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2002

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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex Functionally Interacts With Components Of The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, Tatiana Louk, Oliver Kerscher, Robert J. Scott, Munira A. Basrai, Richard W. Wozniak Dec 2002

The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex Functionally Interacts With Components Of The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, Tatiana Louk, Oliver Kerscher, Robert J. Scott, Munira A. Basrai, Richard W. Wozniak

Arts & Sciences Articles

Aphysical and functional link between the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and the spindle checkpoint machinery has been established in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that two proteins required for the execution of the spindle checkpoint, Mad1p and Mad2p, reside predominantly at the NPC throughout the cell cycle. There they are associated with a subcomplex of nucleoporins containing Nup53p, Nup170p, and Nup157p. The association of the Mad1p–Mad2p complex with the NPC requires Mad1p and is mediated in part by Nup53p. On activation of the spindle checkpoint, we detect changes in the interactions between these proteins, including the release of ...


Shar-Pei Mediates Cell Proliferation Arrest During Imaginal Disc Growth In Drosophila, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Riitta Nolo, Chunyao Tao, Patrik Verstreken, P. Robin Hiesinger, Hugo J. Bellen, Georg Halder Dec 2002

Shar-Pei Mediates Cell Proliferation Arrest During Imaginal Disc Growth In Drosophila, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Riitta Nolo, Chunyao Tao, Patrik Verstreken, P. Robin Hiesinger, Hugo J. Bellen, Georg Halder

Biology Faculty Publications

During animal development, organ size is determined primarily by the amount of cell proliferation, which must be tightly regulated to ensure the generation of properly proportioned organs. However, little is known about the molecular pathways that direct cells to stop proliferating when an organ has attained its proper size. We have identified mutations in a novel gene, shar-pei, that is required for proper termination of cell proliferation during Drosophila imaginal disc development. Clones of shar-pei mutant cells in imaginal discs produce enlarged tissues containing more cells of normal size. We show that this phenotype is the result of both increased ...


Both Midzone And Astral Microtubules Are Involved In The Delivery Of Cytokinesis Signals: Insights From The Mobility Of Aurora B, Maki Murata-Hori, Yu-Li Wang Oct 2002

Both Midzone And Astral Microtubules Are Involved In The Delivery Of Cytokinesis Signals: Insights From The Mobility Of Aurora B, Maki Murata-Hori, Yu-Li Wang

Open Access Articles

To address the mechanism that coordinates cytokinesis with mitosis, we have studied the dynamics of aurora B, a chromosomal passenger protein involved in signaling cytokinesis. Photobleaching analyses indicated dynamic exchange of aurora B between a centromeric and a cytoplasmic pool before anaphase onset, and stable associations with microtubules after anaphase onset. Bleaching near centromeres upon anaphase onset affected the subsequent appearance of fluorescence along midzone microtubules, but not that near the lateral equatorial cortex, suggesting that there were centromeric-dependent and -independent pathways that transported aurora B to the equator. The former delivered centromeric aurora B along midzone microtubules, whereas the ...


The D0 Domain Of Kir3d Acts As A Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Binding Enhancer, Salim I. Khakoo, Ron Geller, Sunny Shin, Jomaquai A. Jenkins, Peter Parham Oct 2002

The D0 Domain Of Kir3d Acts As A Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Binding Enhancer, Salim I. Khakoo, Ron Geller, Sunny Shin, Jomaquai A. Jenkins, Peter Parham

Department of Microbiology Papers

In contrast to the KIR2D:HLA-C interaction, little is known of KIR3DL1's interaction with HLA-B or the role of D0, the domain not present in KIR2D. Differences in the strength and specificity for major histocompatibility complex class I of KIR3DL1 and its common chimpanzee homologue Pt-KIR3DL1/2 were exploited to address these questions. Domain-swap, deletion, and site-directed mutants of KIR3DL1 were analyzed for HLA-B binding using a novel, positively signaling cell–cell binding assay. Natural ‘deletion’ of residues 50 and 51 from its D0 domain causes Pt-KIR3DL1/2 to bind Bw4+ HLA-B allotypes more avidly than does KIR3DL1. Deletion ...


The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Activators P35 And P39 Interact With The Alpha-Subunit Of Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Ii And Alpha-Actinin-1 In A Calcium-Dependent Manner, Rani Dhavan, Paul L. Greer, Maria A. Morabito, Lianna R. Orlando, Li-Huei Tsai Sep 2002

The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Activators P35 And P39 Interact With The Alpha-Subunit Of Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Ii And Alpha-Actinin-1 In A Calcium-Dependent Manner, Rani Dhavan, Paul L. Greer, Maria A. Morabito, Lianna R. Orlando, Li-Huei Tsai

Morabito Lab Publications

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a critical regulator of neuronal migration in the developing CNS, and recent studies have revealed a role for Cdk5 in synaptogenesis and regulation of synaptic transmission. Deregulation of Cdk5 has been linked to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Activation of Cdk5 requires its association with a regulatory subunit, and two Cdk5 activators, p35 and p39, have been identified. To gain further insight into the functions of Cdk5, we identified proteins that interact with p39 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. In this study we report that alpha-actinin-1 and the alpha-subunit of ...


Eye Suppression, A Novel Function Of Teashirt, Requires Wingless Signaling, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Y. Henry Sun Sep 2002

Eye Suppression, A Novel Function Of Teashirt, Requires Wingless Signaling, Amit Singh, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Y. Henry Sun

Biology Faculty Publications

Teashirt (tsh) encodes a Drosophila zinc-finger protein. Misexpression of tsh has been shown to induce ectopic eye formation in the antenna. We report that tsh can suppress eye development. This novel function of tsh is due to the induction of homothorax (hth), a known repressor of eye development, and requires Wingless (WG) signaling. Interestingly, tsh has different functions in the dorsal and ventral eye, suppressing eye development close to the ventral margin, while promoting eye development near the dorsal margin. It affects both growth of eye disc and retinal cell differentiation.


A Cycle Of Vam7p Release From And Ptdins 3-P–Dependent Rebinding To The Yeast Vacuole Is Required For Homotypic Vacuole Fusion, Christine Boeddinghaus, Alexey J. Merz, Rico Laage, Christian Ungermann Apr 2002

A Cycle Of Vam7p Release From And Ptdins 3-P–Dependent Rebinding To The Yeast Vacuole Is Required For Homotypic Vacuole Fusion, Christine Boeddinghaus, Alexey J. Merz, Rico Laage, Christian Ungermann

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Vacuole fusion requires a coordinated cascade of priming, docking, and fusion. SNARE proteins have been implicated in the fusion itself, although their precise role in the cascade remains unclear. We now report that the vacuolar SNAP-23 homologue Vam7p is a mobile element of the SNARE complex, which moves from an initial association with the cis-SNARE complex via a soluble intermediate to the docking site. Soluble Vam7p is specifically recruited to vacuoles and can rescue a fusion reaction poisoned with antibodies to Vam7p. Both the recombinant Vam7p PX domain and a FYVE domain construct of human Hrs block the recruitment of ...


The Intraflagellar Transport Protein, Ift88, Is Essential For Vertebrate Photoreceptor Assembly And Maintenance, Gregory J. Pazour, Sheila A. Baker, James A. Deane, Douglas G. Cole, Bethany L. Dickert, Joel L. Rosenbaum, George B. Witman, Joseph C. Besharse Mar 2002

The Intraflagellar Transport Protein, Ift88, Is Essential For Vertebrate Photoreceptor Assembly And Maintenance, Gregory J. Pazour, Sheila A. Baker, James A. Deane, Douglas G. Cole, Bethany L. Dickert, Joel L. Rosenbaum, George B. Witman, Joseph C. Besharse

Open Access Articles

Approximately 10% of the photoreceptor outer segment (OS) is turned over each day, requiring large amounts of lipid and protein to be moved from the inner segment to the OS. Defects in intraphotoreceptor transport can lead to retinal degeneration and blindness. The transport mechanisms are unknown, but because the OS is a modified cilium, intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a candidate mechanism. IFT involves movement of large protein complexes along ciliary microtubules and is required for assembly and maintenance of cilia. We show that IFT particle proteins are localized to photoreceptor connecting cilia. We further find that mice with a mutation ...


Fc-Receptor-Mediated Phagocytosis Is Regulated By Mechanical Properties Of The Target, Karen A. Beningo, Yu-Li Wang Feb 2002

Fc-Receptor-Mediated Phagocytosis Is Regulated By Mechanical Properties Of The Target, Karen A. Beningo, Yu-Li Wang

Open Access Articles

Phagocytosis is an actin-based process used by macrophages to clear particles greater than 0.5 microm in diameter. In addition to its role in immunological responses, phagocytosis is also necessary for tissue remodeling and repair. To prevent catastrophic autoimmune reactions, phagocytosis must be tightly regulated. It is commonly assumed that the recognition/selection of phagocytic targets is based solely upon receptor-ligand binding. Here we report an important new criterion, that mechanical parameters of the target can dramatically affect the efficiency of phagocytosis. When presented with particles of identical chemical properties but different rigidity, macrophages showed a strong preference to engulf ...


Evidence That The Rat Osteopetrotic Mutation Toothless (Tl) Is Not In The Tnfsf11 (Trance, Rankl, Odf, Opgl) Gene, Paul R. Odgren, Nacksung Kim, Liesbeth Van Wesenbeeck, Carole A. Mackay, April Mason-Savas, Fayez F. Safadi, Steven N. Popoff, Christopher J. Lengner, Wim Van-Hul, Yongwon Choi, Sandy C. Marks Jr. Jan 2002

Evidence That The Rat Osteopetrotic Mutation Toothless (Tl) Is Not In The Tnfsf11 (Trance, Rankl, Odf, Opgl) Gene, Paul R. Odgren, Nacksung Kim, Liesbeth Van Wesenbeeck, Carole A. Mackay, April Mason-Savas, Fayez F. Safadi, Steven N. Popoff, Christopher J. Lengner, Wim Van-Hul, Yongwon Choi, Sandy C. Marks Jr.

Open Access Articles

The toothless (tl) osteopetrotic mutation in the rat affects an osteoblast-derived factor that is required for normal osteoclast differentiation. Although the genetic locus remains unknown, the phenotypic impact of the tl mutation on multiple systems has been well characterized. Some of its actions are similar to tumornecrosis factor superfamily member 11(TNFSF11; also called TRANCE, RANKL, ODF and OPGL) null mice. TNFSF11 is a recently described member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily which, when expressed by activated T cells, enhances the survival of antigen-presenting dendritic cells, and when expressed by osteoblasts, promotes the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. The ...


Variability Of Placental Expression Of Cyclin E Low Molecular Weight Variants, A Bukovsky, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Mr Caudle, J Wimalasena, Js Foster, Ja Keenan, Rf Elder Jan 2002

Variability Of Placental Expression Of Cyclin E Low Molecular Weight Variants, A Bukovsky, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Mr Caudle, J Wimalasena, Js Foster, Ja Keenan, Rf Elder

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

No abstract provided.


Mechanism For Membrane Electroporation Irreversibility Under High-Intensity, Ultrashort Electrical Pulse Conditions, R. P. Joshi, K. H. Schoenbach Jan 2002

Mechanism For Membrane Electroporation Irreversibility Under High-Intensity, Ultrashort Electrical Pulse Conditions, R. P. Joshi, K. H. Schoenbach

Bioelectrics Publications

An improved electroporation model is used to address membrane irreversibility under ultrashort electric pulse conditions. It is shown that membranes can survive a strong electric pulse and recover provided the pore distribution has a relatively large spread. If, however, the population consists predominantly of larger radii pores, then irreversibility can result. Physically, such a distribution could arise if pores at adjacent sites coalesce. The requirement of close proximity among the pore sites is more easily satisfied in smaller organelles than in outer cell membranes. Model predictions are in keeping with recent observations of cell damage to intracellular organelles (e.g ...


Theoretical Predictions Of Electromechanical Deformation Of Cells Subjected To High Voltages For Membrane Electroporation, R. P. Joshi, Q. Hu, K. H. Schoenbach, H. P. Hjalmarson Jan 2002

Theoretical Predictions Of Electromechanical Deformation Of Cells Subjected To High Voltages For Membrane Electroporation, R. P. Joshi, Q. Hu, K. H. Schoenbach, H. P. Hjalmarson

Bioelectrics Publications

An electromechanical analysis based on thin-shell theory is presented to analyze cell shape changes in response to external electric fields. This approach can be extended to include osmotic-pressure changes. Our calculations demonstrate that at large fields, the spherical cell geometry can be significantly modified, and even ellipsoidal forms would be inappropriate to account for the deformation. Values of the surface forces obtained from our calculations are in very good agreement with the 1–10 mN/m range for membrane rupture reported in the literature. The results, in keeping with reports in the literature, demonstrate that the final shape depends on ...


Improved Energy Model For Membrane Electroporation In Biological Cells Subjected To Electrical Pulses, R. P. Joshi, Q. Hu, K. H. Schoenbach, H. P. Hjalmarson Jan 2002

Improved Energy Model For Membrane Electroporation In Biological Cells Subjected To Electrical Pulses, R. P. Joshi, Q. Hu, K. H. Schoenbach, H. P. Hjalmarson

Bioelectrics Publications

A self-consistent model analysis of electroporation in biological cells has been carried out based on an improved energy model. The simple energy model used in the literature is somewhat incorrect and unphysical for a variety of reasons. Our model for the pore formation energy E(r) includes a dependence on pore population and density. It also allows for variable surface tension, incorporates the effects of finite conductivity on the electrostatic correction term, and is dynamic in nature. Self-consistent calculations, based on a coupled scheme involving the Smoluchowski equation and the improved energy model, are presented. It is shown that E ...


Functional Requirement Of Aquaporin-5 In Plasma Membranes Of Sweat Glands, Lene N. Nejsum, Tae-Hwan Kwon, Uffe B. Jensen, Ornella Fumagalli, Jørgen Frøkiaer, Carissa M. Krane, Anil G. Menon, Landon S. King, Peter C. Agre, Søren Nielsen Jan 2002

Functional Requirement Of Aquaporin-5 In Plasma Membranes Of Sweat Glands, Lene N. Nejsum, Tae-Hwan Kwon, Uffe B. Jensen, Ornella Fumagalli, Jørgen Frøkiaer, Carissa M. Krane, Anil G. Menon, Landon S. King, Peter C. Agre, Søren Nielsen

Biology Faculty Publications

The distribution and function of aquaporins (AQPs) have not previously been defined in sweat glands. In this study, AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 mRNA were demonstrated in rat paw by reverse transcription (RT)–PCR, but AQP2 and AQP4 were not. AQP1, AQP3, and AQP5 protein were confirmed in these tissues by immunoblotting. AQP1 was identified in capillary endothelial cells by immunohistochemical labeling, but not in sweat glands or epidermis. Abundant AQP3 expression was seen in basal levels of epidermis, but not in sweat glands. AQP2 and AQP4 were not observed in either skin or sweat glands. Immunohistochemical labeling revealed abundant AQP5 ...


Analysis Of Protein Localization And Secretory Pathway Function Using The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Elizabeth Ann Vallen Jan 2002

Analysis Of Protein Localization And Secretory Pathway Function Using The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Elizabeth Ann Vallen

Biology Faculty Works

The isolation and characterization of mutants has been crucial in understanding a number of processes in the field of cell biology. In this exercise, students examine the effects of mutations in the secretory pathway on protein localization. Yeast strains deficient for synthesis of histidinol dehydrogenase are transformed with a plasmid encoding a chimeric protein. The chimera contains a signal sequence fused to histidinol dehydrogenase. A strain with a defect in the translocation of secretory proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accumulates sufficient histidinol dehydrogenase in the cytoplasm to grow on media lacking histidine. In contrast, yeast proficient for secretion, or ...