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Articles 61 - 85 of 85

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Exosome-Mediated Delivery Of Rna Interference And Mirna Mimic, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala, Terence N. Bukong, Gyongyi Szabo May 2014

Exosome-Mediated Delivery Of Rna Interference And Mirna Mimic, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala, Terence N. Bukong, Gyongyi Szabo

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Exosomes, membranous nanovesicles, naturally carry bio-macromolecules and play pivotal roles in both physiological intercellular crosstalk and disease pathogenesis. Here, we showed that B cell-derived exosomes can function as vehicles to deliver exogenous miRNA-155 mimic or inhibitor into hepatocytes or macrophages, respectively. Stimulation of B cells significantly increased exosome production. Unlike in parental cells, baseline level of miRNA-155 was very low in exosomes derived from stimulated B cells. Exosomes loaded with a miRNA-155 mimic significantly increased miRNA-155 levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and the liver of miRNA-155 knockout mice. Treatment of RAW macrophages with miRNA-155 inhibitor loaded exosomes resulted in statistically ...


Anti-Ppkcθ (T538) Delivery Via Cell Penetrating Peptide Mimics As A Novel Treatment Of Aplastic Anemia, Emrah Ilker Ozay, Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, Joe Torres, Gregory N. Tew, Lisa M. Minter May 2014

Anti-Ppkcθ (T538) Delivery Via Cell Penetrating Peptide Mimics As A Novel Treatment Of Aplastic Anemia, Emrah Ilker Ozay, Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, Joe Torres, Gregory N. Tew, Lisa M. Minter

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The objective of this study is to deliver anti-pPKCθ (T538) into T cells (hPBMCs) by using cell penetrating peptide mimics (CPPMs) to neutralize PKCθ activity both in vitro and in vivo, with the eventual goal of treating aplastic anemia (AA). AA is an immune-mediated bone marrow failure disease caused by T helper type 1 (Th1) autoimmune responses, which destroy blood cell progenitors. It was previously reported that protein kinase C theta (PKCθ), expressed specifically in T cells, plays an important role in T cell signaling by mediating Th1 differentiation. Mice treated with Rottlerin, a pharmacological inhibitor of PKCθ, are rescued ...


Multiple Approaches To Determine Toxicity Of Micro And Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide Materials When Exposed To Human Red Blood Cells, Aaron Stella, Shu-Feng Hsieh, Dhimiter Bello, Daniel Schmidt, Eugene Rodgers May 2014

Multiple Approaches To Determine Toxicity Of Micro And Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide Materials When Exposed To Human Red Blood Cells, Aaron Stella, Shu-Feng Hsieh, Dhimiter Bello, Daniel Schmidt, Eugene Rodgers

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: The utility of engineered nanomaterials’ is growing, particularly the titanium dioxide (TiO2) polymorphs. TiO2 is very useful for brightening paints, and coloring foods. Nano-sized TiO2 is also useful for sunscreens, cosmetics, and can be utilized as a photocatalyst. However, the nanometer size and the large specific surface area of the TiO2 materials are physicochemical characteristics which may contribute to human red blood cell (RBC) damage. Using RBCs as a cellular model, we have evaluated the effects of TiO2 nanoparticle exposure to RBCs by quantifying oxidized glutathione, oxidized membrane vitamin E, hemolysis, hemoglobin adsorption, and cellular aggregation. Results: Red blood ...


Transdifferentiation Of Α- To Β-Cells Is Enhanced In Fstl3 Ko Mice, Alan Schneyer, Danielle Andrzejewski, Amy Burnside, Melissa Brown May 2014

Transdifferentiation Of Α- To Β-Cells Is Enhanced In Fstl3 Ko Mice, Alan Schneyer, Danielle Andrzejewski, Amy Burnside, Melissa Brown

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes involve loss of functional pancreatic B-cells which is driving research into potential replacement sources. Expansion of functional B-cell mass, such as through induction of B-cell neogenesis or through transdifferentiation of A-cells into functional B-cells represent appealing therapeutic solutions to restoring glucose control. To date, however, these processes have been induced through genetic manipulation or severe pancreatic injury. It remains to be determined whether transdifferentiation or neogenesis contribute to functional B-cell mass under normal physiological conditions and/or contribute to B-cell expansion and how these processes are regulated.

We have reported that inactivation of ...


Phenotypic Variation In The Model Organism, Danio Rerio, Rachel D. Champaigne, Kim H. Brown May 2014

Phenotypic Variation In The Model Organism, Danio Rerio, Rachel D. Champaigne, Kim H. Brown

Student Research Symposium

Model organisms are used to study evolutionary conserved traits. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used a model organism because of their highly fecundity, external fertilization, and robust nature, making them highly adaptable to environmental and genetic variation. In an effort to limit data variation that lies outside of topic interest, phenotypic measures of variation must be performed, understood, and taken into consideration for future studies. A common measurement of phenotypic variation in fish is in the maximum (Ucrit) swimming speeds. Inter and intra-strain variation in zebrafish Ucrit swimming speeds will be observed in a swim tunnel. Baseline values will be recorded ...


Examination Of Human Embryonic Kidney Cells And Cardiomyocytes Using Glass Microcarrier Beads And Scanning Electron Microscopy, Jaekook Sim Apr 2014

Examination Of Human Embryonic Kidney Cells And Cardiomyocytes Using Glass Microcarrier Beads And Scanning Electron Microscopy, Jaekook Sim

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Alterations of sarcomeric proteins lead to disruption of myofilaments and are associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We have identified a genetically altered mouse strain with an elevated level of actin associated protein and are characterizing the nature of the hypertrophy by examining the cultured cells on glass microcarrier beads using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Beads provide a surface for cell growth and division and subsequent analysis of myocyte morphology. This study requires the establishment of primary embryonic cardiomyocyte culture which is difficult to establish. Therefore in initial studies to acquire the necessary tissue culture skill, we cultured Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK ...


Exploring Distinct Retinal Ganglion Cell Types At Single Cell Resolution, Terry Lund Apr 2014

Exploring Distinct Retinal Ganglion Cell Types At Single Cell Resolution, Terry Lund

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

Glaucoma is a degenerative disease of the eye, characterized by the gradual death of the optic nerve and the retinal ganglion cells that comprise it. The literature tells us that these cells do not die uniformly. To understand why this is, it is imperative we have a robust understanding of the retinal ganglion cell; however, characterization has been difficult and no good genetic profile exists for all the various sub-types. Our research examines retinal ganglion cells at single cell resolution on microarrays. Using these data, we are able to visualize candidate genes expressed in retinal ganglion cell sub-types with in ...


The Role Of Maternally Supplied Cell Death Components In Primordial Germ Cell Development Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Danielle Pohl Apr 2014

The Role Of Maternally Supplied Cell Death Components In Primordial Germ Cell Development Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Danielle Pohl

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

During development, Drosophila melanogaster primordial germ cells migrate from the posterior pole to the somatic gonadal precursor cells, where they form the gonads. During this migratory process, about half of the germ cells die via an unknown mechanism. Maternally supplied gene products play a large role in germ cell development. The mother deposits mRNA into the egg, which is expressed prior to embryonic transcriptional activation. This project investigates the contribution of maternally supplied cell death components on the primordial germ cell development in the embryo. In particular, the apoptotic pathway is under investigation. To generate maternal loss-of-function conditions, germ line ...


Two Modifications, One Protein: The Multiple Roles The Histone Acetyltransferase, Pcaf, Plays In Post Translational Modifications., Ronald Shanderson Apr 2014

Two Modifications, One Protein: The Multiple Roles The Histone Acetyltransferase, Pcaf, Plays In Post Translational Modifications., Ronald Shanderson

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold Apr 2014

Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao Oct 2013

Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Engineering synthetic multicellular systems will lead to new synthetic biology technological platforms, inform developmental biology through recapitulation of natural systems and possibly unveil novel morphologies with practical applications not before reached throughout natural history (Maharbiz, 2012). Creating an exogenous molecular circuit that will polarize unicellular cells into “apical” and “basal” domains relative to a substrate plane would fulfill a missing component towards fully multicellular synthetic cellular communities (Maharbiz, 2012). To this end, a PIP3 polarization network previously designed by Chau and associates (Chau, Walter, Gerardin, Tang, Lim 2012) was coupled to the specific activation by niacin of a recombinant ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Fsh Muscular Dystrophy Pathogenesis, Peter L. Jones, Takako I. Jones May 2013

Molecular Mechanisms Of Fsh Muscular Dystrophy Pathogenesis, Peter L. Jones, Takako I. Jones

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Discussion of a new research initiative at UMass Medical School focused on the pathogenesis of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) and efforts towards diagnostics and therapeutics. This presentation is part of the retreat mini-symposium entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathogenesis and the Road to Therapeutics.


Dux4 Target Gene Expression In Mouse Muscle Transplanted With Muscle Cells From Fshd Patients, James A. Windelborn, Charles P. Emerson, Jr. May 2013

Dux4 Target Gene Expression In Mouse Muscle Transplanted With Muscle Cells From Fshd Patients, James A. Windelborn, Charles P. Emerson, Jr.

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most prevalent forms of muscular dystrophy. However, because of the unique nature of the genetic abnormality underlying the disease, there is currently no widely available laboratory model. In order to gain insights into FSHD molecular pathology, we developed a xenograft model by transplanting myogenic cells from patients with FSHD (4qA contractions) as well as from their unaffected relatives into the tibialis anterior muscles of immunodeficient mice. Our findings show that muscle xenografts derived from FSHD myogenic cells express Dux4 target genes, recapitulating the expression of these disease biomarkers in muscle biopsies of ...


Activation Of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egrf) Is Required For Cxcl12 Mediated Erk And Akt Signaling During Prostate Myofibroblast Phenoconversion, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska May 2013

Activation Of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egrf) Is Required For Cxcl12 Mediated Erk And Akt Signaling During Prostate Myofibroblast Phenoconversion, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), a condition of the prostate common in aging in men, is associated with urinary voiding dysfunction, or Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). Although inflammation and abnormal muscle contraction are known to be key players in the development of LUTS, tissue fibrosis may also be an important and previously unrecognized contributing factor. Tissue fibrosis arises from the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, which produce and secrete collagens and fibronectins that remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). This differentiation process is usually accomplished by activation of the TGF-β/TGFβRII axis. However, in this study we report that the CXC-type ...


Obesity-Induced Diabetes And Lower Urinary Tract Fibrosis Promote Urinary Voiding Dysfunction In A Mouse Model, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska May 2013

Obesity-Induced Diabetes And Lower Urinary Tract Fibrosis Promote Urinary Voiding Dysfunction In A Mouse Model, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Progressive aging- and inflammation-associated fibrosis effectively remodels the extracellular matrix to increase prostate tissue stiffness and reduce urethral flexibility, resulting in urinary flow obstruction and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). In the current study we sought to test whether senescence-accelerated mouse prone (SAMP)6 mice, which were reported to develop prostatic fibrosis, would also develop LUTS, and whether these symptoms would be exacerbated by diet-induced obesity and concurrent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: To accomplish this, SAMP6 and AKR/J background strain mice were fed regular mouse chow, low fat diet chow, or high fat diet chow for ...


Cxcl-Type Chemokines−Induced Fibrosis In The Lower Urinary Tract, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jill A. Macoska May 2013

Cxcl-Type Chemokines−Induced Fibrosis In The Lower Urinary Tract, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jill A. Macoska

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

No abstract provided.


Estrogen Receptor Beta Selectively Restricts Proliferation And Favors Surveillance In Mammary Epithelial Cells, Karen A. Dunphy, Erick Roman-Perez, Rehaneh Hooshyar, Mary J. Hagen, Amy L. Roberts, Mara Isel Guerrero-Zayas, D. Joseph Jerry May 2013

Estrogen Receptor Beta Selectively Restricts Proliferation And Favors Surveillance In Mammary Epithelial Cells, Karen A. Dunphy, Erick Roman-Perez, Rehaneh Hooshyar, Mary J. Hagen, Amy L. Roberts, Mara Isel Guerrero-Zayas, D. Joseph Jerry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Estrogen (17β-estradiol) has paradoxical effects in both promoting and preventing breast cancer as estrogen activates proliferation, but also promotes p53-mediated surveillance pathways. Estrogen mediates its effects in target tissues through the activation of estrogen receptor subtypes: ERα and ERβ. To examine the capability of these receptors in mediating surveillance as opposed to proliferation, selective estrogen receptor agonists were compared with 17β-estradiol for induction of proliferation and radiation induced apoptosis in vivo. Transcriptional regulation of estrogen-responsive genes was also compared in mouse mammary epithelium in vivo and in the human mammary MCF7 cell line transduced with a repressible ERβ. Selective activation ...


Phosphorylation Regulates Myosin Driven Organelle Movements, Peter Andrew Duden Mar 2013

Phosphorylation Regulates Myosin Driven Organelle Movements, Peter Andrew Duden

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells is the continuous flow of cytoplasm and organelles throughout the cell, with the first observation of cytoplasmic streaming being publicized in 1774. However, the mechanism of cytoplasmic streaming remained unclear until components of the cytoskeleton were researched. Research now supports that the motive force generating cytoplasmic streaming is the interaction of myosin XI motor proteins with organelles while sliding along actin filaments. From this, a key topic of interest is how myosin driven organelle movement is regulated. Our research focuses on whether phosphorylation affects the regulation of myosin XI motor proteins. Specifically, the goal of ...


The Varus Knee Reveals Differential Expression Patterns Of Mirnas In Spared Vs. Non-Spared Compartments, Paul J. Fanning, Brian Ayers, Marie Walcott, Gary S. Stein, David C. Ayers, Jane B. Lian May 2012

The Varus Knee Reveals Differential Expression Patterns Of Mirnas In Spared Vs. Non-Spared Compartments, Paul J. Fanning, Brian Ayers, Marie Walcott, Gary S. Stein, David C. Ayers, Jane B. Lian

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function by repressing cellular protein levels to provide a sophisticated level of gene regulation that coordinates a broad spectrum of biological processes. MiRNA inhibition of mRNA translation has emerged as an important regulator of chondrogenic and osteogenic development, osteoblast, osteoclast and chondrocyte cell growth and differentiation, and tissue homeostasis in the adult skeleton. MiRNAs control many layers of regulation in adult tissues connected to both normal biological and pathologic cellular activities. The study of miRNAs in skeletal disorders is in its infancy. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that progresses from degeneration of the articular cartilage to remodeling ...


Etiology Of Experimental Osteoarthritis: Early Events And Potential Clinical Implications, Paul J. Fanning, Jason Silva, Julianne Marvin, Kirti Basil, Marie Walcott, David C. Ayers May 2012

Etiology Of Experimental Osteoarthritis: Early Events And Potential Clinical Implications, Paul J. Fanning, Jason Silva, Julianne Marvin, Kirti Basil, Marie Walcott, David C. Ayers

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and accounts for 50% of all chronic conditions in the elderly. One in two adults reported a chronic musculoskeletal condition in 2005, twice the rate of reported chronic heart or respiratory conditions(2). In addition, persons aged 45 to 64 account for an increasingly greater proportion of total musculoskeletal disease treatment costs and lost wages, a trend that will continue for the next several decades(3). Surgical treatment culminating in total joint replacement (TJR) remains the most effective therapy for late stage OA. Current treatment of pre-surgical OA consists of ...


Viral Receptor Trafficking Regulated By Gabarap, Cendy Valle Oseguera, Carolyn C. Tu, Jie Sun, Kathleen Arnolds, Juliet V. Spencer Apr 2012

Viral Receptor Trafficking Regulated By Gabarap, Cendy Valle Oseguera, Carolyn C. Tu, Jie Sun, Kathleen Arnolds, Juliet V. Spencer

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen that can be life-threatening to immune-compromised patients but rarely causes disease in healthy individuals. Previous work using the yeast two-hybrid system found that GABARAP (γ-aminobutyric-acid-receptor-associated-protein) binds to HCMV US27. US27 is similar to human chemokine receptors, but is localized intracellularly instead of on the surface. Here, we examined the US27-GABARAP interaction in human cells and identified a four amino acid motif (WXXL) that mediates GABARAP binding to US27 and its localization to endosomal compartments. Since GABARAP regulates cellular receptor trafficking, these results show that viral US27 is also controlled by a cellular protein.


The Effects Of Climate Change On Basic Animal Cell Functions, Michelle Fulbright, Andrew Andres Apr 2011

The Effects Of Climate Change On Basic Animal Cell Functions, Michelle Fulbright, Andrew Andres

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Increasing global temperatures during the 21st century may have detrimental effects on basic cell functions within ectothermal animals. This project aims to systematically examine the effects of climate change on secretory cargo localization through the analysis of Rab Proteins found in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Rab Proteins play an essential role in vesicular transport within the cell and can be genetically manipulated to monitor the biological consequences of global warming.


Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilisis Independent Of Genome Replication, Mark Upchurch, Holly Martin, Eduardo Robleto Apr 2011

Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilisis Independent Of Genome Replication, Mark Upchurch, Holly Martin, Eduardo Robleto

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Stationary phase mutagenesis is defined as cellular mechanisms that produce genetic diversity in cells experiencing conditions of stress. These processes are associated with many biological phenomena, including those that produce the formation of cancers in animal cells and other degenerative diseases. Also, these mechanisms are associated with the accumulation of beneficial mutations in bacteria, but follow stochastic processes and are controlled by genetic factors. The current models explaining the generation of stress-induced mutations are predicated on the formation of DNA replication intermediates that are formed during the repair of damaged DNA or during DNA replication and transcription encounters. Here we ...


The Release Of Calcium In Bacillus Anthracis Pathogenicity Methods, Natiera Magnuson, Manomita Patra Bhowmik, Maria Elena Reynaga, Ernesto Abel-Santos Apr 2011

The Release Of Calcium In Bacillus Anthracis Pathogenicity Methods, Natiera Magnuson, Manomita Patra Bhowmik, Maria Elena Reynaga, Ernesto Abel-Santos

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Anthrax infection starts with germination of Bacillus anthracis spores in macrophages. Some bacteria, including B. anthracis, can sporulate in response to environmental stress, such as starvation. During germination, large concentrations of calcium ions are released from the B. anthracis spore. Calcium ions are hydrophilic secondary messengers, and may therefore interfere with detection of the spore by confusing the cell signaling pathways. We investigated calcium release on infected macrophage viability by replacing the calcium stored in B. anthracis spores for other cations via demineralization/remineralization. It was discovered that calcium ions typically out-performed other cations in germination of B. anthracis.


Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilis: The Interaction Between Transcription And Error-Prone Replication In Conditions Of Stress, Mary Girard, Eduardo Robleto Aug 2009

Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilis: The Interaction Between Transcription And Error-Prone Replication In Conditions Of Stress, Mary Girard, Eduardo Robleto

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

While under conditions of stress, non-dividing cells may acquire beneficial mutations. This is referred to as stationary phase mutagenesis, or adaptive mutagenesis. Previous research has shown that actively transcribed genes and those under selective pressure are prone to mutations that confer escape from non-dividing conditions. Accordingly, strains lacking transcription factors have shown a drastically lower number of mutations that confer escape while under amino acid starvation than those observed in the wildtype background. Also, error-prone DNA polymerases are known to be active in cells under stress and it has been shown that strains lacking an error-prone DNA polymerase display reduced ...