Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Involvement Of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Pdgf Receptor Signaling, Focal Adhesion Kinase And Src In Pressure-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy, Darian Clark Rice Jul 2002

Involvement Of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor, Pdgf Receptor Signaling, Focal Adhesion Kinase And Src In Pressure-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy, Darian Clark Rice

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Elevated blood pressure is associated with varying degrees of arterial remodeling. The mechanisms by which extracellular mechanical stress is converted into intracellular alterations in signal transduction and gene expression have yet to be fully elucidated. Our goal was to investigate the early events in the vascular smooth muscle response to acute hypertension and to identify mediators involved in long-term hypertensive remodeling.

In the acute phase of hypertension we targeted cell surface integrin and growth factor receptors thought to be mechanically sensitive. The signaling molecules FAK, Src and ERK-MAPK are known to be triggered by integrin engagement and growth factor receptor ...


Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (Psma): Immunoassay Development And Characterization Of Transcriptional Regulation, Zhen Xiao Apr 2002

Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (Psma): Immunoassay Development And Characterization Of Transcriptional Regulation, Zhen Xiao

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Prostate cancer (PCA) is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of death among American men. The high mortality is greatly attributed to the lack of early detection tools and effective treatment for metastasis and relapses. Biomarkers that can discriminate benign from malignant tumor and signal the development of androgen independent and metastatic tumor are needed. A biomarker designated prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has the potential to fulfill this need. The objective of this study is to develop a clinically useful immunoassay for quantitation of serum PSMA and to study the molecular mechanism underlying the upregulation of ...


Analysis Of Candidate Proteins Interacting With Eyal, Ryan Schwanke Apr 2002

Analysis Of Candidate Proteins Interacting With Eyal, Ryan Schwanke

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The Eyal gene is important for mammalian organogenesis, and mutations in the human EYA1 results in Branchio-Oto-Renal (BOR) syndrome. This syndrome is autosomal dominant and causes combinations of branchial, otic, and renal anomalies. All Eya gene products contain an extremely conserved 271 amino acid C-terminus that is essential in protein-protein interaction. Recently, it was found that during mouse development, the expression of certain Six genes relied on the function of Eyal, and that Eyal interacts with relevant Six proteins through its C-terminal domain. These results provided insight into the molecular and developmental basis for organ defects occurring in BOR syndrome ...


Apoptosis Pathways: Presence And Significance In Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa, Steven Lewis Taylor Jan 2002

Apoptosis Pathways: Presence And Significance In Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa, Steven Lewis Taylor

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Ejaculated sperm display markers that are indicative of apoptosis in somatic cells. The question remains as to whether sperm have operative apoptosis mechanisms. The aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that apoptosis markers in sperm and somatic cells are different.

Ejaculated human sperm from patients and donors were separated into high and low motility fractions using Percollâ„¢ gradients. Contaminating cells were removed using anti-CD45 conjugated paramagnetic beads. Fractions were divided into groups: staurosporine, anti-Fas antibody, and hydrogen peroxide treated and control. Direct enzymatic measurement of caspase activity, flow cytometric evaluation of phosphatidylserine translocation, immunoblots, and immunocytochemistry were ...


Actin And Myosin Remodeling In The A7r5 Smooth Muscle Cell, Michael E. Fultz Jan 2002

Actin And Myosin Remodeling In The A7r5 Smooth Muscle Cell, Michael E. Fultz

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Active remodeling of the cytoskeleton has been proposed to contribute to the low energy cost and maintenance of the sustained contraction in smooth muscle. Using confocal microscopy and standard immunohistochemical techniques, direct observation of actin remodeling was studied in the contracting A7r5 cell in response to the diacylglycerol (DAG) analog phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate (PDBu). -actin was shown to exist in the resting cell as parallel stress cables that extend across the cell. Stimulation by PDBu resulted in a sustained contraction that occurred in approximately eighty-five percent of the A7r5 cells. The initial contraction was not uniform, but primarily occurred ...


Molecular Interactions Of Talin And Actin: A Study On The Specific Domains Of Talin Involved In The Interactions , Ho-Sup Lee Jan 2002

Molecular Interactions Of Talin And Actin: A Study On The Specific Domains Of Talin Involved In The Interactions , Ho-Sup Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Talin is an essential cytoskeletal protein present in cell-matrix type adherens junctions where it helps in attachment of the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. The nature of the interaction between talin and actin was examined in this dissertation by investigating three actin binding sites (ABS1--3), with ABS1 located in the 47 kDa N-terminal head and ABS2 and ABS3 present in the 190 kDa C-terminal tail of the talin molecule. Cosedimentation of expressed GST-fusion deletion constructs from the talin head with F-actin showed that actin binding activity of the talin head is contained within residues 271--320. Talin constructs containing the ...


Mechanisms Of Somatostatin-Induced Paradoxical Increase In Insulin Secretion In The Presence Of Arginine Vasopressin In Clonal [Beta]-Cell Hit-T15 , Henrique Cheng Jan 2002

Mechanisms Of Somatostatin-Induced Paradoxical Increase In Insulin Secretion In The Presence Of Arginine Vasopressin In Clonal [Beta]-Cell Hit-T15 , Henrique Cheng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

We investigated the mechanism underlying somatostatin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i leading to insulin release in the presence of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in clonal beta-cell HIT-T15. Somatostatin increased [Ca2+]i and insulin release in a biphasic pattern, characterized by a sharp and transient increase followed by a rapid decline to the sub-basal level. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin, which inactivates Gi/Go, abolished the effects of somatostatin. U-73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, antagonized somatostatin-induced increase in [Ca2+] i. In Ca2+-free environment, somatostatin still increased [Ca2+]i, whereas depletion of intracellular Ca 2+ stores with thapsigargin, a microsomal Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor ...


Nitric Oxide In Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling , Nianzhen Li Jan 2002

Nitric Oxide In Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling , Nianzhen Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca2+ elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca 2+ elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca2+ wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission.;In this dissertation, I investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First I tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca2+ signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a ...


Dipyridamole Reduces Oxidative Stress In Human Coronary Artery Endothelial And Hela Cell Models, Matthew E. Giangrante Jan 2002

Dipyridamole Reduces Oxidative Stress In Human Coronary Artery Endothelial And Hela Cell Models, Matthew E. Giangrante

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

.