneration that is observed in dystrophic muscle through hypothesis generation using muscle profiling data (human dystrophy and murine regeneration). We found that transforming growth factor β-centered networks strongly associated with pathological fibrosis and failed regeneration were also induced during normal regeneration but at distinct time points. We hypothesized that asynchronously regenerating microenvironments are an underlying driver of fibrosis and failed regeneration. We validated this hypothesis using an experimental model of focal asynchronous bouts of muscle regeneration in wild-type (WT) mice. A chronic inflammatory state and reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity are ...


Small Rnas And Argonautes Provide A Paternal Epigenetic Memory Of Germline Gene Expression To Promote Thermotolerant Male Fertility: A Dissertation, Colin C. Conine Sep 2014

Small Rnas And Argonautes Provide A Paternal Epigenetic Memory Of Germline Gene Expression To Promote Thermotolerant Male Fertility: A Dissertation, Colin C. Conine

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During each life cycle, gametes must preserve and pass on both genetic and epigenetic information, making the germline both immortal and totipotent. In the male germline the dramatic morphological transformation of a germ cell through meiosis, into a sperm competent for fertilization, while retaining this information is an incredible example of cellular differentiation. This process of spermatogenesis is inherently thermosensitive in numerous metazoa ranging from worms to man. Here, I describe the role of two redundant AGO-class paralogs, ALG-3/4, and their small RNA cofactors, in promoting thermotolerant male fertility in Caenorhabditis elegans. alg-3/4 double mutants exhibit temperature dependent ...


Measurements Of Serum Mullerian Inhibiting Substance In The Evaluation Of Children With Nonpalpable Gonads, Mary M. Lee, Patricia K. Donahoe, B. L. Silverman, T. Hasegawa, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, M. L. Gustafson, Y. C. Chang, David T. Maclaughlin Sep 2014

Measurements Of Serum Mullerian Inhibiting Substance In The Evaluation Of Children With Nonpalpable Gonads, Mary M. Lee, Patricia K. Donahoe, B. L. Silverman, T. Hasegawa, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, M. L. Gustafson, Y. C. Chang, David T. Maclaughlin

Mary M. Lee

BACKGROUND: Mullerian inhibiting substance, produced constitutively by the prepubertal testes, promotes involution of the mullerian ducts during normal male sexual differentiation. In children with virilization and nonpalpable gonads, only those with testicular tissue should have detectable serum concentrations of mullerian inhibiting substance. METHODS: We measured serum mullerian inhibiting substance in 65 children with virilization at birth and nonpalpable gonads (age at diagnosis, 2 days to 11 years) and serum testosterone in 54 of them either after the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin or during the physiologic rise in testosterone that occurs in normal infants. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SD) serum mullerian ...


Characterization Of Ca2+ Influx Pathway(S) During Mouse Oocyte Maturation, Banyoon Cheon Sep 2014

Characterization Of Ca2+ Influx Pathway(S) During Mouse Oocyte Maturation, Banyoon Cheon

Doctoral Dissertations

Ca2+ signaling induced at fertilization, also known as oscillations, is essential in mammalian eggs to initiate early embryonic development. The generation of the oscillations relies on optimization of Ca2+ toolkit components during oocyte maturation. In this dissertation, we intend to deepen our understanding of how this differentiation of the Ca2+ toolkit, especially those components associated with Ca2+ influx, is achieved during maturation, and how it contributes to the filling of the ER Ca2+ store during the maturation and fertilization.

We first identified the expression and characterized the function of the components of the Store Operated ...


Electrophoresis Staining: A New Method Of Whole Mount Staining, Mitchell G. Ayers, Sarah Calve, Zhiyu Li Aug 2014

Electrophoresis Staining: A New Method Of Whole Mount Staining, Mitchell G. Ayers, Sarah Calve, Zhiyu Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Advances in tissue clearing techniques have allowed almost a ten-fold increase in the viewing depth of confocal microscopy. This allows for intact cellular structures to be rendered in 3D. However, viewing tissues to this depth is often limited to endogenous fluorescence as passive diffusion of antibodies via whole mount staining can take weeks. Our lab is developing a new method involving electrophoresis as a driving force that will promote active antibody binding deep into tissue, reducing the amount of time needed to stain for cellular structures. Due to the inherent charge within antibodies, they are able to be directionally forced ...


Role Of Msaa Gene In Regulation Of The Msaabcr Operon And Biofilm Development In Staphylococcus Aureus, Ahmed Alzuway Aug 2014

Role Of Msaa Gene In Regulation Of The Msaabcr Operon And Biofilm Development In Staphylococcus Aureus, Ahmed Alzuway

Master's Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes wide variety of diseases ranging from chronic biofilm associated infection to acute life threatening infection such as bacteremia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, or endocarditis, despite the progress with antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections. Furthermore, increased use of prosthetic and indwelling devices in modern medical practices has led to increased infections due to S. aureus. Treating S. aureus infections have become difficult owing to its ability to resist most of the antibiotics; this problem is further exacerbated by ability of MRSA strains to form biofilms. Emergence of community-acquired methicillin resistance staphylococcus ...


Antiviral Responses In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells: Differential Development Of Cellular Mechanisms In Type I Interferon Production And Response, Ruoxing Wang Aug 2014

Antiviral Responses In Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells: Differential Development Of Cellular Mechanisms In Type I Interferon Production And Response, Ruoxing Wang

Dissertations

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been recognized as a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. Intensive research over the past decade has led to the possibility that ESC-derived cells will be used for the treatment of human diseases. However, increasing evidence indicates that ESC-derived cells generated by the current differentiation methods are not fully functional. It is recently recognized that ESC-derived cells lack innate immunity to a wide range of infectious agents and inflammatory cytokines. When used in patients, ESC-derived cells would be placed in wounded sites that are exposed to various pathogens and inflammatory cytokines; therefore, their viability and ...


Development Of Peripheral Innervation In The Frog Xenopus Laevis, Mitali A. Gandhi Aug 2014

Development Of Peripheral Innervation In The Frog Xenopus Laevis, Mitali A. Gandhi

Theses and Dissertations

The skin in Xenopus laevis is innervated by two different sets of mechanosensory neurons at different times during development. Rohon Beard (RB) neurons start differentiating during gastrulation, innervate the embryonic skin and mediate sensory function during hatching. Dorsal Root Ganglion (DRG) neurons start differentiating after neural crest migration, innervate adult epidermal targets and mediate mechanosensory function during larval and adult stages and eventually replace RB neurons. The change in sensory neurons occurs during the transformation of skin, sensory structures, and behavior from their embryonic to their larval forms. We hypothesized that developmental changes in either the sensory end organs or ...


Zebrafish As A Model For Determining The Mechanisms Causing Deafness In Myh9-Related Disease, Luke David Spychalla Aug 2014

Zebrafish As A Model For Determining The Mechanisms Causing Deafness In Myh9-Related Disease, Luke David Spychalla

Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 1 in 500 infants are diagnosed with hearing loss, and about half of these cases can be traced to genetic defects. Several hundred genes have been implicated in deafness, including MYH9, which codes for the conventional motor protein non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA). Mutations in MYH9 lead to syndromic MYH9-related diseases, which include deafness as a variable symptom, as well as non-syndromic autosomal deafness DFNA17. Despite its identification as a deafness gene, the functions of MYH9 in ear development and hearing remain unknown. To study this role, we will use zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish offer significant advantages including established ...


Cellular Contractility And Extracellular Matrix Stiffness Regulate Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity In Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Amanda Haage, Ian C. Schneider Aug 2014

Cellular Contractility And Extracellular Matrix Stiffness Regulate Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity In Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Amanda Haage, Ian C. Schneider

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The pathogenesis of cancer is often driven by local invasion and metastasis. Recently, mechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment have been identified as potent regulators of invasion and metastasis, while matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are classically known as significant enhancers of cancer cell migration and invasion. Here we have been able to sensitively measure MMP activity changes in response to specific extracellular matrix (ECM) environments and cell contractility states. A pancreatic cancer cell line, Panc-1 cells, up-regulate MMP activities between 3- and 10- fold with increased cell contractility. Conversely, they down-regulate MMP activities when contractility is blocked to levels seen with ...


Gene Expression Profiling Identifies The Zinc-Finger Protein Charlatan As A Regulator Of Intestinal Stem Cells In Drosophila, Alla Amcheslavsky, Yingchao Nie, Qi Li, Feng He, Leo Tsuda, Michele Markstein, Y. Tony Ip Jul 2014

Gene Expression Profiling Identifies The Zinc-Finger Protein Charlatan As A Regulator Of Intestinal Stem Cells In Drosophila, Alla Amcheslavsky, Yingchao Nie, Qi Li, Feng He, Leo Tsuda, Michele Markstein, Y. Tony Ip

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the adult Drosophila midgut can respond to tissue damage and support repair. We used genetic manipulation to increase the number of ISC-like cells in the adult midgut and performed gene expression profiling to identify potential ISC regulators. A detailed analysis of one of these potential regulators, the zinc-finger protein Charlatan, was carried out. MARCM clonal analysis and RNAi in precursor cells showed that loss of Chn function caused severe ISC division defects, including loss of EdU incorporation, phosphorylated histone 3 staining and expression of the mitotic protein Cdc2. Loss of Charlatan also led to a ...


Signaling Functions Of Beta-Arrestin Kurtz In Drosophila Development, Marla Tipping Jun 2014

Signaling Functions Of Beta-Arrestin Kurtz In Drosophila Development, Marla Tipping

Marla Tipping, Ph.D.

The development of an organism is orchestrated by a small number of signaling pathways. In order to achieve tissue specificity, their activities are controlled by multiple regulatory molecules that fine-tune pathway output and increase the specificity of signaling. To better understand how these pathways function it is imperative that we strive to elucidate all signaling components. Affinity purification followed by Mass Spectrometry (AP-MS) has proved itself as a suitable technique in achieving this aim. Analysis of the Notch pathway via this method has identified Drosophila β-arrestin Kurtz (Krz) as a negative modulator of the pathway. I have further studied Krz ...


Transdifferentiation Of Α- To Β-Cells Is Enhanced In Fstl3 Ko Mice, Alan Schneyer, Danielle Andrzejewski, Amy Burnside, Melissa Brown May 2014

Transdifferentiation Of Α- To Β-Cells Is Enhanced In Fstl3 Ko Mice, Alan Schneyer, Danielle Andrzejewski, Amy Burnside, Melissa Brown

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes involve loss of functional pancreatic B-cells which is driving research into potential replacement sources. Expansion of functional B-cell mass, such as through induction of B-cell neogenesis or through transdifferentiation of A-cells into functional B-cells represent appealing therapeutic solutions to restoring glucose control. To date, however, these processes have been induced through genetic manipulation or severe pancreatic injury. It remains to be determined whether transdifferentiation or neogenesis contribute to functional B-cell mass under normal physiological conditions and/or contribute to B-cell expansion and how these processes are regulated.

We have reported that inactivation of ...


Functional Study Of The Suppressor Of Hairy-­Wing Insulator Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Shih-Jui Hsu May 2014

Functional Study Of The Suppressor Of Hairy-­Wing Insulator Protein In Drosophila Melanogaster, Shih-Jui Hsu

Doctoral Dissertations

Eukaryotic chromatin insulators play an essential role in regulating gene expression and modifying nuclear architecture by organizing the higher-order chromatin structure in response to cellular and developmental cues. The details on how insulators function in this capacity are not completely understood.

Five different types of insulators have been identified in Drosophila. Each functional insulator consists of an insulator DNA response element bound by an insulator protein, which recognizes specific DNA sequences. Each type of insulator functions individually as well as collaboratively. Except for the Su(Hw) insulator protein, the other insulator proteins are necessary for viability considering loss of Su ...


Evolutionary Conservation Of A Modified Spermatogenesis Program In Rhabditis Nematodes With Skewed Sex Ratios, Ethan S. Winter May 2014

Evolutionary Conservation Of A Modified Spermatogenesis Program In Rhabditis Nematodes With Skewed Sex Ratios, Ethan S. Winter

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The cellular divisions in Rhabditis sp. SB347 male spermatogenesis have been modified to re-purpose an asymmetric division. This results in the dramatically skewed sex ratios observed in the progeny of males of this species. Here we confirm this asymmetry in the division of tubulin and major sperm protein (MSP). MSP, a necessary sperm component, is segregated exclusively into spermatids bearing the X chromosome while tubulin is segregated into the nullo-X sperm. Timing of the partitioning events reveals that MSP migration is not directly dependent on tubulin spindle asymmetry. Additionally, the endoplasmic reticulum is also segregated asymmetrically to the nullo-X spermatid ...


Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek May 2014

Characterization Of Ftsa-Ftsn Interaction During Escherichia Coli Cell Division, Kimberly.Busiek@Gmail.Com K. Busiek

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Division of a bacterial cell into two equal daughter cells requires precise assembly and constriction of the division machinery, or divisome. The Escherichia coli divisome includes nearly a dozen essential cell division proteins that assemble at midcell between segregating sister chromosomes. FtsZ, a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin, is the first essential cell division protein to localize at midcell where it polymerizes into a ring-shaped scaffold (Z ring). Establishment of the Z ring is required for recruitment of downstream cell division proteins including FtsA, a cytoplasmic protein that tethers the Z ring to the inner membrane. Following localization of FtsA and ...


Pos-1 Regulation Of Endo-Mesoderm Identity In C. Elegans: A Dissertation, Ahmed M. Elewa Apr 2014

Pos-1 Regulation Of Endo-Mesoderm Identity In C. Elegans: A Dissertation, Ahmed M. Elewa

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

How do embryos develop with such poise from a single zygote to multiple cells with different identities, and yet survive? At the four-cell stage of the C. elegans embryo, only the blastomere EMS adopts the endo-mesoderm identity. This fate requires SKN-1, the master regulator of endoderm and mesoderm differentiation. However, in the absence of the RNA binding protein POS-1, EMS fails to fulfill its fate despite the presence of SKN-1. pos-1(-) embryos die gutless. Conversely, the RNA binding protein MEX-5 prevents ectoderm blastomeres from adopting the endo-mesoderm identity by repressing SKN-1. mex-5(-) embryos die with excess muscle at the expense ...


Signaling Events During Extraembryonic Endoderm Differentiation, Jason Taek Ki Hwang Apr 2014

Signaling Events During Extraembryonic Endoderm Differentiation, Jason Taek Ki Hwang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mouse F9 cells differentiate into primitive endoderm (PrE) when treated with retinoic acid (RA) and into parietal endoderm (PE) following subsequent treatment with dibutyryl cAMP. Wnt6 is up-regulated in PrE cell, and although it is sufficient to induce differentiation by signaling through the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway, the mechanism by which the Wnt6 gene is regulated is not known. In addition to WNT signaling, PrE differentiation is accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS have been implicated in regulating the canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway through Nucleoredoxin (NRX), but whether they are sufficient to induce extraembryonic endoderm ...


The Role Of Maternally Supplied Cell Death Components In Primordial Germ Cell Development Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Danielle Pohl Apr 2014

The Role Of Maternally Supplied Cell Death Components In Primordial Germ Cell Development Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Danielle Pohl

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

During development, Drosophila melanogaster primordial germ cells migrate from the posterior pole to the somatic gonadal precursor cells, where they form the gonads. During this migratory process, about half of the germ cells die via an unknown mechanism. Maternally supplied gene products play a large role in germ cell development. The mother deposits mRNA into the egg, which is expressed prior to embryonic transcriptional activation. This project investigates the contribution of maternally supplied cell death components on the primordial germ cell development in the embryo. In particular, the apoptotic pathway is under investigation. To generate maternal loss-of-function conditions, germ line ...


Photobiostimulation In C. Elegans As A Model For Low Level Light Therapy, Michael J. Spoto, Daryl D. Hurd Apr 2014

Photobiostimulation In C. Elegans As A Model For Low Level Light Therapy, Michael J. Spoto, Daryl D. Hurd

Science Scholars

Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is a developing therapeutic technique that has been gaining recognition in the scientific community in recent years. Previous experiments performed in LLLT research projects have been primarily mammalian and cell culture based. These experiments have produced results showing accelerated tissue repair. In this experiment, we introduce a new model, Caenorhabitidis elegans, a free-living soil nematode, to be used in LLLT research by testing the effects of exposure of the organism to various wavelengths and intensities of light commonly used in LLLT. C. elegans was shown to respond to photobiostimulation when exposed to specific wavelengths of Infrared ...


Modeling Drosophila Stem Cell Development Through Ex Vivo Live-Cell Imaging Studies, Mohima Sanyal Apr 2014

Modeling Drosophila Stem Cell Development Through Ex Vivo Live-Cell Imaging Studies, Mohima Sanyal

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Stem cell specification, maintenance, and differentiation are imperative to proper organogenesis and tissue maintenance. Understanding the mechanisms and steps of these developmental processes is invaluable to advancing tissue grafting, cancer treatment, and other organ therapies. The Drosophila melanogaster testis is one of the best-characterized systems for studying these processes. Currently, studies in the Drosophila testis have thoroughly characterized when stem cells develop and what the resulting adult testis morphology will be. A major question that remains to be answered is how stem cells develop – what controls what cells become functional stem cells and how stem cell fates are dictated. To ...


Genomic Occupancy Of Runx2 With Global Expression Profiling Identifies A Novel Dimension To Control Of Osteoblastogenesis, Hai Wu, Troy W. Whitfield, Jonathan A.R. Gordon, Jason R. Dobson, Phillip W.L. Tai, Andre J. Van Wijnen, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein, Jane B. Lian Mar 2014

Genomic Occupancy Of Runx2 With Global Expression Profiling Identifies A Novel Dimension To Control Of Osteoblastogenesis, Hai Wu, Troy W. Whitfield, Jonathan A.R. Gordon, Jason R. Dobson, Phillip W.L. Tai, Andre J. Van Wijnen, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein, Jane B. Lian

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis is a highly regulated developmental process and continues during the turnover and repair of mature bone. Runx2, the master regulator of osteoblastogenesis, directs a transcriptional program essential for bone formation through genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. While individual Runx2 gene targets have been identified, further insights into the broad spectrum of Runx2 functions required for osteogenesis are needed.

RESULTS: By performing genome-wide characterization of Runx2 binding at the three major stages of osteoblast differentiation--proliferation, matrix deposition and mineralization--we identify Runx2-dependent regulatory networks driving bone formation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing over the course of these stages, we ...


A Central Role For Vimentin In Regulating Repair Function During Healing Of The Lens Epithelium, A. S. Menko, B. M. Bleaken, A. A. Libowitz, L. Zhang, Mary Ann Stepp, J. L. Walker Mar 2014

A Central Role For Vimentin In Regulating Repair Function During Healing Of The Lens Epithelium, A. S. Menko, B. M. Bleaken, A. A. Libowitz, L. Zhang, Mary Ann Stepp, J. L. Walker

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

Mock cataract surgery provides a unique ex vivo model for studying wound repair in a clinically relevant setting. Here wound healing involves a classical collective migration of the lens epithelium, directed at the leading edge by an innate mesenchymal subpopulation of vimentin-rich repair cells. We report that vimentin is essential to the function of repair cells as the directors of the wound-healing process. Vimentin and not actin filaments are the predominant cytoskeletal elements in the lamellipodial extensions of the repair cells at the wound edge. These vimentin filaments link to paxillin-containing focal adhesions at the lamellipodial tips. Microtubules are involved ...


The Number Of Lines A Cell Contacts And Cell Contractility Drive The Efficiency Of Contact Guidance, Nicholas R. Romsey, Yue Hou, Laura L. Rodriguez, Ian C. Schneider Mar 2014

The Number Of Lines A Cell Contacts And Cell Contractility Drive The Efficiency Of Contact Guidance, Nicholas R. Romsey, Yue Hou, Laura L. Rodriguez, Ian C. Schneider

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Cell migration is an important biological function that impacts many physiological and pathological processes. Often migration is directed along various densities of aligned fibers of collagen, a process called contact guidance. However, cells adhere to other components in the extracellular matrix, possibly affecting migrational behavior. Additionally, changes in intracellular contractility are well known to affect random migration, but its effect on contact guidance is less known. This study examines differences in directed migration in response to variations in the spacing of collagen, non-specific background adhesion strength and myosin II-mediated contractility. Collagen was microcontact printed onto glass substrates and timelapse live-cell ...